COLD WAR
BALANCE OF POWER
#1 East vs. West
West supported by US
& GB.
Democracy & free
enterprise restored
Western countries
Eastern Europe had
pro-...
#2 West German Govt
Germany divided into 4
zones - eventually, Western
three combined into 1
Berlin is also divided in 4,
...
#3 Holocaust Lessons
Germans want to be sure it
doesn’t happen again
Today, strong ties to Israel
Attempt to compensate
fi...
#4 Japan’s Constitution
Want to end militarism
and ensure
democracy
Constitution drafted by
Gen. Douglas
MacArthur & advis...
#5 Cold War
2 superpowers emerge after
WWII - US & Soviet Union
A continuing state of tension
& hostility btwn them.
Armed...
#5 Cold War begins
Stalin forced Eastern
European countries to adopt
pro-communist govts
The Soviets did not trust the
Wes...
#6 Satellite?
Not that kind of
satellite!
A country that
was forced to be
pro-communist
7 of them:
Poland,
Czechoslovakia,...
#7 Truman Doctrine
3/47, President Truman
establishes military &
economic policy to
help other nations resist
Soviet aggre...
#7 Marshall Plan
Economic aid package
to strengthen
democratic govts in W.
Europe, help them
rebuild
$13 Billion
Extremely...
#8 Crisis in Germany
Tension btwn democratic
West and communist East
Stalin feared a strong,
united Germany
W. Germany is ...
Berlin Airlift
#8 Berlin Airlift
1948 Allies bring in food &
supplies through the air to
Berlin for nearly a year
Blockade is ineffective...
#9 Opposing
Alliances
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization - NATO
Designed to make sure
Soviets don’t grab any
more of Europ...
#10 Soviet Repression
Stalin dies in 1953, glitter of
hope
But Soviets keep their thumb
on satellite countries
Soviets put...
#11 Revolts
1956, Imre Nagy - Hungarian
nationalist & communist
seeks independence
Soviets roll in tanks, Nagy
executed & ...
Time magazine’s Man of the Year
in 1956 was the Hungarian
freedom fighter
#11 Czechoslovakia
1968, “Prague Spring”
movement among students
Alexander Dubcek became
Communist Party leader,
called fo...
#12 Arms Race
Distrust & fear permeate in cold
war society
Both sides stockpile atomic
weapons, position them “in case
of ...
#12 Space Race
1957 Sputnik, a Soviet satellite, is
first man-made object to orbit the
Earth
US shocked, Soviets are Bette...
#13 East Asia
By supporting govts or rebel
groups in other countries, the
superpowers could exert their
influence w/out en...
#14 Middle
East
1950s, Gamal Abdar
Nasser rules Egypt,
Soviets help him with
Aswan Dam
Fights 2 wars vs. Israel,
backed by...
#14 Middle East
US & USSR needed oil for their
economies - interfere in Iran
& Iraq
Iran - US backs anti-
communist shah, ...
#15 Africa
Congo - free from Belgium in
1960 - Soviets help new leader
suppress rebels
Anti-communist dictator Mobutu
Sese...
#16 Latin America
Cuba - Fidel Castro
establishes communist
dictatorship in 1959
Very close to US
Bay of Pigs invasion to
...
#17
Nonaligned nations - did not
choose a side in the Cold
War, but chose to make
economic progress a goal
Accepted aid fr...
#18 United Nations
The UN was a place that
representatives from the USSR
and the US could voice their
differences peaceful...
Soviet World Crumbles
#19- détente – btwn 1963-
1981, a lessoning of tensions
Détente involved arms control
talks and trea...
#20 Afghanistan
Soviets launch war in Afghanistan, 1979
to keep the pro-communist govt in
power - West sees Soviets as sti...
#21Perestroika
Under Soviet Premier Mikhail
Gorbachev
He reformed the USSR so much it
crumbled
Restructured the failing st...
#21 Glasnost
Means “openness”
Ended censorship, so
people could discuss
problems openly
Stalin is rolling in his
grave!
Na...
#22
When Gorbachev introduces
democracy, the Soviet Union
crumbles
#23 – Gorbachev
1985-1991
Wants to shake Soviet society from top
to bottom
World had changed –
3 worlds – Capitalist, Comm...
#23 Yeltsin
Coup led by Gen. Yennaiev to
overthrow Gorbachev fails
Boris Yeltsin saved Gorbachev,
takes over when Gorbache...
#23 Vladimir Putin
Former KGB officer
1st
time in Russian history that
power passed peacefully
from 1 elected leader to
an...
#24
Poland is 1st
country to break up
Eastern Bloc
Strikes in Gdansk shipyards,
labor unrest, rising prices lead
to union ...
#24
Bulgaria – Comm dictator
Zhivkov resigns, 1989
Czechoslovakia – Vaclav Havel,
a poet elected Dec. 26, 1989
Romania – N...
