SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 16
Download to read offline
CRITICAL
THINKING
“During times of universal deceit,
telling the truth becomes a
revolutionary act.”
   ~ George Orwell
What is Critical Thinking

   Critical thinking is reflective reasoning       Socratic method is defined as "a
    about beliefs and actions. It is a way of        prolonged series of questions and answers
    deciding whether a claim is always true,         which refutes a moral assertion by
    sometimes true, partly true, or false.           leading an opponent to draw a conclusion
    Critical thinking can be traced in Western       that contradicts his own viewpoint.”
    thought to the Socratic method of
    Ancient Greece.

   Socrates was a Philosopher, born c. 470
    BCE…c.399 BCE, in Athens Greece…The
    Socratic tradition in which probing
    questions were used to determine
    whether claims to knowledge based on
    authority could be rationally justified
    with clarity and logical consistency…

   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_thin
    king
Sumner's Definition of Critical Thinking
What is Critical Thinking?
(William Graham Sumner — 1906)


   “[Critical thinking is] . . . the examination and test of propositions of any kind
    which are offered for acceptance, in order to find out whether they correspond
    to reality or not. The critical faculty is a product of education and training. It is
    a mental habit and power. It is a prime condition of human welfare that men and
    women should be trained in it. It is our only guarantee against delusion,
    deception, superstition, and misapprehension of ourselves and our earthly
    circumstances.”



    {Sumner, W. G. (1940). Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of
    Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals, New York: Ginn and Co., pp. 632,
    633.}
Consequential Validity: Using Assessment to Drive Instruction




   Critical thinking is that mode of          Critical thinking is the disciplined
    thinking—about any subject,                 art of ensuring that
    content, or problem—in which the           you use the best thinking you are
    thinker                                     capable of in any set of
    improves the quality of his or her         circumstances.
    thinking by skillfully analyzing,
    assessing, and reconstructing it.
                                               When we think critically, we realize
                                                that in every
   Critical thinking is self-directed,
    self-disciplined, self-monitored, and      domain of human thought, it is
    self-corrective thinking. It                possible and important
    presupposes assent to rigorous             to question the parts of thinking,
    standards of excellence and mindful         and the standards for
    command of their use.                      thought.

                                               http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/consequential-
                                                validity-using-assessment-to-drive-instruction/790
“The great masses of the people…will more
easily fall victims to a big lie than to a small
one.”
   ~ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, 1933


We learn from history that we do not learn from history.
   ~ George Wilhelm Hegel
Definitions

   Different sources define critical thinking variously as:

   "reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do"[2]

   "the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying,
    analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by,
    observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and
    action"[4][page needed]

   "purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation,
    and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological,
    criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based"[5]


   "includes a commitment to using reason in the formulation of our beliefs"[6]
Cites from previous page of Definitians



   2) Ennis, Robert (20 June 2002).
    "A Super-Streamlined Conception of Critical Thinking".
    faculty.education.illinois.edu. Retrieved January 18, 2013.

   4) Scriven, M., and Paul, R.W.,
    Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking
    (1987)

   5) Facione, Peter A. Critical Thinking: What It is and Why It Counts,
    Insightassessment.com, 20011, p. 26

   6) Mulnix, J. W. (2010). Thinking critically about critical thinking. Educational
    Philosophy and Theory. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-5812.2010.00673.x, p. 471
“Education’s purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one.”
   ~ Malcolm S. Forbes


   History and etymology
   The critical thinking philosophical frame
    traces its roots in analytic philosophy and
    pragmatist constructivism which dates
    back over 2,500 years.
   Meaning
   Critical thinking clarifies goals, examines
    assumptions, discerns hidden values,
    evaluates evidence, accomplishes actions,
    and assesses conclusions.


