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Theories of Leadership

     Prof.Khagendra
Overview of Theories
• Great Man Theory
• Trait Theory
• Behavioural Theories
  -Ohio state Studies and Michigan Studies
   -Managerial Grid
• Contingency Theory :
  - Fiedler’s Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory
  -Cognitive Resource Theory
• Situational Theory :
  -Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory
  -House’s Path Goal Theory
  -Leader Participation Model
Great Man Theory
• Leaders are born, not made.
• This approach emphasized that a person is born
  with or without the necessary traits of leaderships.
  Early explanations of leadership studied the
  “traits” of great leaders
      “Great man” theories (Gandhi, Lincoln, Napoleon)
      Belief that people were born with these traits and
       only the great people possessed them
Great Man Theory
• Great Man approach actually emphasis “charismatic”
  leadership. charisma being the Greek word for gift.
• No matter what group such a natural leader finds
  himself in, he will always be recognized for what he
  is.
• According to the great man theory of leadership,
  leadership calls for certain qualities like commanding
  personality,     charm,       courage       ,intelligence,
  persuasiveness and aggressiveness.
Trait Theory
• What characteristics or traits make a person a
  leader?
• Great Man Theory: Individuals are born either
  with or without the necessary traits for leadership
• Trait theories of leadership sought personality,
  social, physical or intellectual traits that
  differentiate leaders from non leaders
• Trait view has little analytical or predictive value
• Technical, conceptual and human skills (Katz
  1974)
Trait Theories

                                                 Leadership Traits:
                                                 • Ambition and energy
                                                 • The desire to lead
                                                 • Honesty and
                                                   integrity
                                                 • Self-confidence
                                                 • Intelligence
                                                 • Job-relevant
                                                   knowledge
© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.                           11–6
Trait Theory
    The trait theory is based on the great man theory, but it is more systematic in its analysis
    of leaders. Like the great man theory, this theory assumes that the leader’s personal traits
    are the key to leadership success.
                                  Personality Traits




          Abilities               Personal Traits                      Motivators


 Supervising Ability                                         Need for Occupational
                              Self-Assurance
 Intelligence                                                 Achievement
                              Decisiveness
 Initiative                                                  Self-actualization
                              Masculinity/Famininity

                              Maturity                       Power Over Others

                              Working Class Affinity         High Financial Reward

                                                              Job Security
Traits of Leaders
•   Intelligence
•   Physical Features
•   Inner Motivation
•   Maturity
•   Vision & Foresight
•   Acceptance of Responsibility
•   Open-Minded and adaptability
•   Self-confidence
•   Human Relations Attitude
•   Fairness and Objectivity
Trait Theories
Limitations:
• No universal traits that predict leadership in all
  situations.
• Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than
  “strong” situations.
• Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of
  relationship of leadership and traits.
• Better predictor of the appearance of leadership
  than distinguishing effective and ineffective
  leaders.
Behavioural Theory
    In contrast with trait theory, behavioural theory
attempts to describe leadership in terms of what leaders
do, while trait theory seeks to explain leadership on the
basis of what leaders are. Leadership according to this
approach is the result of effective role behaviour.
Leadership is shown by a person’s acts more than by
his traits. This is an appropriate new research strategy
adopted by Michigan Researchers in the sense that the
emphasis on the traits is replaced by the emphasis on
leader behaviour (which could be measured).
Behavioural Theory
 Theories proposing that specific behaviors
  differentiate leaders from non leaders.
• Pattern of actions used by different
  individuals determines leadership potential
• Examples
  – Autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire
  – Michigan Studies: Employee centered versus
    task centered
Behavioural Theory
– Theories that attempt to isolate behaviors that
  differentiate effective leaders from ineffective
  leaders
– Behavioral studies focus on identifying critical
  behavioral determinants of leadership that, in
  turn, could be used to train people to become
  leaders
Behavioual Leadership Studies
• The Ohio State Studies sought to identify
  independent dimensions of leader behavior
  – Initiating structure
  – Consideration
• The University of Michigan Studies sought to
  identify the behavioral characteristics of leaders
  related to performance effectiveness
  – Employee oriented
  – Production oriented
Ohio State Studies




