Classification of FibersBuilding Blocks of all materials- Smallest being ATOM-To form Fiber –Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen & Sulphur are Important ATOMSATOMS combine to form- MOLECULE- Smallest Unit of a compoundEg -Water( 2atoms of hydrogen & 1 atom of oxygen)Formation of chemical compound is SYNTHESISSeparation of a compound into its constituents is -ANALYSISDifferent Physical forms of compound are called STATES(Water) ---SOLID----LIQUID-----GASEOUSMacromolecules- Very Large Molecules.Long Chains of macromolecules is called –linear-POLYMERSFibers made from Fibrillar Bundles.Individual Fibril made from- Long Chains of macromoleculesVegetable fiber-chain is of cellulose, animal it is of protien…Synthetic from petroleumFiber Bulk is Amorphous and Crystalline.Amorphous –Water/ dye can penetrate, It allow flexibility.Crystalline- Water /Dye Cannot penetrate. It Gives strength. MOECULAR ARRANGEMNET IN FIBEROrganization of Macromolecules , Amorphous, Crystalline regions ----Determines-Properties of Fibers
Classification of Fibers Sources Of Textile Fibers Solar energy – basis of life Cotton Flax Wool Silk Cellulosic- Synthetic- Man made Man made Cellulose- formed through Food taken by animals Petroleum photosynthesis transformed into Fiber forming Cellulose – extracted derived Proteins from Sea from Wood Plankton Plants & Animals Construct- NATURAL POLYMERS –form…Fibers Cellulose dissolved ---passed through spinning jets from Natural Polymers. Forms.. ALL FIBERS Cellulosic man-made-Fibers Constructed From- Petroleum products form Synthetic man-made- LARGE POLYMER Fibers --Artificially formed. MOLECULES….
Fibers---SERVICE ABILITYAESTHETIC- APPROPRIATE IN APPEARNCE FOR END USEDURABLE- SHOULD LAST FOR ADEQUATE TIMECOMFORT- COMFORTABLE WHEN WORN/ USEAPPEARANCE- TEXTILE RETAIN APPEARANCE WHEN USE < CARE <STORED
Fibers---SERVICE ABILITYAESTHETIC- APPROPRIATE IN APPEARNCE FOR END USELuster- is Light Reflected by the surface – SHINY- BRIGHT reflects fair amount of light than DULL -MATTE surface. Yarn & Finish can change the Luster.Drape-Way the Fabric Falls over a Body. or a Table… FINE fabrics have better drape than COARSE . Yarn & Fabric structure more Important in determining the Drape...Texture- is Textiles Surface.. NATURAL Fibers has more texture than MAN-MADE.Hand- Feels to the skin- Warm/Cool, Bulky/Thin, Slick/Soft. Luster- Drape- Texture- Hand
Fibers---SERVICE ABILITYDURABLE- SHOULD LAST FOR ADEQUATE TIMEAbrasion Resistance- Abiltiy of the Textile to With-Stand the Rubbing during Use . (Flex-occur moving /bending …… Edge occur -when folded)Flexibilty- Abiltiy to Bend Repeatedly Without Breaking related to Abrasion.Tenacity- Ability to Withstand a Pulling Force. Differs when Textile is WET & DRY.Elongation- Degree to which Fiber may be Stretched without breaking. Related to Elasticity Abrasion Resistance Flexibility Tenacity Elongation
Fibers---SERVICE ABILITYCOMFORT- TEXTILE COMFORTABLE WHEN WORN/ USEAbsorbency- Ability of a fiber to Take up Moisture (increase in MASS) from Body /Environment.Hydrophilic- Absorbs Moisture readilyHydrophobic- Have Little or No AbsorbencyHydroscopic- Absorbs Moisture Without Feeling Wet.Heat Retention- Ability to Hold HEAT. Low in Summers & High in winters Affected by - Fiber, yarn, Fabric structure, Layering,Heat sensitive- Reaction to Heat- Soften , Melts, Resistant . (Identify Safe Pressing temperature)Density- Fiber Weight per Unit Volume Lower density into fabrics, Heavy density into heavy fabrics Absorbency Hydrophilic- Hydrophobic- Hydroscopic- Heat Retention Heat sensitive Density
Fibers---SERVICE ABILITYAPPEARANCE- TEXTILE RETAIN APPAERANCE WHEN USE< CARE< STOREDResiliency- Ability of textile to RETURN to its Shape Bending / Twisting/ Crushing Do Not Wrinkle Are --Resilient.Shrinkage- Ability to RETAIN its Original Dimensions throughout CARE React to Moisture & Heat----SHRINK-- No longer AttractiveElasticity- Ability to RETURN to its Original dimensions after ELONGATION. Poor elastic Out of Shape. good elastic maintain shapeDimensional stability- Ability to RETAIN its Original Size & Shape after USE Depends on – Elasticity & Shrinkage resistance. Dimensions Measured before and after cleaning. Resiliency Shrinkage Elasticity Dimensional stability
Fibers---SERVICE ABILITYRESISTANCE- Reaction to CHEMICALS & HEATLight- Exposure to Light (Natural/ Artificial) Damage Fabric. like- yellowing /slight weakening/ complete disintegrationChemicals- Resistance to Chemicals (ACIDS & ALKALIS) determines - Care Procedures & End Use
Fibers---SERVICE ABILITYENVIORMENTAL IMPACT-The Way- PRODUCTION < USE < CARE < DISPOSAL of Product--- Affects Environment-•Soil conservation,•Use of agriculture chemicals,•Water demands,•Cleaning requirements,•Processing etc,,,)CARE PROPERTIES-Any Treatment to Maintain the New Look of textile product during useCleaning, Storage, is CARECOST- Depends on----------------------------------•Supply-Demand,•Cost of Raw Material used to Grow them.