#25
Ethnic Tension erupts in
former Soviet bloc as they
struggle for democracy
Czechoslovakia splits
Armenians vs Azerbaij...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Cold War Notes

603 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
603
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cold War Notes

  1. 1. COLD WAR BALANCE OF POWER
  2. 2. #1 East vs. West West supported by US & GB. Democracy & free enterprise restored Western countries Eastern Europe had pro-communist govts supported by the Soviet Union Europe divided by imaginary line: Iron Curtain
  3. 3. #2 West German Govt Germany divided into 4 zones - eventually, Western three combined into 1 Berlin is also divided in 4, but in Soviet zone Nazis outlawed, tried at Nuremberg Germans wrote a constitution 1949, Federal Republic of Germany Guaranteed asylum for political reasons (sanctuary)
  4. 4. #3 Holocaust Lessons Germans want to be sure it doesn’t happen again Today, strong ties to Israel Attempt to compensate financially some victims Will grant asylum to anyone escaping political persecution
  5. 5. #4 Japan’s Constitution Want to end militarism and ensure democracy Constitution drafted by Gen. Douglas MacArthur & advisors Constitutional monarchy; representatives elected to Diet; women can vote; basic rights guaranteed
  6. 6. #5 Cold War 2 superpowers emerge after WWII - US & Soviet Union A continuing state of tension & hostility btwn them. Armed battle did not occur directly- stakes are 2 high! Soviets have atomic bomb in ‘49, hydrogen bomb ‘53 Marxist Communism vs. American Capitalism - ideological conflict; hatred!
  7. 7. #5 Cold War begins Stalin forced Eastern European countries to adopt pro-communist govts The Soviets did not trust the West, won’t give up lands they gained in war Stalin puts pressure on Greece & Turkey, we step in.
  8. 8. #6 Satellite? Not that kind of satellite! A country that was forced to be pro-communist 7 of them: Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria
  9. 9. #7 Truman Doctrine 3/47, President Truman establishes military & economic policy to help other nations resist Soviet aggression Theory of Containment - limit commies from spreading Sends $400 million in military & economic aid to Greece & Turkey War on Communism “It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” — Harry S Truman
  10. 10. #7 Marshall Plan Economic aid package to strengthen democratic govts in W. Europe, help them rebuild $13 Billion Extremely successful, source of embarrassment for Stalin when W.E. recovers, E.E. doesn’t
  11. 11. #8 Crisis in Germany Tension btwn democratic West and communist East Stalin feared a strong, united Germany W. Germany is doing better, industry up 600%, currency better in West than East Berlin was in East, blockaded by Stalin to stop supplies
  12. 12. Berlin Airlift
  13. 13. #8 Berlin Airlift 1948 Allies bring in food & supplies through the air to Berlin for nearly a year Blockade is ineffective Led to the formal creation of West Germany (1949) 1961, East German govt builds wall separating East Berlin from West Berlin - shoot anyone trying to escape
  14. 14. #9 Opposing Alliances North Atlantic Treaty Organization - NATO Designed to make sure Soviets don’t grab any more of Europe Warsaw Pact - Soviet alliances w/ 7 of its satellites Critics said the purpose of NATO was: “to keep the Russians out, the Germans down, and the Americans in.”
  15. 15. #10 Soviet Repression Stalin dies in 1953, glitter of hope But Soviets keep their thumb on satellite countries Soviets put down revolts by rolling tanks, show the West they will use force to support communism
  16. 16. #11 Revolts 1956, Imre Nagy - Hungarian nationalist & communist seeks independence Soviets roll in tanks, Nagy executed & thousands of others die Soviets crush dissent by force
  17. 17. Time magazine’s Man of the Year in 1956 was the Hungarian freedom fighter
  18. 18. #11 Czechoslovakia 1968, “Prague Spring” movement among students Alexander Dubcek became Communist Party leader, called for liberal reforms & easing of communist controls “Socialism w/ a human face” Tanks rolled, new govt installed Again, use force when necessary
  19. 19. #12 Arms Race Distrust & fear permeate in cold war society Both sides stockpile atomic weapons, position them “in case of attack!” - fear 1960 - US U2 Spyplane shot down over Soviet airspace prior to East- West summit meeting in Paris Americans deny, Soviets produce evidence, captured pilot - Relations fall apart
  20. 20. #12 Space Race 1957 Sputnik, a Soviet satellite, is first man-made object to orbit the Earth US shocked, Soviets are Better? WTH? NASA started - major $$$$$$$ for science and math education 1961 - Soviets 1st man in space 1969 - US on moon
  21. 21. #13 East Asia By supporting govts or rebel groups in other countries, the superpowers could exert their influence w/out engaging directly (through surrogate means). Korean War, 1950-1953 Vietnam, 1954-1975 Provided eco. aid, advisors, & troops to contain communism Tens of thousands die not fighting Soviets, but other communists
  22. 22. #14 Middle East 1950s, Gamal Abdar Nasser rules Egypt, Soviets help him with Aswan Dam Fights 2 wars vs. Israel, backed by Soviets US backs Israel
  23. 23. #14 Middle East US & USSR needed oil for their economies - interfere in Iran & Iraq Iran - US backs anti- communist shah, who gets overthrown in Islamic Revolution,1979 USSR supports socialist dictator in Iraq after military coup overthrows monarchy
  24. 24. #15 Africa Congo - free from Belgium in 1960 - Soviets help new leader suppress rebels Anti-communist dictator Mobutu Sese Seko gets support from the west & takes control, renames it Zaire Stays in power until late ‘90s.