Skills

   The list of core critical thinking          Evidence through observation
    skills includes observation,
    interpretation, analysis, inference,
                                                Context skills
    evaluation, explanation, and meta-          Relevant criteria for making the
    cognition. There is a reasonable level       judgment well
    of consensus among experts that an          Applicable methods or techniques
    individual or group engaged in strong
    critical thinking gives due                  for forming the judgment
    consideration to establish:                 Applicable theoretical constructs
   In addition to possessing strong             for understanding the problem and
    critical-thinking skills, one must be        the question at hand
    disposed to engage problems and
    decisions using those skills. Critical
    thinking employs not only logic but
    broad intellectual criteria such as
    clarity, credibility, accuracy,
    precision, relevance, depth, breadth,
    significance, and fairness.
Procedure

   Critical thinking calls for the           Put to test the conclusions and
    ability to:                                generalizations at which one arrives
                                              Reconstruct one's patterns of
   Recognize problems, to find                beliefs on the basis of wider
    workable means for meeting those           experience
    problems                                  Render accurate judgments about
   Understand the importance of               specific things and qualities in
    prioritization and order of                everyday life
    precedence in problem solving
   Gather and marshal pertinent
    (relevant) information
   Recognize unstated assumptions and
    values
   Comprehend and use language with
    accuracy, clarity, and discernment
   Interpret data, to appraise evidence
    and evaluate arguments
   Recognize the existence (or non-
    existence) of logical relationships
    between propositions
   Draw warranted conclusions and
    generalizations
“Any formal attack on ignorance is bound to fail because the masses are always
ready to defend their most precious possession – their ignorance.”
   ~ Hendrik Van Loon


                                              In sum:

                                              "A persistent effort to examine any
                                               belief or supposed form of knowledge in
                                               the light of the evidence that supports it
                                               and the further conclusions to which it
                                               tends.”( b Edward M. Glaser (1941). An
                                               Experiment in the Development of Critical
                                               Thinking. New York, Bureau of
                                               Publications, Teachers College, Columbia
                                               University. ISBN 0-404-55843-7.)
Habits or traits of mind



                              The habits of mind that
                               characterize a person strongly
                               disposed toward critical thinking
                               include a desire to follow reason and
                               evidence wherever they may lead, a
                               systematic approach to problem
                               solving, inquisitiveness, even-
                               handedness, and confidence in
                               reasoning.[16] When individuals
                               possess intellectual skills alone,
                               without the intellectual traits of
                               mind, weak sense critical thinking
                               results. Fair-minded or strong sense
                               critical thinking requires intellectual
                               humility, empathy, integrity,
                               perseverance, courage, autonomy,
                               confidence in reason, and other
                               intellectual traits. Thus, critical
                               thinking without essential
                               intellectual traits often results in
                               clever, but manipulative and often
                               unethical or subjective thought.
“Men become civilized, not in proportion to their willingness to believe, but in their
readiness to doubt.”   ~ H. L. Mencken



   16) The National Assessment
    of College Student Learning:
    Identification of the Skills to
    be Taught, Learned, and
    Assessed, NCES 94–286, US
    Dept of Education, Addison
    Greenwod (Ed), Sal Carrallo (PI).
    See also, Critical thinking: A
    statement of expert consensus
    for purposes of educational
    assessment and instruction.
    ERIC Document No. ED 315–423
Example thinker

   raises important questions and problems, formulating them clearly
    and precisely
   gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to
    interpret it effectively
   comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them
    against relevant criteria and standards
   thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought,
    recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions,
    implications, and practical consequences
   communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to
    complex problems, without being unduly influenced by others'
    thinking on the topic.
Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for
Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987

   A statement by Michael Scriven & Richard Paul, presented at the 8th Annual
    International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, Summer
    1987.
   Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully
    conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information
    gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning,
    or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is
    based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions:
    clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons,
    depth, breadth, and fairness. It entails the examination of those structures or
    elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: purpose, problem, or question-at-
    issue; assumptions; concepts; empirical grounding; reasoning leading to
    conclusions; implications and consequences; objections from alternative
    viewpoints; and frame of reference. Critical thinking — in being responsive to
    variable subject matter, issues, and purposes — is incorporated in a family of
    interwoven modes of thinking, among them: scientific thinking, mathematical
    thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral
    thinking, and philosophical thinking.
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766

More Related Content

What's hot

What's hot (20)