                     11–15
University of Michigan Studies




© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.   11–16
Managerial Grid ( Blake & Mouton)
Contingency Theories
       & situational Theories of
              Leadership
 Contingency Theories
  – Fiedler Model
        Cognitive Resource Theory
  –   Hersey and Blencherd’s Situational Theory
  –   Leader-member Exchange Theory
  –   Path-Goal Theory
  –   Leader Participation Model
Contingency Theories

 While trait and behavior theories do help us
  understand leadership, an important
  component is missing: the environment in
  which the leader exists.
 Contingency Theory deals with this
  additional aspect of leadership effectiveness
  studies.
Fiedler Model
• The theory that effective groups depend upon a proper
  match between a leader's style of interacting with
  subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives
  control and influence to the leader.
• There are basically three steps in the model

  1)   Identifying Leadership Style

  2)   Defining the Situation

  3)   Matching leaders and situations
1) Identifying Leadership Style
• Fiedler believes a key factor in leadership
  success is the individual’s basic
  leadership style
  So he created the Least Prefer Co-worker
  (LPC) Questionnaire
• LPC:-An instrument that tells to measure
  whether a person is task or relationship
  oriented
Cont…


 If the low LPC score then the person is task oriented


 If the high LPC score then the person is relationship
  oriented
Least Preferred Coworker (LPC)
                     Scale
Pleasant        8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Unpleasant
Friendly        8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Unfriendly
Rejecting       8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Accepting
Tense           8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Relaxed
Cold            8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Warm
Supportive      8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Hostile
Boring          8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Interesting
Quarrelsome     8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Harmonious
Gloomy          8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Cheerful
Open            8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Closed
Backbiting      8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Loyal
Untrustworthy   8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Trustworthy
Considerate     8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Inconsiderate
Nasty           8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Nice
Agreeable       8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Disagreeable
Insincere       8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Sincere
Kind            8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Unkind
Scoring
• Your final score is the total of the numbers you
  circled on the 18 scales
57 or less = Low LPC (task motivated)
58-63 = Middle LPC (socio-independent leaders,
  self directed and not overly concerned with the
  task or with how others view them)
64 or above = High LPC (motivated by
  relationships)
2) Defining the Situation
• Fiedler identified three contingency dimensions that
  define the key situational factors
• 1. Leader-member relations:
       The degree of confidence, trust, and respect,
  members have in the leader
   2. Task structure:
       The degree to which the job assignments are
  procedurized
   3. Position Power:
       The degree of influence a leader has over power
  variables such as hiring, firing, promotion etc.
3) Matching leaders and Situations
• After knowing the leadership style through LPC and
  defining all the situations, we will chose the leader
  who will fit for the situation.
  Two ways in which to improve leader effectiveness

  1) Change the leader to fit the situation

  2) Change the situation to fit the leader
Cognitive Resource Theory
• A theory of leadership that states that
  stress unfavorably effects the situation,
  and intelligence, and experience can
  lessen the influence of stress on the
  leader.
Cont…
 A refinement of Fielder’s original model:
   – Focuses on stress as the enemy of rationality and
     creator of unfavorable conditions
   – A leader’s intelligence and experience influence his or
     her reaction to that stress
 Stress Levels:
   – Low Stress: Intellectual abilities are effective
   – High Stress: Leader experiences are effective
 Research is supporting the theory
Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational
            Leadership (SLT)
 A model that focuses on follower “readiness”
   – Followers can accept or reject the leader
   – Effectiveness depends on the followers’ response to the
     leader’s actions
   – “Readiness” is the extent to which people have the
     ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task

