c Nowadays safety and protective textile have become an integral part in one or other form. Safety and protective textile refer to garment and other fabric related items designed to protect the wearer from harsh environmental effects that may result in injury or death.
c Industrial textile is used to protect from one or more of following :- Extreme heat and fire . Harmful chemicals and gases . Bacterial environment . Electric hazards . Radiation .
Pre Twentieth century Normally heavy & uncomfortable uniform for wear. Produced from natural fibers or heavy metal is used. Uncomfortable for soldiers. Twentieth Century Light weight & durable, many high performance fibers came into usage.
• Earlier silk & metal was used.• But now high Performance fibres are used like• Kevlar - Polyphenylene terephthalamide, 5 times stronger than steel. Properties like tensile strength at low weight, low elongation at break, high modulus high chemical resistance etc.• Dyneema – polyethylene, 10-100 times stronger than steel. Properties like very high strength to weight ratio & light enough to float on water.• Twaron - para-aramid, 5 times stronger than steel.
• Spectra - polyethylene fibers.10-100 times stronger than steel, high strength.• Spider silk – protein, 25 times stronger than steel
PROPERTY COMMENTSLight weight and low bulk Items have to be carried by individuals.High durability and dimensional Must operate reliably in adversestability conditionsGood handle and drape comfortableLow noise and antistatic No rustle and no sparks
PROPERTY COMMENTSWater-repellent, water proof & wind For exterior materials exposed toproof cold weatherThermally insulating For cold climatesWater vapour permeable For clothing and personel equipmentRot-resistant For tents, covers, netsUV resistant light Environment with sunlightbiodegradable If discarded or buried
PROPERTY COMMENTSVisual spectrum Exposed materials match visual coloursUltra voilet In snow & ice regionsNear infrared To match reflectance of backgroundFar infrared To minimise heat emitted by humans & equipmentAcoustic emissions Rustle noises detected by microphones & sensors
-Under UV band:Titanium dioxide pigment as a coating-Under visible band:Khaki, brown, black and green colours used for uniforms.Light weight polyurethane or acrylic coated nylon.
-Under visible band:Khaki, brown, black and green coloursused for uniforms.Light weight polyurethane or acrylic coatednylon
TYPES COMMENTSBallistic fragments Bombs,grenadesLow & high velocity bullets Hand guns, pistolsChemical & biological agents Blood agents, nerve agents, bacteria
PROPERTY COMMENTSEasy care & min maintainance Non iron, smartLong storage life & minimal cost War stock to be stored for 10-20 yrsdisposable Nuclear & chemical contamination
Causes for ballistic casualties in general war 59% 19% 22%fragments bullets other
Fabric layers in the Weave Requirementsarmor • Plain balanced weave • Ballistic performance• Energy dissipation and • More cross-over points • Comfortable clothing reduction • Large surface area .
Ballistic material performance Ballistic versus weight resistance material ballistic limit (m/s) weight (oz/sq.ft) 720 750 750Blunt trauma Required degree 500 protection of protection 38 36 32 27 Comfort and ease Final weight of steel 1978 of movement uniform 1992 materials of today
Casualty levels 80% 61% 40% 15%no armor helmets are armor is armor and worn worn helmet is worn
Gearing towards an integrated future The general aims of future systems are: Improve protection against natural and battlefield threats Maintain thermo-physiological comfort or survival in extreme conditions Improve compatibility between and within different clothing components Reduce weight and bulk of materials Integrate functionality so that fewer layers provide multi layer protection Reduce life cycle costs by making systems more effective, durable, and recyclable and by buying few components in the system