Critical thinking skills ppt
Critical thinking skills pptCritical thinking skills ppt
Critical thinking skills ppt
 
Critical Thinking
Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking
Critical Thinking
 
Critical thinking
Critical thinkingCritical thinking
Critical thinking
 
McQueary critical thinking workshop
McQueary critical thinking workshopMcQueary critical thinking workshop
McQueary critical thinking workshop
 
6 Steps to Critical Thinking
6 Steps to Critical Thinking6 Steps to Critical Thinking
6 Steps to Critical Thinking
 
Critical thinking
Critical thinkingCritical thinking
Critical thinking
 
6. critical thinking skills 2
6. critical thinking skills 26. critical thinking skills 2
6. critical thinking skills 2
 
Critical thinking
Critical thinkingCritical thinking
Critical thinking
 
Critical Thinking
Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking
Critical Thinking
 
Critical Thinking
Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking
Critical Thinking
 
Critical thinking
Critical thinkingCritical thinking
Critical thinking
 
Developing Critical Thinking Skills
Developing Critical Thinking SkillsDeveloping Critical Thinking Skills
Developing Critical Thinking Skills
 
Critical thinking presentation
Critical thinking presentationCritical thinking presentation
Critical thinking presentation
 
Creative Thinking & Problem Solving
Creative Thinking & Problem SolvingCreative Thinking & Problem Solving
Creative Thinking & Problem Solving
 
Critical thinking presentation
Critical thinking presentationCritical thinking presentation
Critical thinking presentation
 
Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking
 
Creative Thinking & Problem Solving
Creative Thinking & Problem SolvingCreative Thinking & Problem Solving
Creative Thinking & Problem Solving
 
Critical Thinking
Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking
Critical Thinking
 
Critical thinking
Critical thinkingCritical thinking
Critical thinking
 
Creative thinking
Creative thinkingCreative thinking
Creative thinking
 

Viewers also liked

Critical Thinking
Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking
Critical Thinkingohassta
 
Problem Solving PowerPoint PPT Content Modern Sample
Problem Solving PowerPoint PPT Content Modern SampleProblem Solving PowerPoint PPT Content Modern Sample
Problem Solving PowerPoint PPT Content Modern SampleAndrew Schwartz
 
PROBLEM SOLVING POWERPOINT
PROBLEM SOLVING POWERPOINT PROBLEM SOLVING POWERPOINT
PROBLEM SOLVING POWERPOINT Andrew Schwartz
 
NURSING PROCESS
NURSING PROCESSNURSING PROCESS
NURSING PROCESSJEENA AEJY
 
Higher order thinking skills presentation
Higher order thinking skills presentationHigher order thinking skills presentation
Higher order thinking skills presentationKenny Pieper
 
NTS ANALYTICAL REASONING QUESTION
NTS ANALYTICAL REASONING QUESTIONNTS ANALYTICAL REASONING QUESTION
NTS ANALYTICAL REASONING QUESTIONSIKSAVI
 
Higher order thinking_skills
Higher order thinking_skillsHigher order thinking_skills
Higher order thinking_skillsdiegocampillo
 
Job interview questions
Job interview questionsJob interview questions
Job interview questionstoyascruz
 
50 common interview questions and answers
50 common interview questions and answers50 common interview questions and answers
50 common interview questions and answersKumar
 
Corporate Etiquette
Corporate Etiquette Corporate Etiquette
Corporate Etiquette antuvane
 
Teaching Higher Order Thinking & 21st Century Skills
Teaching Higher Order Thinking & 21st Century SkillsTeaching Higher Order Thinking & 21st Century Skills
Teaching Higher Order Thinking & 21st Century SkillsTimothy Wooi
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Critical Thinking
Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking
Critical Thinking
 
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Critical Thinking and Problem SolvingCritical Thinking and Problem Solving
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
 
Problem Solving PowerPoint PPT Content Modern Sample
Problem Solving PowerPoint PPT Content Modern SampleProblem Solving PowerPoint PPT Content Modern Sample
Problem Solving PowerPoint PPT Content Modern Sample
 
