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Developing Critical Thinking Skills


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Developing Critical Thinking Skills

  1. 1. gSchool-BasedSchool-BasedProfessional Development 2Professional Development 225thApril 2013Thursday07:45 amIrushadhiyya School
  2. 2. Developing Critical ThinkingSkillsWhat is Critical ThinkingWhy Critical thinking?Strategies to Improve Critical Thinking Skills
  3. 3. Why is it Important?What is It?How Does it ImproveTeaching and Learning?Critical Thinking
  4. 4. “Standards” TypicallyUsed in Thinking“It’s true because I believe it” (innate egocentrism)“It’s true because we believe it” (innate sociocentrism)“It’s true because I want to believe it” (innate wish fulfillment)“It’s true because I have always believed it.”(innate self-validation)“It’s true because it is in my selfish interest to believe it.”(innate selfishness)
  5. 5. Types of ThinkingCriticalCriticalThinkingThinking• AnalyzingAnalyzing• EvaluatingEvaluating• ReasoningReasoningProblem SolvingDecision MakingProblem SolvingDecision MakingNewNewIdeasIdeasCreativeCreativeThinkingThinking
  6. 6. Do you agree with this statement?Some people study all their life and at their death theyhave learnt everything except to THINK.-Francoise Domergue
  7. 7. Why is it Important?What is It?How Does it ImproveTeaching and Learning?Critical Thinking
  8. 8. What is Critical Thinking?Write your understanding of critical thinking?
  9. 9. What is Critical Thinking?
  10. 10. Critical Thinkingis a self-directed processby which we takedeliberate stepsto think at thehighest level of quality.
  11. 11. Robert Ennis Definition“Critical thinking is reasonable,reflective thinking that is focused ondeciding what to believe or do.”
  12. 12. Matthew Lipman Definition“Critical thinking is skillful, responsible thinkingthat is conducive to good judgment because it issensitive to context, relies on criteria, and isself-correcting.”
  13. 13. Richard Paul’s definition“Critical thinking is thinking about yourthinking, while you’re thinking, inorder to make your thinking better.”
  14. 14. Paul’s (1992) definition“Critical thinking is disciplined, self-directed thinking that exemplifies theperfection of thinking appropriate to aparticular mode or domain of thought.
  15. 15. Definition“Critical thinking is skilful, responsiblethinking that that facilitates goodjudgment”.
  16. 16. critical thinking: disciplined,self-guided thinkingaimed at living a wellreasoned life.Thinking thatanalyzes thinkingThinking thatassesses thinkingThinking thatdevelops within itselfintellectual habitsthinking thatcombatsits nativeegocentricityOverview slide
  17. 17. How Does it ImproveTeaching and Learning?Does questioning improve students’ criticalthinking skills?Critical Thinking
  18. 18. The Critical Thinking MindThe Critical Thinking Mind==The Educated MindThe Educated MindThe critical thinking mind is the educatedmind
  19. 19. Make lesson plans that include thinking skills.Ask thought-provoking questions such as“How do you know?” “Why…?”Call on students to tell what they understand.Connect each lesson to students’ experiences.Ask students to summarize the lessoncreatively.The critical thinking mind is the educatedmindStrategies to Promote Critical thinkingSkills
  20. 20. Questioning to develop critical thinkingrequires students to:•Raise issues•Discover ideas and things•Peruse problematic areas•Seek clarity and relevance of ideas and•Find evidence and make conclusions.The critical thinking mind is the educatedmindAsking question is the heart of criticalthinking
  21. 21. Group ActivityIn groups, select a topic (any subject) and design alesson emphasizing to develop Critical thinkingSkills.
  22. 22. ActivityA woman goes for a haircut at a hair-cuttingsalloon. The hairdresser asks her whatbrand of shampoo she uses. He then putssome of her hairs under a microscope andshows her that there is a white film on thehairs. He recommends that she buy thestore’s brand of shampoo rather than theone she has been using.What are some good questions to askherself about this situation?
  23. 23. Possible questions• Will the same film be there with all shampoos, even the store’s?• Is the film the result of the shampoo or of something else entirely?• Is there anything negative about having that film on my hair that canonly be seen with a microscope?• To what extent do we ask these types of questions of ourselves insimilar contexts?
  24. 24. How do you help students learn theskills needed to form clear, probingquestions?
  25. 25. What did we do today?Instructional Strategies
  26. 26. SEEISTATE in your own words what someone else has said orwritten or the key concept, problem or question at issue.ELABORATE on your statement. In other words…EXEMPLIFY: give an example of the concept from your life andfrom the content.ILLUSTRATE: create an analogy, metaphor, simile, graph,chart, cartoon, etc.