 A paternal model:
   – As the child matures, the adult releases more and more
     control over the situation
   – As the workers become more ready, the leader becomes
     more laissez-faire
Cont….
•    Hersey and Blencherd identify four specific
     leader behaviors
•    The most effective behavior depends on the
     follower’s ability and motivation
3.   If followers are unable and unwilling to do a task,
     the leader needs to give specific and clear directions.
4.   If followers are unable and willing,
     The leader need to display a high task orientation.
5.   If the followers are able and unwilling,
     The leader needs to use a supportive and participative
     style.
6.   If followers are both able and willing,
     The leader doesn't need to do much.
Situational Leadership Theory
                                    HT&HR
   HR&LT




                                    HT&LR


  LT&LR



           Mature        Immature
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
• Leaders create in-groups and out-groups, and subordinates
  with in-group status will have higher performances ratings,
  less turnover, and greater satisfaction with their superior.

 LMX Premise:
   – Because of time pressures, leaders form a special
     relationship with a small group of followers: the “in-
     group”
   – This in-group is trusted and gets more time and
     attention from the leader (more “exchanges”)
   – All other followers are in the “out-group” and get less
     of the leader’s attention and tend to have formal
     relationships with the leader (fewer “exchanges”)
   – Leaders pick group members early in the relationship
Leader-Member Exchange
        Theory
House’s Path-Goal Theory
• The theory that a leader’s behavior is acceptable to
  subordinates insofar as they view it as a source of either
  immediate or future satisfaction.
 The Theory:
   – Leaders provide followers with information,
     support, and resources to help them achieve their
     goals
   – Leaders help clarify the “path” to the worker’s
     goals
   – Leaders can display multiple leadership types
Path-Goal Theory




                   11–36
Cont…
 Four types of leaders:

   – Directive: focuses on the work to be done

   – Supportive: focuses on the well-being of the worker

   – Participative: consults with employees in decision-
     making

   – Achievement-Oriented: sets challenging goals
The Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal Theory
Yroom & Yetton’s Leader-Participation
                 Model
• A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to
  determine the form and amount of participative
  decision making in different situations.

 How a leader makes decisions is as important as what is
  decided
 Premise:
   – Leader behaviors must adjust to reflect task structure
   – “Normative” model: tells leaders how participative to be in
     their decision-making of a decision tree.
W.J.Reddin’s 3-D Management
                                Style Theory
Relationship Dimension




                                                n
                                              si o
                                          en
                                         im
                                     sD
                                    es
                                    en
                                iv
                               ct
                               fe
                            Ef




                                                Task Dimension

                            Three Dimensions of Leadership Style
Thank You !!




“Together we will make it happen”

