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Great Leaders create MORE Great Leaders

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  1. 1. Leadership Theories Transformational leadership is a more humane leadership theory, as compared to the militaristic transactional theory It believes in inspiring employees to do great work through example and the force of a leader's personality People rise higher through positive motivation, than negative motivation It is a leadership theory which appeals to the higher need of an individual in the Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which is self-actualization!
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION O As an idea, transformational leadership was first mentioned in 1973,in the sociological study conducted by the author “Downton, J.V”. O After that ,“James McGregor” used the term transformational leadership in his book “Leadership” (1978). O In 1985, “Banard M. Bass” presented a formal transformational leadership theory which ,in addition to other things also includes the models and factors of behavior. O One year later (1986)“Noel M. Tichy” and “Marry Anne Devanna” published a book under the title “The Transformational Leadership”.
  4. 4. Definition TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP is a leadership style where one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality
  5. 5. Definition TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS stimulate and inspire their followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes and, in the process, develop their followers’ own leadership capacity. These leaders help followers to grow and develop by responding to followers’ individual needs by empowering them and aligning the objectives and goals of the individual followers, the leader, the group, and the larger organization (Bass & Riggio, 2006).
  6. 6. A TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER’S GOAL To inspire followers to share the leaders’ values and connect with the leader’s vision
  7. 7. Assumptions  The prime assumption is, that people will willingly follow a leader who inspires them  The vision and passion of one man can transform his followers and together they can achieve great things  Energy and enthusiasm are the tonics that get things done
  8. 8. Transformational Leadership - A Process -  Process that changes and transforms  Process that is concerned with the Emotions, Values, Standards, Ethics, and Long Term Goals  A transformational leader motivates followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected  The sum becomes more powerful than its parts
  9. 9. 4 I's of Transformational Leadership Idealized Influence Leader serves as an ideal role model for followers and is admired for this Inspirational Motivation Transformational leaders have the ability to inspire and motivate followers Individualized Consideration Transformational leaders demonstrate genuine concern for the needs and feelings of followers which brings out the best efforts from each individual Intellectual Stimulation Transformational leaders challenges followers to be innovative and creative
  10. 10. FOUR COMPONENTS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP OIdealized influence OInspirational motivation OIntellectual stimulation OIndividualized consideration
  11. 11. Components of Transformational Leadership Transitional Leadership Inception of creative ideas Clear understanding of current scenario Pre-defined objectives and a clear road map to achieve them No self-serving motives Focus approach on identified objectives Transactional Leadership Planning and following process oriented methodology Building team and support Identifying expertise in various fields of work challenges Transformational Leadership Transparent Leadership Congruence between leadership and goal Integrity in finances and in information Transcendent Leadership Identifying future leader and team Relinquishing control Inspiring and motivating potential to lead
  12. 12. Idealized influence OIdeal role model OHigh moral and ethical standards OShow respect, attention, and consideration towards followers OConsider differences between followers levels of abilities, ways of learning, and approaches to work OEncourages the followers OUnderstanding personal feelings and needs
  13. 13. Inspirational motivation OAbility to inspire and motivate followers OProvides followers with challenges and meaning for engaging in shared goals and undertakings OShow followers how their work applies to real world OBehave in an enthusiastic, passionate and energetic way
  14. 14. Individualized consideration OCoaching, mentoring, and growth opportunities OSelf-actualization, self-fulfillment, and self-worth OAttend to each follower's needs OListen to the follower's concerns and needs.
  15. 15. Intellectual stimulation ORe-examine their assumptions about their work and re-think how it can be performed OInnovative and creative OHelps followers see the big picture and how they connect to the leader, organization, each other, and the goal. OChallenge followers to come up with new ideas OAsk questions that make the followers think
  16. 16. Transformational Leadership Behaviors
  17. 17. Steps for Transformational Leadership Developin g Vision • Starts with creating a vision • Vision that is exciting and attract potential followers Selling the Vision • Constantly sell the vision and build a strong network of high potential Road Map • Transformation leaders have a clear vision • Have a fair idea about the direction to move and want followers to move in the same direction • Ready to accept failures Leading the charge • Transformation leaders remain in the fore-front during the action • Always visible and stand up to be counted • Bolster and infect the followers with commitment and enthusiasm
  18. 18. Competencies of a Transformational Leader Continuous Personal Development • Wide Range of Leadership Styles • Personal Values, Vision, & Goals • Risk-taking & Courage • Resilient & Resolute Managing Information & Knowledge • Inquisitive Mind & Critical Thinking To Apply Research Findings • Measures Performance • Breakthrough Technologies & Networking Transformation Leadership Competency Mental Health Future • Recovery-oriented • Science ↔ Service • Evidence-based Practices • Elimination of Disparities • Interagency Perspectives • Consumer & Family-Relevant Outcomes Trans. Management • Org. & System Shifts & Learning • Congregate Vision & Innovation • Strategic Alliances • Mgmt. of Collaborative Relationships Business Acumen • Financing Strategies • Organizational Dynamics • Human Resource Development • Internal/External Radar • Marketing & Branding Process Toolkit • Negotiation Skills • Dispute & Conflict Resolution • Group Facilitation • Concept Mapping, Future Casting, Lateral Thinking
  19. 19. James Macn Gregor Burns (1978) “Leaders and followers make each other to advance to a higher level of moral and motivation." Through the strength of their vision and personality, transformational leaders are able to inspire followers to change expectations, perceptions, and motivations to work towards common goals.