PROBLEM SOLVING POWERPOINT
PROBLEM SOLVING POWERPOINT PROBLEM SOLVING POWERPOINT
PROBLEM SOLVING POWERPOINT
 
Human relations
Human relationsHuman relations
Human relations
 
Nursing process
Nursing processNursing process
Nursing process
 
NURSING PROCESS
NURSING PROCESSNURSING PROCESS
NURSING PROCESS
 
Public relation.ppt
Public relation.pptPublic relation.ppt
Public relation.ppt
 
Higher order thinking skills presentation
Higher order thinking skills presentationHigher order thinking skills presentation
Higher order thinking skills presentation
 
NTS ANALYTICAL REASONING QUESTION
NTS ANALYTICAL REASONING QUESTIONNTS ANALYTICAL REASONING QUESTION
NTS ANALYTICAL REASONING QUESTION
 
Self Motivation
 Self Motivation Self Motivation
Self Motivation
 
Higher order thinking
Higher order thinkingHigher order thinking
Higher order thinking
 
Higher order thinking_skills
Higher order thinking_skillsHigher order thinking_skills
Higher order thinking_skills
 
Hots
HotsHots
Hots
 
Self Motivation
Self MotivationSelf Motivation
Self Motivation
 
Job interview questions
Job interview questionsJob interview questions
Job interview questions
 
50 common interview questions and answers
50 common interview questions and answers50 common interview questions and answers
50 common interview questions and answers
 
Human relations
Human relationsHuman relations
Human relations
 
Corporate Etiquette
Corporate Etiquette Corporate Etiquette
Corporate Etiquette
 
Teaching Higher Order Thinking & 21st Century Skills
Teaching Higher Order Thinking & 21st Century SkillsTeaching Higher Order Thinking & 21st Century Skills
Teaching Higher Order Thinking & 21st Century Skills
 

Similar to Critical thinking powerpoint

criticalthinkingpowerpoint-130327000622-phpapp02.ppt
criticalthinkingpowerpoint-130327000622-phpapp02.pptcriticalthinkingpowerpoint-130327000622-phpapp02.ppt
criticalthinkingpowerpoint-130327000622-phpapp02.pptrannielbalanquit
 
7459436 ability-to-think-critically
7459436 ability-to-think-critically7459436 ability-to-think-critically
7459436 ability-to-think-criticallyrajiv_beri
 
Critical thinking power point k. yegoryan
Critical thinking power point  k. yegoryanCritical thinking power point  k. yegoryan
Critical thinking power point k. yegoryanKristinayegoryan1
 
The Assignment (1-page)  The Reading  to use for both paragraphs is.docx
The Assignment (1-page)  The Reading  to use for both paragraphs is.docxThe Assignment (1-page)  The Reading  to use for both paragraphs is.docx
The Assignment (1-page)  The Reading  to use for both paragraphs is.docxrtodd17
 
2011-05-29 Critical thinking
2011-05-29 Critical thinking2011-05-29 Critical thinking
2011-05-29 Critical thinkingyiranlandtour
 
2-2Week 2 AssignmentThe Process of Critical ThinkingOver.docx
2-2Week 2 AssignmentThe Process of Critical ThinkingOver.docx2-2Week 2 AssignmentThe Process of Critical ThinkingOver.docx
2-2Week 2 AssignmentThe Process of Critical ThinkingOver.docxnovabroom
 
The article that youve requested, Critical Thinking from Encyclop.docx
The article that youve requested, Critical Thinking from Encyclop.docxThe article that youve requested, Critical Thinking from Encyclop.docx
The article that youve requested, Critical Thinking from Encyclop.docxrtodd17
 
Lesson Note (Week 1) first presentation [Autosaved] [Autosaved] [Autosaved].pptx
Lesson Note (Week 1) first presentation [Autosaved] [Autosaved] [Autosaved].pptxLesson Note (Week 1) first presentation [Autosaved] [Autosaved] [Autosaved].pptx
Lesson Note (Week 1) first presentation [Autosaved] [Autosaved] [Autosaved].pptxOkianWarner
 
