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Dalam perlaksanaan PBS , Kementerian Pelajaran telah menerapkan HOTS sebagai suatu penilaian akademik menjelang PMR, PBS pada tahun 2014. Oleh itu para guru perlu membuat persediaan yang mantap bagaimana HOTS ini perlu diserapkan ke dalam minda pelajar.

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  1. 1. Higher OrderHigher OrderThinking SkillsThinking SkillsDavid W. DillardArcadia Valley CTC
  2. 2. Definition Higher-order thinking essentiallymeans thinking that takes place inthe higher-levels of the hierarchy ofcognitive processing. Bloom’sTaxonomy is the most widelyaccepted hierarchical arrangementof this sort in education and it canbe viewed as a continuum ofthinking skills starting withknowledge-level thinking andmoving eventually to evaluation-level of thinking.
  3. 3. Higher Order Thinking Skills: The Learning Research and DevelopmentCenter (1991) lists the following higherorder thinking skills: "Size up and define a problem that isntneatly packaged. Determine which facts and formulasstored in memory might be helpful forsolving a problem. Recognize when more information isneeded, and where and how to look for it. Deal with uncertainty by brainstormingpossible ideas or solutions when the wayto proceed isnt apparent.
  4. 4. Higher Order Thinking Skills: Carry out complex analyses ortasks that require planning,management, monitoring, andadjustment. Exercise judgment in situationswhere there arent clear-cutright and wrong answers, butmore and less useful ways ofdoing things. Step outside the routine to dealwith an unexpected breakdown oropportunity."
  5. 5. Thought "Every day thinking, like ordinarywalking, is a natural performancewe all pick up. But good thinking,like running the l00-yard dash, is atechnical performance... Sprintershave to be taught how to run the100-yard dash; good thinking is theresult of good teaching, whichincludes much practice."David Perkins, Howard University
  6. 6. Realigning your curriculum to improvestudent achievement at the college-preparatory level “HOT” curriculum focuses onHigher Order Thinking andTechnology “HOT” courses utilize Hands-OnTechnology “HOT” instruction promotesCognitive Development “HOT” classroom environmentsreflect Active Interactions
  7. 7. KnowledgeComprehensionApplicationAnalysis Benjamin Bloom (1956)6 levels of Blooms Taxonomy:
  8. 8. 6 levels of Blooms Taxonomy:Knowledge statements askthe student to recite thepledge. Example: “Say thepledge.”Comprehension statementsask the student to explain themeaning of words contained inthe pledge. Example: “Explainwhat indivisible, liberty, andjustice mean.”
  9. 9. 6 levels of Blooms Taxonomy: Application statements ask thestudent to apply understandings.Example: “Create your own pledgeto something you believe in.” Analysis statements ask thestudent to interpret word meaningsin relation to context. Example:“Discuss the meaning of ‘and to theRepublic for which it stands’ interms of its importance to thepledge.”
  10. 10. 6 levels of Blooms Taxonomy: Synthesis statements ask the studentto apply concepts in a new setting.Example: “Write a contract betweenyourself and a friend that includes anallegiance to a symbol that stands forsomething you both believe in.” Evaluation statements ask the studentto judge the relative merits of thecontent and concepts contained in thesubject. Example: “Describe the purposeof the pledge and assess how well itachieves that purpose. Suggestimprovements.”
  11. 11. Different types of thinking: 1. Critical thinking - This is convergentthinking. It assesses the worth andvalidity of something existent. Itinvolves precise, persistent, objectiveanalysis. When teachers try to getseveral learners to think convergently,they try to help them develop commonunderstanding. 2. Creative thinking - This is divergentthinking. It generates something new ordifferent. It involves having a differentidea that works as well or better thanprevious ideas.
  12. 12. Different types of thinking: 3. Convergent thinking - This type ofthinking is cognitive processing ofinformation around a common point, anattempt to bring thoughts from differentdirections into a union or commonconclusion. 4. Divergent thinking - This type ofthinking starts from a common point andmoves outward into a variety ofperspectives. When fosering divergentthinking, teachers use the content as avehicle to prompt diverse or uniquethinking among students rather than acommon view.
  13. 13. Different types of thinking: 5. Inductive thinking - This is theprocess of reasoning from parts to thewhole, from examples togeneralizations. 6. Deductive thinking - This type ofreasoning moves from the whole to itsparts, from generalizations to underlyingconcepts to examples.
  14. 14. Different types of thinking: 7. Closed questions - These arequestions asked by teachers thathave predictable responses. Closedquestions almost always requirefactual recall rather than higherlevels of thinking. 8. Open questions - These arequestions that do not havepredictable answers. Openquestions almost always requirehigher order thinking.