    COMPOSE BY FUTURE
        LEADERS

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Theories of leadership

  • 1. Theories of Leadership Prof.Khagendra
  • 2. Overview of Theories • Great Man Theory • Trait Theory • Behavioural Theories -Ohio state Studies and Michigan Studies -Managerial Grid • Contingency Theory : - Fiedler’s Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory -Cognitive Resource Theory • Situational Theory : -Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory -House’s Path Goal Theory -Leader Participation Model
  • 3. Great Man Theory • Leaders are born, not made. • This approach emphasized that a person is born with or without the necessary traits of leaderships. Early explanations of leadership studied the “traits” of great leaders  “Great man” theories (Gandhi, Lincoln, Napoleon)  Belief that people were born with these traits and only the great people possessed them
  • 4. Great Man Theory • Great Man approach actually emphasis “charismatic” leadership. charisma being the Greek word for gift. • No matter what group such a natural leader finds himself in, he will always be recognized for what he is. • According to the great man theory of leadership, leadership calls for certain qualities like commanding personality, charm, courage ,intelligence, persuasiveness and aggressiveness.
  • 5. Trait Theory • What characteristics or traits make a person a leader? • Great Man Theory: Individuals are born either with or without the necessary traits for leadership • Trait theories of leadership sought personality, social, physical or intellectual traits that differentiate leaders from non leaders • Trait view has little analytical or predictive value • Technical, conceptual and human skills (Katz 1974)
  • 6. Trait Theories Leadership Traits: • Ambition and energy • The desire to lead • Honesty and integrity • Self-confidence • Intelligence • Job-relevant knowledge © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11–6
  • 7. Trait Theory The trait theory is based on the great man theory, but it is more systematic in its analysis of leaders. Like the great man theory, this theory assumes that the leader’s personal traits are the key to leadership success. Personality Traits Abilities Personal Traits Motivators  Supervising Ability  Need for Occupational  Self-Assurance  Intelligence Achievement  Decisiveness  Initiative  Self-actualization  Masculinity/Famininity  Maturity  Power Over Others  Working Class Affinity  High Financial Reward  Job Security
  • 8. Traits of Leaders • Intelligence • Physical Features • Inner Motivation • Maturity • Vision & Foresight • Acceptance of Responsibility • Open-Minded and adaptability • Self-confidence • Human Relations Attitude • Fairness and Objectivity
  • 9.
  • 10. Trait Theories Limitations: • No universal traits that predict leadership in all situations. • Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. • Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. • Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.
  • 11. Behavioural Theory In contrast with trait theory, behavioural theory attempts to describe leadership in terms of what leaders do, while trait theory seeks to explain leadership on the basis of what leaders are. Leadership according to this approach is the result of effective role behaviour. Leadership is shown by a person’s acts more than by his traits. This is an appropriate new research strategy adopted by Michigan Researchers in the sense that the emphasis on the traits is replaced by the emphasis on leader behaviour (which could be measured).
  • 12. Behavioural Theory Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non leaders. • Pattern of actions used by different individuals determines leadership potential • Examples – Autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire – Michigan Studies: Employee centered versus task centered
  • 13. Behavioural Theory – Theories that attempt to isolate behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from ineffective leaders – Behavioral studies focus on identifying critical behavioral determinants of leadership that, in turn, could be used to train people to become leaders
  • 14. Behavioual Leadership Studies • The Ohio State Studies sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior – Initiating structure – Consideration • The University of Michigan Studies sought to identify the behavioral characteristics of leaders related to performance effectiveness – Employee oriented – Production oriented
  • 16. University of Michigan Studies © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11–16
  • 17. Managerial Grid ( Blake & Mouton)
  • 18. Contingency Theories & situational Theories of Leadership  Contingency Theories – Fiedler Model  Cognitive Resource Theory – Hersey and Blencherd’s Situational Theory – Leader-member Exchange Theory – Path-Goal Theory – Leader Participation Model
  • 19. Contingency Theories  While trait and behavior theories do help us understand leadership, an important component is missing: the environment in which the leader exists.  Contingency Theory deals with this additional aspect of leadership effectiveness studies.
  • 20. Fiedler Model • The theory that effective groups depend upon a proper match between a leader's style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. • There are basically three steps in the model 1) Identifying Leadership Style 2) Defining the Situation 3) Matching leaders and situations
  • 21. 1) Identifying Leadership Style • Fiedler believes a key factor in leadership success is the individual’s basic leadership style So he created the Least Prefer Co-worker (LPC) Questionnaire • LPC:-An instrument that tells to measure whether a person is task or relationship oriented
  • 22. Cont…  If the low LPC score then the person is task oriented  If the high LPC score then the person is relationship oriented