Critical Thinking, Reading and Writing- English for Academic and Professional...
Critical Thinking, Reading and Writing- English for Academic and Professional...Critical Thinking, Reading and Writing- English for Academic and Professional...
Critical Thinking, Reading and Writing- English for Academic and Professional...JannineGendrano
 
Lovely-Lopez-8.pptx
Lovely-Lopez-8.pptxLovely-Lopez-8.pptx
Lovely-Lopez-8.pptxAngelMaeGeo
 
8611unit1-211228063256.pdf
8611unit1-211228063256.pdf8611unit1-211228063256.pdf
8611unit1-211228063256.pdfnaureen1144
 
Introduction to Critical Thinking-8611-UNIT 1
Introduction to Critical Thinking-8611-UNIT 1Introduction to Critical Thinking-8611-UNIT 1
Introduction to Critical Thinking-8611-UNIT 1EqraBaig
 
CRITICAL THINKING AND REFLECTIVE PRACTICES-Unit 1-INTRODCUTION TO CRITICAL TH...
CRITICAL THINKING AND REFLECTIVE PRACTICES-Unit 1-INTRODCUTION TO CRITICAL TH...CRITICAL THINKING AND REFLECTIVE PRACTICES-Unit 1-INTRODCUTION TO CRITICAL TH...
CRITICAL THINKING AND REFLECTIVE PRACTICES-Unit 1-INTRODCUTION TO CRITICAL TH...Ek ra
 

Similar to Critical thinking powerpoint (20)

Critical Thinking
Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking
Critical Thinking
 
criticalthinkingpowerpoint-130327000622-phpapp02.ppt
criticalthinkingpowerpoint-130327000622-phpapp02.pptcriticalthinkingpowerpoint-130327000622-phpapp02.ppt
criticalthinkingpowerpoint-130327000622-phpapp02.ppt
 
Critical thinking
Critical thinkingCritical thinking
Critical thinking
 
7459436 ability-to-think-critically
7459436 ability-to-think-critically7459436 ability-to-think-critically
7459436 ability-to-think-critically
 
Critical Thinking
Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking
Critical Thinking
 
Importance of Critical Thinking Skills.pdf
Importance of Critical Thinking Skills.pdfImportance of Critical Thinking Skills.pdf
Importance of Critical Thinking Skills.pdf
 
Critical Thinking Essay Examples
Critical Thinking Essay ExamplesCritical Thinking Essay Examples
Critical Thinking Essay Examples
 
Critical thinking power point k. yegoryan
Critical thinking power point  k. yegoryanCritical thinking power point  k. yegoryan
Critical thinking power point k. yegoryan
 
The Assignment (1-page)  The Reading  to use for both paragraphs is.docx
The Assignment (1-page)  The Reading  to use for both paragraphs is.docxThe Assignment (1-page)  The Reading  to use for both paragraphs is.docx
The Assignment (1-page)  The Reading  to use for both paragraphs is.docx
 
2011-05-29 Critical thinking
2011-05-29 Critical thinking2011-05-29 Critical thinking
2011-05-29 Critical thinking
 
2-2Week 2 AssignmentThe Process of Critical ThinkingOver.docx
2-2Week 2 AssignmentThe Process of Critical ThinkingOver.docx2-2Week 2 AssignmentThe Process of Critical ThinkingOver.docx
2-2Week 2 AssignmentThe Process of Critical ThinkingOver.docx
 
The article that youve requested, Critical Thinking from Encyclop.docx
The article that youve requested, Critical Thinking from Encyclop.docxThe article that youve requested, Critical Thinking from Encyclop.docx
The article that youve requested, Critical Thinking from Encyclop.docx
 
Essay On Critical Thinking
Essay On Critical ThinkingEssay On Critical Thinking
Essay On Critical Thinking
 
Guilt Study Notes By Charles E. Whisnant
Guilt Study Notes By Charles E. WhisnantGuilt Study Notes By Charles E. Whisnant
Guilt Study Notes By Charles E. Whisnant
 
