Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Higher order thinking

hots/i-think/peta pemikiran

  • Be the first to comment

Higher order thinking

  1. 1. HIGHER ORDER THINKING Skills which will Serve You Though out Your Life as You Think Critically & Creatively.What are Higher Order Thinking Skills?Thinking is a conscious act that requires space and time. You do a lot more thinkingthat you perhaps realize, simply in the way that you carry out your everyday life.Deciding what clothes to wear, and remembering to take your keys with you whenyou leave the house require conscious thought. Mastering the skills of higher orderthinking requires your commitment and dedication.Simple thinking skills include things like learning facts and learning how toremember these. Higher Order Thinking Skills include skills such as creative andcritical thinking, analysis, problem solving and visualization. The term first becamepopular with the 1956 publication of Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectiveswhich set out an educational reform that included Higher Order Thinking Skills.Today such skills are also commonly referred to as Advanced Thinking Skills.ZAIDIAZMAN YAACOB:SMKSI: i-THINK WORKSHOP 030213
  2. 2. In his reform, Bloom categorized thinking skills into 6 groups listed in order ofcomplexity: Knowledge Memorize how to do a task. acquisition: Question, discuss and explain how to do a Comprehension: task. Application: Extract and transfer this knowledge Categorize, characterize, compare and Analysis: contrast. Synthesis: Collating and creating. Evaluation: Prioritization, relevancy and judgment. By first becoming aware of new knowledge and committing this to memory we are then able to understand and apply this knowledge. By further interpreting, deciphering, questioning, and critiquing such facts and understanding we are able to broaden our mental outlook so as to recreate something new and original by assessing and evaluating the benefits and importance of doing so. This is the skill of higher order thinking; a skill which I prefer to define as the passion and purpose with which to solve problems.Why are Higher Order Thinking Skills Important?Higher order thinking is imperative to progress. No explorer ever discoveredanything new by following in the footsteps of those who had been there before. Iflower order thinking skills seek to learn and commit to memory knowledge and knowhow that somebody else has already acquired then Higher Order Thinking allows forthe interpretation and reconsideration of such information so that other applicationmay be used and alternative conclusions drawn.This exposes further fields of knowledge andknow how which may again, be transferred,reapplied and collated to create a new andimproved version.If you are committed to learning, growing andconstant evolution then it is vital that you commityourself to improving your Higher OrderThinking Skills.Thinking is at the heart of all learning. Thinkingmakes things that have yet to be perceivedpossible, thinking facilitates and enhances ourability to perform and produce and pass on suchvital information to others who would then do theZAIDIAZMAN YAACOB:SMKSI: i-THINK WORKSHOP 030213
  3. 3. same. This is progress.If the purpose of this web site is to help you improve and strengthen your advancedthinking skills and problem solving abilities then your purpose is to pass thisinformation on with passion.Learning and knowledge is organic. Given the right climate it will grow and thrive.Given how many problems our planet faces today the need for more people capableof thinking at Higher Order levels is more important now than ever.In this information age in which we live vital, life-saving skills are being lost. As thegeneration gap widens the transfer of skills weakens. As more and more gadgets seekto support our brain activity what affect does this have on our memory and powers ofrecall.Memorization is an essential Higher Order Thinking Skill. Without the ability tomemorize and recall information our ability to interpret, analyze and assess suchknowledge and know how is limited by its own lack of information. If we can collateand combine our wider, collaborated understanding and experiences then so too willwe be equipped to generate solutions to the many problems we face.Can you learn Higher Order Thinking Skills?Contrary to popular belief, we all think or at least we have the ability to think, in thesame way. Much as our bodies develop as reflections of how we have lived our lives,so too do our minds. A person who has been to the gym 3 times a week for the last 30years will physically look very different from somebody whose lifestyle has involved avisit to the MacDonald’s DriveThru just as frequently.Your brain is much the same. If you want to improve your Higher Order ThinkingSkills then you need to give your brain a regular workout. In order to give your braina workout then there is something very important that you must know about yourtraining.Again, to use the analogy of training your body rather than your mind, if you were tolift the same weight every day in the same arm, never once using the other arm then,you can see how you would very quickly develop a lop-sided body.Now imagine your brain: Your brain consists of a left and right side. The left side ofyour brain tends to deal with logic, reason, language and liner thinking. The rightside of your brain processes your creative, intuitive, imaginative and rhythmicalthoughts. If you spend all day, every day running through the same thoughts andpatterns of thinking then very quickly you are going to build up strength in this oneparticular area of your brain. Soon it will become difficult to use your brain anydifferently. Imagine, suddenly after many years switching that 10 kg weight to theother arm… it would feel unbearably difficult to lift. You’d have to go back to usingsmaller, lighter weights. You’d have to train each day to build up your strength;concentrating on retaining strength in the first arm either whilst focusing yourattention on building up the weaker side. Eventually, and certainly if you’ve everZAIDIAZMAN YAACOB:SMKSI: i-THINK WORKSHOP 030213