  15. 15. WHAT STRATEGIES HELP TODEVELOP THESE SKILLS? Help Students Organize TheirKnowledge Build on What Students Already Know Facilitate Information Processing Facilitate Deep Thinking ThroughElaboration Make Thinking Processes Explicit
  16. 16. Becoming a guide(promoting cognitive development) --Require justification for ideas andprobe for reasoning strategies --Challenge students to developalternatives and to ask thought-provoking questions --As an instructor, ask open-endedquestions and accept varied responses --Require all students to participateactively in class discussions --Serve as a master of apprenticesrather than a teacher of students
  17. 17. An IgnitingInteractive Environment --Reflects real-life situations andcontexts --Shows collaboration amongteachers, disciplines, and students --Encourages curiosity,exploration, and investigation --Demands student responsibilityfor his or own learning --Encourages various performance–based displays of competencies
  18. 18. How do I foster higher-order thinking inmy classroom? 1. Set up a classroom environmentwhich is conducive to high-levelthinking. A. Multi-level materialsB. Flexible groupingC. Accept and celebrate diversityD. Print-rich environmentE. High expectationsF. Teacher as co-learnerG. Nurture risk-taking 2. Engagestudents in activities which foster high-level thinking.
  19. 19. How do I foster higher-order thinking inmy classroom? A. Collaborative group activities in which studentscan communicate with others in a variety of ways.B. Problem-solving activities that require more thanroutine calculations.C. Open-ended activities with more than one "right"answer.D. Activities which acommodate multipleintelligences.E. Activities in which both genders participate freely.3. Construct questions that call for high-levelthinking. A. Ask yourself, "Do I always know the answer to myquestions?"B. Use a variety of assessment methods that matchteaching strategies. For example, use a project forassessment instead of an end-of-unit test.
  20. 20. Evaluation: Words Appraise Choose Compare Conclude Decide Defend Evaluate Give youropinion Judge Justify, Prioritize Rank Rate Select Support Value
  21. 21. Synthesis Change Combine Compose Construct Create Design Find anunusual way Formulate Generate Invent Originate Plan
  22. 22. Synthesis Predict Pretend Produce Rearrange Reconstruct Reorganize Revise Suggest Suppose visualize write
  23. 23. Analysis Analyze Categorize Classify Compare Contrast Debate Deduct Determine thefactors Diagnose Diagram Differentiate Dissect Distinguish Examine Infer Specify
  24. 24. Application Apply Compute Conclude Construct Demonstrate Determine Draw Find out Give anexample Illustrate Make Operate Show Solve State a rule orprinciple Use
  25. 25. Comprehension Convert Describe Explain Interpret Paraphrase put in order Restate Retell in yourown words Rewrite Summarize Trace Translate
  26. 26. Knowledge Define fill in theblank Identify Label List Locate Match Memorize Name Recall Spell State Tell Underline
  27. 27.  Knowledge: Identification and recall of information Who, what, when, where, how? Describe ___________________. Comprehension: Organization and selection of facts and ideas Retell ___________ in your own words. What is the main idea of ___________________? Application: Use of facts, rules, principles How is __________ and example of _______________? How is __________ related to _________________? Why is _________________ significant? Analysis: Separation of the whole into component parts What are the parts or features of ________________? Classify _______________ according to ________________. Outline/diagram/web ____________________. How does ______________ compare/contrast with __________________? What evidence can you list for _____________________? Synthesis: Combination of ideas to form a new whole What would you predict/infer from __________________? What ideas can you add to __________________? How would you create/design a new __________________? What might happen if you combine _______________ with ________________? What solutions would you suggest for __________________? Evaluation: Development of opinions, judgments, or decisions Do you agree with _________________? What do you think about _______________? What is the most important _____________? Prioritize ________________. How would you decide about ________________? What criteria would you use to assess ______________________?
  28. 28. QUESTIONS THAT PROBEASSUMPTIONS What are you assuming? What is Karen assuming? What could we assume instead? You seem to be assuming________. Do I understand you correctly? All of your reasoning depends on the idea that . Why have you based your reasoning on ______rather than ____? You seem to be assuming _______. How would you justify taking this for granted? Is it always the case? Why do you think the assumption holds here? Why would someone make this assumption?
  29. 29. QUESTIONS OFCLARIFICATION What do you mean by? Could you give me anexample? What is your main point? Would this be an example? How does_________relate________to? Could you explain thisfurther? Could you put that another way? Would you say more aboutthat? Is your basic point______or_____? Why do you say that? What do you think is the main issue here? Let me see if I understand you; do you mean_______or______?How does this relate to our discussion (problem, issue)? What do you think John meant by his remark? What did you takeJohn to mean? Jane, would you summarize in your own words what Richard hassaid? ...Richard, is that what you meant?