Lesson Note (Week 1) first presentation [Autosaved] [Autosaved] [Autosaved].pptx
Lesson Note (Week 1) first presentation [Autosaved] [Autosaved] [Autosaved].pptxLesson Note (Week 1) first presentation [Autosaved] [Autosaved] [Autosaved].pptx
Lesson Note (Week 1) first presentation [Autosaved] [Autosaved] [Autosaved].pptx
 
Critical Thinking, Reading and Writing- English for Academic and Professional...
Critical Thinking, Reading and Writing- English for Academic and Professional...Critical Thinking, Reading and Writing- English for Academic and Professional...
Critical Thinking, Reading and Writing- English for Academic and Professional...
 
Lovely-Lopez-8.pptx
Lovely-Lopez-8.pptxLovely-Lopez-8.pptx
Lovely-Lopez-8.pptx
 
8611unit1-211228063256.pdf
8611unit1-211228063256.pdf8611unit1-211228063256.pdf
8611unit1-211228063256.pdf
 
Introduction to Critical Thinking-8611-UNIT 1
Introduction to Critical Thinking-8611-UNIT 1Introduction to Critical Thinking-8611-UNIT 1
Introduction to Critical Thinking-8611-UNIT 1
 
CRITICAL THINKING AND REFLECTIVE PRACTICES-Unit 1-INTRODCUTION TO CRITICAL TH...
CRITICAL THINKING AND REFLECTIVE PRACTICES-Unit 1-INTRODCUTION TO CRITICAL TH...CRITICAL THINKING AND REFLECTIVE PRACTICES-Unit 1-INTRODCUTION TO CRITICAL TH...
CRITICAL THINKING AND REFLECTIVE PRACTICES-Unit 1-INTRODCUTION TO CRITICAL TH...
 