  27. 27. Benefits of CriticalThinking SkillsWhy teach teach critical thinking skills?Critical Thinking
  28. 28. Benefits of Critical ThinkingExamples: Academic Performance understand the arguments and beliefs of others Critically evaluating those arguments and beliefs Develop and defend ones own well-supported arguments and beliefs. Workplace Helps us to reflect and get a deeper understanding of our own and others’decisions Encourage open-mindedness to change Aid us in being more analytical in solving problems Daily life Helps us to avoid making foolish personal decisions. Promotes an informed and concerned citizenry capable of making gooddecisions on important social, political and economic issues. Aids in the development of autonomous thinkers capable of examining theirassumptions, dogmas, and prejudices.
  29. 29. Barriers to CriticalThinkingCritical Thinking
  30. 30. Barriers to Critical ThinkingIf Critical Thinking is so important, why isit that uncritical thinking is socommon?Why is that so many people includingmany highly educated and intelligentpeople find critical thinking sodifficult?
  31. 31. Barriers to Critical Thinking Lack of relevant background information Poor reading skills Poor listening skills Bias Prejudice Superstition Egocentrism Socio-centrism Peer pressure Mindless Conformism Mindless non-conformism Provincialism Narrow-mindedness Closed-mindedness
  32. 32. Barriers to Critical ThinkingDistrust of reasonStereotypingUnwarranted assumptions and stereotypesRelativistic thinkingScapegoatingRationalizationWishful thinkingShort-term thinkingSelective perception / attentionSelective memoryOverpowering emotionsSelf-deceptionFace-savingFear of change
  33. 33. Barriers to Critical ThinkingFive Powerful Barriers to Critical Thinking:Self-centered thinkingself-interested thinkingself-serving biasGroup-centered thinkingGroup biasConformismBeliefs that are presumed to be truewithout adequate evidence orjustificationAssumptionStereotypingBelieving that something is truebecause one wishes it were true.The truth is “just a matter ofopinion”Relativism Subjectivism Cultural relativismEgocentrismEgocentrismUnwarrantedUnwarrantedAssumptionsAssumptionsSociocentrismSociocentrismRelativisticRelativisticThinkingThinkingWishfulWishfulThinkingThinkingI am probablythe greatestthinker sinceSocrates!
  34. 34. Answers for the argumentsArgument 1. Invalid. Premise might be true, but there are otherpossible reason explaining why things started g missing inJune.Argument 2. Invalid. Premise might be true, but humans andmice aren’t the same animals, therefore logically the twopremises aren’t comparable.Argument 3. Valid. Premise are true and the conclusion allowsfrom them.Argument 4. Invalid. The structure is logical, but premise 1 isfalse – not all teachers are female.
  35. 35. Characteristics of Critical ThinkerAre you OPEN MINDED about other people’s view?Are you HONEST to yourself (or others) when you arewrong?Do you have the COURAGE and PASSION to takeinitiative and confront problems and meetchallenges?Are you AWARE of your own biases andpreconceptions?Do you WELCOME CRITICISM from other people?Do you have INDEPENDENT opinions and are notafraid to disagree?
  36. 36. Summary1. What is Thinking? Thinking is a purposeful, organized cognitive process that we use to makesense of our world.2. Types of Thinking Creative & Critical Thinking3. What is Critical Thinking? Critical Thinking is the general term given to a wide range of cognitive andintellectual skills needed to: Effectively identify, analyze, and evaluatearguments; Discover and overcome personal prejudices and biases;Formulate and present convincing reasons in support of conclusions; andMake reasonable, intelligent decisions about what to believe and what todo. Critical thinking skills emphasized in this course, include: Reasoning,Analyzing, Evaluating, Decision Making and Problem solving.5. Benefits of Critical Thinking Academic performance, workplace and daily life.6. Barriers to Critical Thinking Examples include Egocentrism, Sociocentrism, Unwarranted Assumptions,Wishful Thinking, and Relativistic Thinking7. Characteristics of a Critical Thinker Open-mindedness, independent thinking, self-aware, passionate, insightful,honest and intellectual humility, intellectual courage, and welcome criticism,etc.
  37. 37. Thank you verymuch for your activeparticipation.உங்கள் பங்கு மிகவும் நன்றிअपनी सक्रिय क्रिय भागीदारी के िलिए बहुत बहुत धन्यवादమీ చురుకుగా పాల్గొగ్గొనటం కోసం చాల్గా ధనయ్గొవాదాల్గు
  38. 38. Lunch ?