Part-1- How Fibers- Contribute to Fabric Performance?
FibersHow. Fibers -Contribute to Fabric performance? Strong Fibers –Make Durable Fabrics Absorbent Fibers- Make Apparels Suitable for Skin + towels + diapers Fire resistant Fibers- Used for Children’s Sleep wear + Fire fighters Clothing ble ita ar le Su we r ab p Du ee SlHENCE…Fiber Knowledge & Their Properties will HELP You understandFiber Contribution to…………………………….Performance of a Fabric & Product ………made from It.
Fibers PHYSICAL STURCTURELength-Fibers are- Staple, Filament/ Filament Tow.STAPLE - Short Length in inches (3/4th-18” ) or cm (2-46cm) Except silk all Natural fibers are available in Staple formFILAMENT- Long Continuous, Strands Indefinite Length in ( Miles & kilometers)- Mono or Multi FILAMENT. Smooth or BulkedFILAMENT Tow- Loose rope of several Fibers- Crimped or textured cut to staple length.
Fibers PHYSICAL STURCTUREDiameterLARGE FIBER- Crisp Rough stiff… Resist CrushingFINE FIBERS- Soft, Pliable.. Drape Easily…. Fineness or Coarseness of fiber Determine by – Denier, Tex , Cotton count
Fiber: Fineness or Coarseness of fiber,DENIER- Weight in (gms ) of 9000 meters of fiber /yarnA single strand of silk is one denier. A 9,000 meter strand of silk weighs one gramIn practice measuring 9,000 meters is both time-consuming and wasteful.Usually a sample of 900 meters is weighed and the result multiplied by 10 to obtain the denierweight.TEX- Weight in (gms ) of 1000 meters of fiber /yarnTex is more likely to be used in Canada and Europe,Denier remains more common in the United States and United KingdomCotton Counts:The Number of HANKS of 840 yds in one pound of weight i.e10 count cotton means that 10x840 yds weighs = 1 lb.In the United Kingdom, ones to 40s are coarse counts (Oldham Counts), 40 to 80s aremedium counts and above 80 is a fine count. In the United States ones to 20s arecoarse counts.
FibersCross Sectional shapeAffects-Luster, Bulk, Body, Texture, & Hand—Round , Dog bone, Triangular, Lobal, Hallow etc…Through Orifice (opening in the body) . .insects extrudes Fiber,Cellulose is Built-during plant growth, Shape of hair follicle/ protien formation.
FibersCrimpTwo kinds….FIBER CRIMP- Refers to -Waves. Bends, Coils, Curls Along length of fiberFABRIC CRIMP- Bends caused by Distortion of yarns due to weaving/knittingSurface contourOuter Surface of the fiber Along its length- could be Smooth, Serrated, Strait,Rough
FibersChemical compositionFibers are Classified in Generic groups by their chemical compositions.Properties of One Generic groups DIFFER from another.Polymerization- Atoms bonded in millions to form Molecular chainsPolymer- Small Molecules joined together to form a Long chainAmorphous- When chains are arranged in RANDOM / DISORGANISED way within the fiber.Crystalline- Molecular chains are organized PARALLEL to each otherHydrogen Bonds - Stronger than Vander Wals forcesMolecular chains are held to one another by intermolecular forces.The closer the chains the stronger the bonds .Occurs mainly in Crystalline areas making them more strong than Amorphous.
Fiber Fibril Bundles Macro fibrils PolymersPart-2-Fibers- Types Cellulosic Protein Regenerated fibers Synthetic Special use fibers
Classification of Fibers NATURAL FIBERS GROUP- (SUB Group) Name or Generic Name Vegetable (cellulose) Cotton , Kapok, Seed Coconut Flax Hemp Jute
Fibers---CELLULOSIC- seedCOTTON- History (over 5000 years ago)- COTTON-Used for Making Textiles Findings from Mohenjo-Daro suggest that. Indian Cotton was Traded to Mediterranean Area from Alexander time – Who traded with EAST. Venice was built due large Trade of Indian Cotton ,(8th Century) It thrived in Spain till Islam Came in 15th century. Trade sea route established with Portugal During 17th Century Britain became powerful in Textile manufacturing 18th Century America invented Cotton Gin. And Britain developed spinning and weaving machinery.Cotton Growing in 80 different countries World-wide.Major Ones are-USA, CHINA, INDIA, PAKISTAN, UZBEKISTAN, BRAZIL, TURKEY,AUSTRALIA , TURMENISTAN, EGYPT.