  20. 20. Burns was influenced by Abraham Maslow’s Theory of Human Needs
  21. 21. BERNARD BASS (1985) He identified three ways in which leaders transform followers: • Increasing their awareness of task importance and value. • Getting them to focus first on team or organizational goals, rather than their own interests. • Activating their higher-order needs.
  22. 22. How Does Transformational Leadership Work? OTransformational leaders set out to empower followers and nurture them to change. OThey become strong role models for their followers. OThey create a vision. OThey act as change agents who initiate and implement new directions. OThey act as social architects.
  23. 23. Application of Transformational Leadership  Provides ideas as to what a leader should be in a transforming environment  Vision statements create discussion  Can be used in recruitment, selection and promotion, and training and development
  24. 24. Effect of Transformation Leadership on Organizational Structure Solution Clarification Groups under Transformation al Leadership Higher Performanc e Extra Effort Satisfaction Supportive Remarks Original Solutions
  25. 25. Effect of Transformation Leadership on Organizational Structure  Transformational leadership and organizational culture hold the key to understanding organizational effectiveness  Decisions taken by a manager are very important as they affect a large number of people  Thus the leadership skills of the manager have to be very pronounced  An organic, non-formalized organization with a larger span of control are conducive for transformational leadership to appear
  26. 26. Self Sacrifice and Transformational Leadership Leader Effectivenes s Self Sacrifice Public Good Cooperation Extra Effort Reciprocity Belongingne ss
  27. 27. Self Sacrifice and Transformational Leadership  Display of self sacrifice behaviors by leaders enhances transformational leadership  Transformational leaders have the ability to transform self-interests of followers into collective interests  They do so by enhancing salience of collective identity in the self-concept of followers  Followers of transformational leaders work towards advancing overall mission of the group rather than their own personal interests
  28. 28. Self Sacrifice and Transformational Leadership  Martin Luther King, Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa demonstrated a form of transformational leadership that was based on values  Without morally uplifting the followers, leadership cannot be transforming  They motivate followers to go beyond their self-interests for the good of the group, organization, or society  Such actions mutually benefit both the organization/ society and the employees
  29. 29. Transformational Leadership in Schools • To transform the value system of its students • To enhance perception of oneness with others Objective of Management Education • Self-oriented values like a comfortable life and pleasure becoming more important • Others-oriented values like being helpful and polite becoming less important Value system of MBA students • The corporate world interested in managers whose relative ordering of values is just the reverse • An MBA program that reduces the relative importance given to values like being helpful and polite might find it difficult to market its graduates to business organizations Cause for concern The findings of this study provide some preliminary evidence on the changes in value systems that are caused by management education. Self-oriented values become more important and others-oriented values become less important
  30. 30. Benefits  Widely researched intuitive appeal  Focuses on the follower too  Emphasis on followers’ needs, values, and morals  Enthusiastic work atmosphere  Innovations  Higher output and efficiency  Develops future leaders  People will work for leader even if monetary compensation is less
  31. 31. Limitations X Lacks conceptual clarity X Validity of MLQ is questionable X Fixed trait or malleable state X Potentially elitist or antidemocratic X Totally depends on ability of leader X Leaders might lack the required characteristics
  32. 32. Strengths OWidely researched from many different perspectives. OIt has intuitive appeal as a concept. OIt treats leadership as a process between leaders and followers. OIt offers an expanded picture of leadership. Most other models are transactional. OIt has a strong emphasis on followers’ needs, values, and morals. OIt has substantial evidence of being effective.
  33. 33. Criticisms OLacks conceptual clarity. OThe measurement scale does not always distinguish clearly among factors. OIt is a trait theory rather than a behavioral theory. OTends to be elitist and antidemocratic. OHas a heroic leadership bias. OMay not work on all levels of the organization. OHas the potential to be abused.
  34. 34. Conclusion Lead and inspire people. Don't try to manage and manipulate people. Inventories can be managed but people must be lead. --- Ross Perot
  35. 35. CONCLUSION