  30. 30. QUESTIONS THAT PROBEREASONS AND EVIDENCE What would be an example? How do you know? Why do you think that is true? Do you have any evidence for that? What difference does that make? What are your reasons for saying that? Could you explain your reasons to us? Is there reason to doubt that evidence? What would you say to someone who said________? Can someone else give evidence to support that response? Who is in a position to know if that is so?
  31. 31. QUESTIONS THAT PROBEREASONS AND EVIDENCE By what reasoning did you come to that conclusion? How could we find out whether that is true? Are these reasons adequate? Why did you say that? What led you to that belief? How does that apply to this case? What would change your mind? What other information do we need? But is that good evidence to believe that? Who is in a position to know if that is so?
  32. 32. QUESTIONS ABOUT VIEWPOINTSOR PERSPECTIVES You seem to be approaching this issuefrom________ perspective. Why have you chosen this rather than thatperspective? How would other groups/types of peoplerespond? Why? What would influence them? How could you answer the objectionthat________would make? What might someone who believed________think? Can/did anyone see this another way? What would someone who disagrees say? What is an alternative?
  33. 33. QUESTIONS THAT PROBE IMPLICATIONSAND CONSEQUENCES What are you implying by that? But if that happened, what else would happenas a result? Why? What effect would that have? Would that necessarily happen or only probablyhappen? What is an altenative? If this and this are the case, then what elsemust also be true? If we say that this is unethical; how aboutthat? When you say________you are implying?
  34. 34. Suggestions Related to Using Writing to PromoteHigher-Order Thinking Write daily or frequently ratherthan sporadically. Write for real audiences andpurposes. Allot sufficient time for stages ofthought and editing to occur. Encourage peer review Write with an initial emphasis onthinking rather than onproofreading and editing.
  35. 35. Writing to Promote Higher-Order Thinking (Synthesized from Teaching Children to Be Literate: AReflective Approach, by Anthony and Ula Manzo, 1995) Writing activates the reader’s background knowledgebefore reading/thinking. Writing builds anticipation of upcoming learning events. Writing raises the reader’s level of intellectual activity. Writing encourages meaningful comparisons of thestudent’s perspective with that of the writer (in readingsituations) Writing helps students better formulate their world view. Writing allows students to examine their perspectives onkey issues. Writing builds metacognitive as well as cognitive abilitiesbecause writing forces deeper levels of introspection,analysis, and synthesis than any other mediationalprocess.
  36. 36. (Synthesized from Teaching Children to Be Literate: A Reflective Approach, byAnthony and Ula Manzo, 1995) 1. Remember to ask for it; that is, for discovery,invention, and artistic/literary creation. 2. Great curiosity and new ideas with enthusiasm; thesecan often lead to the most valuable “teachablemoments.” 3. Expose learners to new twists on old patterns andinvite looking at old patterns from new angles. 4. Constructively critique new ideas because they almostalways require some fine-tuning. 5. Reset our expectations to the fact that there will bemany more “misses” than “hits” when reaching forworkable new ideas. 6. Learn to invite contrary, or opposing, positions; newpossibilities are often discovered in this way and existingthoughts, patterns, and beliefs can be tested andstrengthened.
  37. 37.  Head-on Approaches to Teaching Higher-OrderThinking (Synthesized from Teaching Children to Be Literate: AReflective Approach, by Anthony and Ula Manzo, 1995) “Thinking Thursdays” Consider setting aside a given amount of time on aregular basis to try some of these direct approachesto teaching critical and creative thinking. Word Creation: Define the word “squallizmotex” and explain howyour definition fits the word. If dried grapes are called raisins, and dried beef iscalled beef jerky, what would you call these items ifthey were dried: lemons, pineapple, watermelon,chicken.
  38. 38.  Unusual Uses: Have students try to think of asmany unusual uses as they canfor common objects such asbricks, used toys, old tennisballs, soda bottles, and 8-trackcassette tapes.
  39. 39.  Circumstances and Consequences:What would happen if . . . school was on weekends and notduring the week? water stuck like glue? gravity took a day off? there were no colors? everyone in the country could vote onevery issue that is now decided bygovernment representatives?
  40. 40.  Product Improvements: How could school desks beimproved? How could living room furniturebe improved to provide betterstorage and even exercise whilewatching television? How can we better equip book-carrying bags to handle lunchesand other needs that you canthink of?
  41. 41.  Systems and SocialImprovements: A sample question that couldlead into plenty of higher-leveldiscussion and a good give-and-take of views and needs couldbe: “How can schools be mademore fun without hurtinglearning?”