LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATIONWAN NURSYAFINAS BINTIWAN MOHD YAZID813494QUESTION 2 & 39
QUESTION 2 :ONE OF THE COMPETENCIESLEADERSHIP IS SOLVINGPROBLEMS AND MAKINGDECISION. PROVIDE ANEXAMPLE OF PROBLEMSOLVING AND CREATIVEDECISION MAKING
7 STEPS TO PROBLEMSOLVING1. Define and Identify the Problem2. Analyze the Problem3. Identifying Possible Solutions4. Selecting the Best Solutions5. Evaluating Solutions6. Develop an Action Plan7. Implement the Solution
1. DEFINE AND IDENTIFY THEPROBLEM It is essential for each group member to clearlyunderstand the problem so that all energywill Objective- to get as much information about theproblem as possible be focused in the samedirection Helpful to divide the symptoms of the probleminto hard and soft data.**Hard Data: Facts, statistics, goals, time factors, history**Soft Data: Feelings, opinions, human factors, attitudes,frustrations, personality conflicts
2. ANALYZE THE PROBLEM view the problem from a variety of viewpoints,not just how it affects othersQUESTION TO ASK.. What is the history of the problem? How long has it existed? How serious is the problem? What are the causes of the problem? What are the effects of the problem? What are the symptoms of the problem? What methods does the group already have for dealing with the problem? What are the limitations of those methods? How much freedom does the group have in gathering information andattempting to solve the problem? What obstacles keep the group from achieving the goal? Can the problem be divided into sub problems for definition and analysis?
3. IDENTIFYING POSSIBLESOLUTIONS sometimes referred to as finding "OptionalSolutions" Use variety of creative techniques,-group participants create an extensive list ofpossible solutions. Asking each group member for input ensuresthat all viewpoints will be considered Eg: Brainstorming, Buzz group, Nominal, Delphi,Fantasy Chaining, Focus group,
4. SELECTING THE BESTSOLUTIONS6 step Decision Making Process: Define and Identify The Problem Specify Feasible Alternatives Identify Morally Significant Factors in EachAlternative*use ethical resources to determine what thedecision will be. Discussion of Possible Resolutions Selecting or Determining the Best Solution Implementing the Solution
5. EVALUATING SOLUTION Making a T-Chart to Weigh the Pros and Cons ofEach Idea Develop and Assign Weights to Criteria Prioritize the Criteria Rate Proposed Solutions Using Criteria Considerations (advantages &disadvantages)
6. DEVELOP AN ACTION PLAN Divide the Solution Into Sequential Tasks*time frame Develop Contingency Plans Action Planning Question ChecklistExamples:What is the overall objective and ideal situation?What is needed in order to get there from here?What actions need to be done? Considerations*resource, contingency pelan, necessarily?
7. IMPLEMENT THE SOLUTION Monitoring Implement Contingency Plan if Necessary Evaluate Results Considering
CREATIVE refers to novel products of value(Robert W. Weisberg)Eg: The airplane was a creative invention refers to the person who produces the workEg: Picasso was creative
CREATIVITYRobert E. Franken (California State University) the tendency to generate or recognize ideas,alternatives, or possibilities that may be usefulin solving problems, communicating with others,and entertaining ourselves and others refers both to the capacity to produce suchworks any act, idea, or product that changes anexisting domain, or that transforms an existingdomain into a new one.
CREATIVE PERSONALITY: have a great deal of energy, but they are alsooften quiet and at rest. tend to be smart, yet also naive at the sametime. have a combination of playfulness anddiscipline, or responsibility andirresponsibility. alternate between imagination and fantasyant one end, and rooted sense of reality at theother. Creative people seem to harbor oppositetendencies on the continuum betweenextroversion and introversion.
CONTINUE… also remarkable humble and proud at thesame time. very passionate about their work, yet they canbe extremely objective about it as well. The openness and sensitivity of creativeindividuals often exposes them to suffering painyet also a great deal of enjoyment.
CREATIVITY & EMPLOYEE If an individual has a high level of taskmotivation, creativity-relevant skill and domain-relevant skill as deemed required for thegeneration of creative work it is likely that theywill produce creative outcomes (Amabile,1988). creative work should be sufficient tocontribute to the organization, but it wouldstill have to be recognized as valuable andcreative by a supervisor or manager before itcan move forward toward the innovativeprocess.