Critical thinking powerpoint

  • 1. CRITICAL THINKING “During times of universal deceit, telling the truth becomes a revolutionary act.”    ~ George Orwell
  • 2. What is Critical Thinking  Critical thinking is reflective reasoning  Socratic method is defined as "a about beliefs and actions. It is a way of prolonged series of questions and answers deciding whether a claim is always true, which refutes a moral assertion by sometimes true, partly true, or false. leading an opponent to draw a conclusion Critical thinking can be traced in Western that contradicts his own viewpoint.” thought to the Socratic method of Ancient Greece.  Socrates was a Philosopher, born c. 470 BCE…c.399 BCE, in Athens Greece…The Socratic tradition in which probing questions were used to determine whether claims to knowledge based on authority could be rationally justified with clarity and logical consistency…  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_thin king
  • 3. Sumner's Definition of Critical Thinking What is Critical Thinking? (William Graham Sumner — 1906)  “[Critical thinking is] . . . the examination and test of propositions of any kind which are offered for acceptance, in order to find out whether they correspond to reality or not. The critical faculty is a product of education and training. It is a mental habit and power. It is a prime condition of human welfare that men and women should be trained in it. It is our only guarantee against delusion, deception, superstition, and misapprehension of ourselves and our earthly circumstances.”  {Sumner, W. G. (1940). Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals, New York: Ginn and Co., pp. 632, 633.}
  • 4. Consequential Validity: Using Assessment to Drive Instruction  Critical thinking is that mode of  Critical thinking is the disciplined thinking—about any subject, art of ensuring that content, or problem—in which the  you use the best thinking you are thinker capable of in any set of improves the quality of his or her  circumstances. thinking by skillfully analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing it.  When we think critically, we realize that in every  Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and  domain of human thought, it is self-corrective thinking. It possible and important presupposes assent to rigorous  to question the parts of thinking, standards of excellence and mindful and the standards for command of their use.  thought.  http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/consequential- validity-using-assessment-to-drive-instruction/790
  • 5. “The great masses of the people…will more easily fall victims to a big lie than to a small one.”    ~ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, 1933 We learn from history that we do not learn from history.    ~ George Wilhelm Hegel
  • 6. Definitions  Different sources define critical thinking variously as:  "reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do"[2]  "the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action"[4][page needed]  "purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based"[5]   "includes a commitment to using reason in the formulation of our beliefs"[6]
  • 7. Cites from previous page of Definitians  2) Ennis, Robert (20 June 2002). "A Super-Streamlined Conception of Critical Thinking". faculty.education.illinois.edu. Retrieved January 18, 2013.  4) Scriven, M., and Paul, R.W., Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking (1987)  5) Facione, Peter A. Critical Thinking: What It is and Why It Counts, Insightassessment.com, 20011, p. 26   6) Mulnix, J. W. (2010). Thinking critically about critical thinking. Educational Philosophy and Theory. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-5812.2010.00673.x, p. 471
  • 8. “Education’s purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one.”    ~ Malcolm S. Forbes  History and etymology  The critical thinking philosophical frame traces its roots in analytic philosophy and pragmatist constructivism which dates back over 2,500 years.  Meaning  Critical thinking clarifies goals, examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, accomplishes actions, and assesses conclusions. 
  • 9. Skills  The list of core critical thinking  Evidence through observation skills includes observation, interpretation, analysis, inference,  Context skills evaluation, explanation, and meta-  Relevant criteria for making the cognition. There is a reasonable level judgment well of consensus among experts that an  Applicable methods or techniques individual or group engaged in strong critical thinking gives due for forming the judgment consideration to establish:  Applicable theoretical constructs  In addition to possessing strong for understanding the problem and critical-thinking skills, one must be the question at hand disposed to engage problems and decisions using those skills. Critical thinking employs not only logic but broad intellectual criteria such as clarity, credibility, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance, and fairness.
  • 10. Procedure  Critical thinking calls for the  Put to test the conclusions and ability to: generalizations at which one arrives  Reconstruct one's patterns of  Recognize problems, to find beliefs on the basis of wider workable means for meeting those experience problems  Render accurate judgments about  Understand the importance of specific things and qualities in prioritization and order of everyday life precedence in problem solving  Gather and marshal pertinent (relevant) information  Recognize unstated assumptions and values  Comprehend and use language with accuracy, clarity, and discernment  Interpret data, to appraise evidence and evaluate arguments  Recognize the existence (or non- existence) of logical relationships between propositions  Draw warranted conclusions and generalizations
  • 11. “Any formal attack on ignorance is bound to fail because the masses are always ready to defend their most precious possession – their ignorance.”    ~ Hendrik Van Loon  In sum:  "A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to which it tends.”( b Edward M. Glaser (1941). An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University. ISBN 0-404-55843-7.)
  • 12. Habits or traits of mind  The habits of mind that characterize a person strongly disposed toward critical thinking include a desire to follow reason and evidence wherever they may lead, a systematic approach to problem solving, inquisitiveness, even- handedness, and confidence in reasoning.[16] When individuals possess intellectual skills alone, without the intellectual traits of mind, weak sense critical thinking results. Fair-minded or strong sense critical thinking requires intellectual humility, empathy, integrity, perseverance, courage, autonomy, confidence in reason, and other intellectual traits. Thus, critical thinking without essential intellectual traits often results in clever, but manipulative and often unethical or subjective thought.
  • 13. “Men become civilized, not in proportion to their willingness to believe, but in their readiness to doubt.”   ~ H. L. Mencken  16) The National Assessment of College Student Learning: Identification of the Skills to be Taught, Learned, and Assessed, NCES 94–286, US Dept of Education, Addison Greenwod (Ed), Sal Carrallo (PI). See also, Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction. ERIC Document No. ED 315–423
  • 14. Example thinker  raises important questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely  gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively  comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards  thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences  communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems, without being unduly influenced by others' thinking on the topic.
  • 15. Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987  A statement by Michael Scriven & Richard Paul, presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, Summer 1987.  Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: purpose, problem, or question-at- issue; assumptions; concepts; empirical grounding; reasoning leading to conclusions; implications and consequences; objections from alternative viewpoints; and frame of reference. Critical thinking — in being responsive to variable subject matter, issues, and purposes — is incorporated in a family of interwoven modes of thinking, among them: scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral thinking, and philosophical thinking.