  25. 25. #16 Latin America Cuba - Fidel Castro establishes communist dictatorship in 1959 Very close to US Bay of Pigs invasion to overthrow Castro fails, 1961 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis Castro & Khrushchev
  26. 26. #17 Nonaligned nations - did not choose a side in the Cold War, but chose to make economic progress a goal Accepted aid from both U.S. and Soviet Union India, Yugoslavia, many African nations
  27. 27. #18 United Nations The UN was a place that representatives from the USSR and the US could voice their differences peacefully Member countries would side w/ one of the superpowers in votes though, limiting the UN’s effectiveness
  28. 28. Soviet World Crumbles #19- détente – btwn 1963- 1981, a lessoning of tensions Détente involved arms control talks and treaties (like SALT, Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties ’69, ‘79) Cultural exchanges Trade agreements Joint Apollo Soyuz Space Mission
  29. 29. #20 Afghanistan Soviets launch war in Afghanistan, 1979 to keep the pro-communist govt in power - West sees Soviets as still aggressive US backs Mujahideen “freedom fighters” (led by Saudi Arabian, Osama bin Laden) CIA trains and arms them through Pakistani secret services Unpopular in Soviet Union, lots of casualties on both sides “USSR’s Vietnam” After Soviet withdrawal in 1989, all sides forget Afghanistan - warlords control country, then Taliban wins civil war Taliban harbors Al-Qaeda –> 9/11/01
  30. 30. #21Perestroika Under Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev He reformed the USSR so much it crumbled Restructured the failing state-run economy to create growth, efficiency Free market reforms – led to inflation, shortages of food & medicine People got something for doing little for so long, didn’t know how to make things on their own Mikhail Gorbachev
  31. 31. #21 Glasnost Means “openness” Ended censorship, so people could discuss problems openly Stalin is rolling in his grave! Nationalist sentiments are opened up – Soviet empire will collapse (Freedom please)
  32. 32. #22 When Gorbachev introduces democracy, the Soviet Union crumbles
  33. 33. #23 – Gorbachev 1985-1991 Wants to shake Soviet society from top to bottom World had changed – 3 worlds – Capitalist, Communist, 3rd World radio & TV makes world smaller, sense of connectivity, capacity to destroy humanity, world capitalism (McDonald’s, Coca-Cola) Perestroika & Glasnost
  34. 34. #23 Yeltsin Coup led by Gen. Yennaiev to overthrow Gorbachev fails Boris Yeltsin saved Gorbachev, takes over when Gorbachev resigns Struggles to make transition from communism to capitalism “We pretend to work as they pretend to pay us.” – no incentive to work hard, laziness is a way of life under communism Yeltsin retires in 1999
  35. 35. #23 Vladimir Putin Former KGB officer 1st time in Russian history that power passed peacefully from 1 elected leader to another Has suppressed dissent (jailed opponents), curbed power of regional leaders and Duma Nuclear arms reduction w/ U.S. and cooperation w/ NATO
  36. 36. #24 Poland is 1st country to break up Eastern Bloc Strikes in Gdansk shipyards, labor unrest, rising prices lead to union movement – Solidarity led by Lech Walesa Free elections 1989, he is President – Comm Party loses monopoly on power Hungary – Comm party is broken up, opens borders to West East Germany – Nov 9, 1989 – Berlin Wall comes down
  37. 37. #24 Bulgaria – Comm dictator Zhivkov resigns, 1989 Czechoslovakia – Vaclav Havel, a poet elected Dec. 26, 1989 Romania – Nikolai Ceaucescu, brutal dictator sends out army to break up protests – they arrest, kill him instead Yugoslavia – Lead by Tito, declares itself separate
  38. 38. #25 Ethnic Tension erupts in former Soviet bloc as they struggle for democracy Czechoslovakia splits Armenians vs Azerbaijan Yugoslavia torn apart in Balkans (Milosevic) Chechens vs. Russia (terror) U.S. is #1

×