CONT… Zhou (2003, pp. 413-4) stated that, “employee’screativity often provides a starting point fororganizational innovation,” but leadership isoften responsible for deciding what creativework is championed toward innovation. Creative ideas are often truncated before theycan move toward innovation because ofleadership’s lack of prudence or discernment
HOW TO THINK POSITIVE?(LEADERTEAM) Team brainstorming1) encourage idea (crazy idea) no limitation2) generate creative idea using existingknowledge and data 5 step process for team idea generationi> ask the right questionii> gestationiii> avoid dominationiv> idea buildingv> meet and meet again
Sagacity & creativity (Becker, 2006).Sagacity & creativity (Becker, 2006). sagacity plays between individual creative andinnovative work. Explaination: it is central to those in leadership positions that seekindividual creative and innovative outcomes. creativity supportive behaviors seems to demonstrateone of the most consistent and influential effects onindividual creative performance Relationship between Leadership supportive behaviorand creative work has been confirmed as critical to thegeneration of creative work sagacity.
Robinson and Stern (1997) introduced sagacity(intelligent) as an aspect of organizations thatproduce creative work It is necessary to effectively recognize valuablecreative ideas and to provide the requiredleadership for innovative work Leaders’ with sagacity (intelligent) are likely tobe correlated (dikaitkan) with their ability torecognize and facilitate creative work intheir organizations and to turn it intoinnovations
CREATIVE DECISION MAKING Consist with 4 paradoxical principal:1.Be Focused and Flexible About What You Want ➤This principle will help you create your goalsand discover new ones. ➤What you want now may not be what you wantthen.2.Be Aware and Wary of What You Know ➤This principle will help you appraise knowingand appreciate not knowing. ➤What you know may need to become unknown
3. Be Realistic and Optimistic About What YouBelieve ➤help to realize that beliefs influence onesreality and behavior.4. Be Practical and Magical About What You Do ➤This principle will help you use both your headand your heart in deciding. ➤What you do to decide is up to you; just do it(H.B. Gelatt and Carol Gelatt)
QUESTION 39: DEFINE & EXPLAINTHE LINK BETWEEN LEADERSHIP& ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
LEADERSHIP Definition:an ability possess by an individual to influenceor convince other people to think or act toachieve certain objective 3 Factors: 1. Involve other person 2. Authority to give an order/instruction 3. Influence other thru orders givenExample:Manager can give an instruction to hissubordinate, but either the task will becompleted successfully is depends on how heinfluence his subordinate
SCHOOL LEADERS Consists with individual who directly involvein school administration and management;principal, assistant principal, and headdepartment
CULTURE Is sharing of behavior, belief, value and ideaamong individual within the group of people A set of understanding, unwritten and sharedby organizational members (Hoy and Miskel,2003) Set of understanding is refer to: belief, value,norms and assume (tacit) *tacit- unwritten
CONT…..CULTURE exist when a group of people, organization orcommunity start to act and behave the sameway continuously. consists with knowledge, beliefs, art, morale,law and custom Deliver from one generation to generation
SCHOOL/ORGANIZATIONALCULTURE School effectiveness and successfulness dependson the culture practice at the schoolEg. : School improvement and innovation Can effects organizational productivity Positive culture have a strong relationship withleadership (Polischuk, 2002)
LEADERS & ORGANIZATIONALCULTURE Positive environment by Principal (leaders)*increase student achievement, teachers’satisfaction Action--Determine what culture to be practice-consideringthe values and norms (Polischuk, 2002)-pelan, set the goals, measure and evaluateachievement Responsible to ensure student motivation andachievement and teachers’ satisfaction at thehighest level
Reasons to develop positive school culture:-effective school-school improvement-improve student learning quality-increase teachers’satisfaction
Leaders should have detail understanding aboutthe organizational culture-communicate andimplement his new vision and increase hissubordinate commitment. Transformational Leadership-useful to structureand keep the required culture needed and also tounderstand the efficencies of the organization(Schein, 1990). WHY TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP?-stressed on positive value and harmonyrelationship-goals oriented, focus on reward, support andmotivation in the organization
CONCLUSION Therefore..Leaders should have a constructive thinking way,further understanding about culture and showthe highest spirit, ethics and enthusiasm in theireffort to change and develop the positive culture-For better achievement, performance andsuccessful of the organization