Higher Order Thinking Skills
1) Paul Vosko Anak Ranged (D20121059016)
2) Nor Azila Binti Razak (D20112052105)
3) Dg Norhayati Binti Mahamad (D20112052103)
Thinking skills are divided into two :
• Lower-order thinking skills (KBAR)
• Higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) (KBAT)
Definition of Thinking
• According to Beyer, BK, 1991 defines thinking as the human ability to form
concepts, to reason, or to make the determination.
• According to Nickerson, Perkins and Smith, 1985, think is a collection of
skills or mental operations used by an individual.
• According to Fraenkel, JR, 1980, however, states that thinking is the
formation of ideas, remodeling experience and organizing information in a
Should we teach students to think?
• According to Confucius, a Chinese philosopher, learn without thinking is a
futile and learn without thinking is a very dangerous thing.
Different types of Thinking
1) Critical Thinking
The convergent thinking
It involves precise, persistent, objective analysis
2) Creative Thinking
The divergent thinking
It generates something new or different
It involves having a different idea that works as well or better than previous
3) Convergent Thinking
A cognitive processing of information around a common
point, an attempt to bring thoughts from different directions
into a union or common conclusion
4) Divergent Thinking
Type of thinking that starts from a common point and moves
outward into a variety of perspectives
5) Inductive Thinking
The process of reasoning from parts to the whole, from
examples to generalizations
6) Deductive Thinking
Type of reasoning move from the whole to its parts, from
generalizations to underlying concepts to examples.
7) Closed Questions
These are questions asked by teachers that have predictable
It almost always require factual recall than higher levels of
8) Open Questions
Its almost require higher order thinking
Students solve problems using algorithmic
problem solving is common, there is no
justification, explanation or evidence is
needed and only one answer is correct.
Recall facts, make easy operation, or
solve common problems.
Thinking skills are not using algorithms and
can have many solutions.
Need to be more creative when facing a
problem with having more than one
Definition of HOTS
• HOTS is one of the key components in the skills of creative and critical
thinking, and it is the highest level in the hierarchy of cognitive processes.
• HOTS is thinking of not using the algorithm and can have many solutions.
These also do not think the usual way we think of solving a problem.
Why do we need HOTS?
• Allows for the interpretation and reconsideration of such information so
that other application may be used and alternative conclusions drawn
• Exposes to further fields of knowledge and know how which may again, be
transferred, reapplied and collated to create a new and improved version.
Are HOTS Important ?
• The capabilities to transfer the skills have been learned to other situations.
• Thinking skills are important in the process of enhance capabilities learning
• Students are able to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes that viewed in their
• Able to use the knowledge learned in a more productive.
• Develop higher-level understanding through effective questioning.
Strategies for enhancing higher
Take the mystery away
Teach students about higher order thinking and higher order thinking strategies.
Help students understand their own higher order thinking strengths and challenges.
Teach the concept of concepts
Teachers should make sure students understand the critical features that define a
particular concept and distinguish it from other concepts.
Name key concepts
Students should be guided to identify which type(s) of concept each one is concrete,
abstract, verbal, nonverbal or process.
Students should be guided to identify important concepts and decide which
type of concept each one is (concrete, abstract, verbal, nonverbal, or
Move from concrete to abstract and back
When teaching abstract concepts, the use of concrete materials can reinforce
learning for both young and old alike.
Teach Question-Answer Relationships (QARs)
The Question-Answer Relationships (QARs) technique (Raphael 1986)
teaches children to label the type of questions being asked and then to use
this information to assist them in formulating the answers.
Type Of Question
Brainstorm Mind Map
Six Creative Ways To Brainstorm Ideas
How To Draw Mindmap
Thinking skills are basic in the educational process. One's ability to influenced
the way students are thinking the speed and effectiveness of learning. Besides
that, the thinking skills are important to improve their knowledge learned.
An understanding associated with what is being taught will be increased
when thoughts students are challenged and given incentives to use their