  4. 4. recovered from an accident or injury, you know that your strength would balance outand your body would be in better shape than ever. It is with this mindset that youmust approach your Advance Thinking Training too.It’s imperative that you begin to think radically differently, that you start to crossexamine evidence from a number of different sides, that you acquire skills such asvisualization to improve your powers of recall and that you understand how best tothink creatively and critically if you truly wish to master the skills of Higher OrderThinking.This web site is here to help you achieve this.How do I teach Higher Order Thinking Skills?Higher order thinking involves learning complex judgmental skills such as criticalthinking, creative thinking and problem solving. Because of this it is harder to teach.Higher order thinking is much more ambiguous, rarely are answers right or wrongmaking it subjective when tested or measured however, such skills are vital to allfurther education and understanding how best to teach them can help you pass this information on with the passion it deserves…. …My Words of Wisdom: Using words such as Higher Order Thinking Skills or Advanced Thinking Techniques only encourages those who believe themselves to be incapable of such skills to stop listening. Such descriptions are intimidating, seemingly scientific and daunting. They encourage people who lack confidence or understanding to assume such subjects as “out of their league”. The truth is very different. Everyone is more than capable when they know how. Learning happens in 4 stages. First we arein a state of Unconscious Unconsciousness, when we are not aware of the subject,neither are we aware that it exists. If you landed on this web site in this state then bysimply reading this article you have moved on to the next stage; ConsciousUnconsciousness. In this state we are aware of the subject but we don’t necessarilyknow anything about it. During the next stage; Conscious Consciousness we areaware and we have an understanding. We are able to apply our awareness if we thinkabout it. The final stage of Unconscious Consciousness is where we become unawareof how aware we actually are. In other words we are able to apply this knowledge andunderstanding without having to stop to think about it.When teaching Advanced Thinking Techniques it is important that students areZAIDIAZMAN YAACOB:SMKSI: i-THINK WORKSHOP 030213
  5. 5. encouraged to use and adopt such skills before they become too aware of what theyactually are. In a situation where the student focuses too firmly on understanding theterminology and technology of such brain activity he or she will merely be practicinglower order thinking skills of memorization and understanding rather those of ahigher order.The best way to acquire Higher Order Thinking Skills is through action learning andpractice. Having appreciated the participation, the pupil can then begin to acquiretheoretical knowledge too. Much like sport or music it’s much better to install a senseof passion and pride in performing than to bore a beginner with theory!Practice is what makes the performance perfect.ZAIDIAZMAN YAACOB:SMKSI: i-THINK WORKSHOP 030213
  6. 6. BRAINSTORM & MIND MAP The Key Components to Any Critical and Creative Thinking Session - Learn the Basics.ZAIDIAZMAN YAACOB:SMKSI: i-THINK WORKSHOP 030213
  7. 7. Brainstormingis an intese and inspired conversation with yourself or agroup of people. It is about creating a metaphorical storm in your head.By brainstorming you are effectively jumbling-up all your existingthought patterns and allowing new, creative, critical, ingenious,ridiculous and righteous ideas to emerge. It is about engaging with yourbrain so that you can think laterally and literally to explore the hiddenpotential that exists within the realms of your imagination andunderstanding.The process was first popularized in 1953 by Alex Faickney Osborn in a book calledApplied Imagination. Osborn proposed that groups could double their creativeoutput with brainstorming and indeed some of the results produced are incrediblyinspiring.A brainstorming exercise is a very fluid, engaging, intense and revealing experience.It is the ideal way to approach solving a problem, reaching a decision or discoveringhidden opportunities.How to brainstorm.Brainstorming can either bea solo or a group activity. Ifyou are working as part of ateam then it is a highlyproductive and efficient wayto collaborate, communicateand stimulate new ideas orgenerate possible solutions.It is imperative that you areable to concentrate,uninterrupted during abrainstorming session.The principles ofbrainstorming are based onstimulating both the left andright hand sides of yourbrain. During such athinking session yourthoughts will flow naturallyas you focus on them. Yourjob is to observe these freeflowing thoughts so as tolater be able to formjudgment over them. Forthis reason it is essentialthat all brainstorming activities involve a pen and paper or electronic input devicethat allows you to record your thoughts as they occur to you. This allows you to standback from them and take and objective view to summarize any brainstormingsession.ZAIDIAZMAN YAACOB:SMKSI: i-THINK WORKSHOP 030213
  8. 8. Brainstorming commonly starts with a problem or scenario that needs a solution. Bytaking the time to consider all aspects of such a situation the barnstormer opens upthe mental opportunity for new ideas to emerge.To date no firm evidence exists to support the power of brainstorming however wewere able, using the Whether? Forecast™ way of working, to generate a patentablesolution to a problem which had been consuming a large research and developmentteam for two and a half years in under 15 minutes.The power of combined, collaborative thinking is tremendous.Mind Mapping.Mind mapping is an excellent way of recording your thoughts. You can mind mapusing a pen and paper and various types of mind mapping software do exist.Tony Buzan was the first to conceptualize and name this way of recording thoughtsin his book Use Your Head. His company offer a very effective mind mappingsoftware platform called iMindMap which you can use to draw electronic maps. Ahand drawn map is just as effective.A mind map is a spider-like diagram that emerges as you record each thought as itoccurs. The non-liner pictorial form of a mind-map encourages the use of yourcreative brain whilst allowing a critical analysis to be observed. It literally is a map ofyour mind as your thoughts emerge.ZAIDIAZMAN YAACOB:SMKSI: i-THINK WORKSHOP 030213
  9. 9. Each mind map will be as unique as the person’s mind and the subject they arebrainstorming. It is up to you to practice and develop your own unique style.The visual aspect of such a diagram is less important than the process you put yourmind through in order to draw one.If you’re brain is the car and you are the driver then a mind map is simply the tracksyou leave on the road. By being able to look back and see where you’ve been you willgain a much greater understanding of how best to get to where you want to go.Learn how to brainstorm better by taking action. Practice is what makes perfect but itis also important to remember that when you are brainstorming you can neither beright or wrong. The situation simply is. The more you practice the easier and moreefficiently simple solution to your situations will emerge.ZAIDIAZMAN YAACOB:SMKSI: i-THINK WORKSHOP 030213