  • 23. Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Scale Pleasant 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unpleasant Friendly 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unfriendly Rejecting 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Accepting Tense 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Relaxed Cold 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Warm Supportive 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Hostile Boring 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Interesting Quarrelsome 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Harmonious Gloomy 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Cheerful Open 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Closed Backbiting 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Loyal Untrustworthy 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Trustworthy Considerate 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Inconsiderate Nasty 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Nice Agreeable 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Disagreeable Insincere 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Sincere Kind 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unkind
  • 24. Scoring • Your final score is the total of the numbers you circled on the 18 scales 57 or less = Low LPC (task motivated) 58-63 = Middle LPC (socio-independent leaders, self directed and not overly concerned with the task or with how others view them) 64 or above = High LPC (motivated by relationships)
  • 25.
  • 26. 2) Defining the Situation • Fiedler identified three contingency dimensions that define the key situational factors • 1. Leader-member relations: The degree of confidence, trust, and respect, members have in the leader 2. Task structure: The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized 3. Position Power: The degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, promotion etc.
  • 27. 3) Matching leaders and Situations • After knowing the leadership style through LPC and defining all the situations, we will chose the leader who will fit for the situation. Two ways in which to improve leader effectiveness 1) Change the leader to fit the situation 2) Change the situation to fit the leader
  • 28. Cognitive Resource Theory • A theory of leadership that states that stress unfavorably effects the situation, and intelligence, and experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader.
  • 29. Cont…  A refinement of Fielder’s original model: – Focuses on stress as the enemy of rationality and creator of unfavorable conditions – A leader’s intelligence and experience influence his or her reaction to that stress  Stress Levels: – Low Stress: Intellectual abilities are effective – High Stress: Leader experiences are effective  Research is supporting the theory
  • 30. Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership (SLT)  A model that focuses on follower “readiness” – Followers can accept or reject the leader – Effectiveness depends on the followers’ response to the leader’s actions – “Readiness” is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task  A paternal model: – As the child matures, the adult releases more and more control over the situation – As the workers become more ready, the leader becomes more laissez-faire
  • 31. Cont…. • Hersey and Blencherd identify four specific leader behaviors • The most effective behavior depends on the follower’s ability and motivation 3. If followers are unable and unwilling to do a task, the leader needs to give specific and clear directions. 4. If followers are unable and willing, The leader need to display a high task orientation. 5. If the followers are able and unwilling, The leader needs to use a supportive and participative style. 6. If followers are both able and willing, The leader doesn't need to do much.
  • 32. Situational Leadership Theory HT&HR HR&LT HT&LR LT&LR Mature Immature
  • 33. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory • Leaders create in-groups and out-groups, and subordinates with in-group status will have higher performances ratings, less turnover, and greater satisfaction with their superior.  LMX Premise: – Because of time pressures, leaders form a special relationship with a small group of followers: the “in- group” – This in-group is trusted and gets more time and attention from the leader (more “exchanges”) – All other followers are in the “out-group” and get less of the leader’s attention and tend to have formal relationships with the leader (fewer “exchanges”) – Leaders pick group members early in the relationship
  • 35. House’s Path-Goal Theory • The theory that a leader’s behavior is acceptable to subordinates insofar as they view it as a source of either immediate or future satisfaction.  The Theory: – Leaders provide followers with information, support, and resources to help them achieve their goals – Leaders help clarify the “path” to the worker’s goals – Leaders can display multiple leadership types
  • 36. Path-Goal Theory 11–36
  • 37. Cont…  Four types of leaders: – Directive: focuses on the work to be done – Supportive: focuses on the well-being of the worker – Participative: consults with employees in decision- making – Achievement-Oriented: sets challenging goals
  • 40.
  • 41. Yroom & Yetton’s Leader-Participation Model • A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.  How a leader makes decisions is as important as what is decided  Premise: – Leader behaviors must adjust to reflect task structure – “Normative” model: tells leaders how participative to be in their decision-making of a decision tree.
  • 42. W.J.Reddin’s 3-D Management Style Theory Relationship Dimension n si o en im sD es en iv ct fe Ef Task Dimension Three Dimensions of Leadership Style
  • 43. Thank You !! “Together we will make it happen” COMPOSE BY FUTURE LEADERS