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  1. 1. Transformational and TransactionalLeadershipLeadership Approaches to MotivatingFollowersThe PI Leadership Course
  2. 2. Transactional V Transformational Burns distinguished betweentransactional and transforming leaders.They are distinguished by how theymotivate followers Transactional approach is whereleaders motivate followers to achievegoals by mutual exchange E.g. Business – bonuses to achievegoals, politicians – votes for promises Transformational leaders - visionaryleaders seeking to appeal to theirfollowers better character Want to move them toward higher andmore universal needs and purposes toachieve goals
  3. 3. Transformational Leadership Leadership that: Raises followers awareness of the significance ofteam goals Brings change in followers from self interest to teaminterest Brings transformation to their character It focuses on relationship between leaders andfollowers and their: Values Ethics Goals Emotions Social style of leadership concerned with
  4. 4. Leaders and Followers The relationship between leaders and followersmay be: One to one Team or group Organisation Nation
  5. 5. James MacGregor Burns In description of transformational LeadershipBurns sought to link role of leaders and followers Described Leadership as process where leadersand followers: Encourage each other to higher levels of motivation Motivate each other to higher levels of morality(ethics)
  6. 6. B M Bass Bass developed Burn’s thoughts by sayingTransformational Leadership motivates followersto more than expected by: Raising followers awareness of important goals andvision Getting followers to transcend self for sake of theteam Getting followers to address higher level needs –not just for security or significance, but also justice /morality
  7. 7. The Transformation Leader Is attentive to needs of followers but stresses importantgoals Encourages followers to fulfill potential and achieve goals Examples include – Ghandi: Raised hopes and demands of millions for independence ofIndia Process brought change in followers to use peaceful proteststo do this Process also changed himself Also Nelson Mandela: Committed to peaceful democracy in SA Even though imprisoned for 27 years, sought peacefulreconciliation between whites and blacks Before independence many wanted to use violent means,but he was committed to peaceful
  8. 8. Four factors that transform followers Charisma or idealized influence Leaders are strong role models Followers identify with leaders and want to be likethem Leaders have high / strong ethics Inspirational Motivation Leaders communicate high expectations tofollowers Inspire / motivate them to greater commitment tothe vision Use symbols and emotional appeals to motivatethem
  9. 9. Four factors that transform followers(Cont) Intellectual Stimulation Leaders challenges and stimulates followers to becreative and innovative Motivates them to challenge own beliefs and valuesas well as those of leaders and group Individualized Consideration Leader provides supporting atmosphere to listencarefully to individual follower needs Leaders are like coaches to assist followers in theirneeds and to improve Leaders delegate to help followers grow throughchalleneg
  10. 10. Pseudotransformational Leader Leaders that are: Exploitive Self –consumed Power-orientated Low moral values Often pursuing self and negative goals (powerexpansion) Transform followers in a negative way Motivate them towards negative goals Lead to lower levels of morality Personalized Leadership focused on leader’sinterests (opposite to Social Leadership concernedwith groups collective good)
  11. 11. Transactional Leadership Burns distinguished transformational fromtransactional leadership Transactional leadership: Focuses on motivational exchanges that occurbetween leaders and followers E.g politicians get votes by promising tax cuts Managers who offer promotions/bonuses/good evaluationsto those who do well/exceed targets Teachers who remind students good grades will be given tothose who work hard Transactional leadership is common at all levels inorganisations
  12. 12. Transactional VsTransformational Transactional Leadership in motivating followers isvery common Motivation to fulfill/exceed goals provided bypersonal exchange e.g. money, promotion, gifts Transformational leadership- encourages motivationsimply for good of team/organisation and to fulfillgoals. Followers will not be rewarded – but are moreprofessional and team players In this way transformational raises morality and ethicof people Many Charismatic leaders motivate followers using
  13. 13. Conclusion The way they motivate followers distinguishestransactional and transformational leaders