Fibers---CELLULOSIC- seedCOTTON PLANT• Cotton plant during Planting & Growth needs lot of water and for Ripening needs lot of heat.• Mainly Grown in TROPICAL & Sub-TROPICAL Belt.• After flowering …Fruit Nodes Grow into CAPSULE , which Cracks open to reveal Seed HAIRS• Each Ball has 30 Seeds.• Each SEED has 1000 to 10, 000 hair.Harvesting cracks open- severalHand pick/machine pick CAPSULE SEED HAIRDryingNewly harvested seed is wet. Dry byWarm AirGinning FLOWERINGSeparate Fiber from seed-LINTUtilization Each BALL=30 SEEDMade into staple fiber yarns by spinning Each SEED= 1000s.HAIR
Fibers---CELLULOSIC- seedCOTTON- Commercial QualityQULAITY STAPLE FINENESS COLOUR LENGTH UPLANDCOTTON 28mm Longer Impurities High White(America)- are Quality the fiber detrimental = toGIZA 36mm Finer to Quality High Creamy- StrengthCOTTONS(Egypt) it is to Light Yellow- to BrownSEA ISLAND 50mmCOTTON(West Indies) Silky texture
Fibers---CELLULOSIC- seedCOTTON- Thermal Insulation Low Moisture HighProperties Absorption Up to 65% of their own weight Strength Good Stronger when wet than dry Pure Elasticity Poor cotton Creases easily Good Quality Electrostatic charge Scarcely develop any charge as contain Moisture Fineness Fine & soft Next to skin Very Comfortable Apparel Accessories Household Industrial textiles TextilesApplications Shirts, Handkerchiefs Blouses, Laces, Bed clothes, Protective Nightwear, Ribbons, Kitchen, Furniture Clothing, Awnings, Umbrellas coverings, Hand Tarpaulins, Sewing Trousers, bath Towels Threads Jeans,
Fibers---CELLULOSIC- bastFLAX / HistoryLINEN- LINEN –KNOWN to Civilized Society for thousands of years. Cultivated by Ancient Egyptians, Babylonians etc.. Mummies found wrapped in Linen Linen was popular in Middle Ages as well.Major Ones are-CHINA,RUSSIAN FEDERATION,UKRAINE,FRANCE,BELARUS,NETHERLAND,EGYPT,ELGIUM,CZECH REPUBLIC,LITHUANIA
Fibers---CELLULOSIC- bastFLAX / LINEN-PLANT Harvesting Pulled-plant as a WHOLE till roots. .for full length / nowadays. machine pick• Flax is extracted from the Stalks of Plant. Roughing Out• TALL Varieties - For Fiber (shorter for linseed oil). Remove Seed + other materials from Stems• Grows best in Temperate Climate. Retting• Constructed from Cellulose Chain Woody part is degraded Thus, Fiber loosened- Molecules. (LAY IN..WARM WATER FOR 5-8 DAYS)• Flax is Stiffer than Cotton because of Drying Cement that holds Fiber. Flax stalks Dried by Warm Air Oven• Flax has Smoother Surface than Cotton. Breaking & Scutching After retting- Stalks broken, Woody part removed by scutching. Line fiber-(45-90cm), Scutcher tow-(10-25cm) Hackling Bast fiber combed into spinnable bundles .(woody part + short fibers removed) Processing Line /Tow-is spun into yarns.
Fibers---CELLULOSIC- bast Thermal Insulation Poor-(cannot hold much air-FLAX / as smooth fiber.. Poor insulation)LINEN- Moisture High Absorption (Absorbs Quickly and releases it quickly)Properties Strength Very Good Stronger when wet than dry Elasticity Lowest Of all apparel fiber… Electrostatic charge Nill As contain Moisture Fineness Coarse Fiber give Firm Handle. Next to skin Harder and Stiffer Than cotton …(LESS SUPLE) Lustre Smooth surface – gives Subdued Luster Apparel Accessories Household Industrial textiles TextilesApplications Shirts, Suites, Pockets Skirts, Bags Bed clothes, Table Tarpaulins Blouses, cloths, Drapes, (POLYTRAP) Shoes Trousers, Mattress Linings, water proof material) Trimmings Interlinings for Furniture & Wall Ropes, Threads stiffening Coverings.
FIBER USEFUL PARTNAME OF THE PLANT ORIGIN PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS Very WEAK Fiber- due-to- Brazil, Large Air-Filled Lumen India, Cannot be Spun- into Stuffing & Indoneasia, YARNS- Wadding- Mexico, Wax Coating -Repellent to Cushions, Bolsters, Fruit- seed hair East & water Mattresses,KAPOK fiber West, Africa Fine, Soft ,Luster, Filling in Life jackets High Abrasion resistance Floor Coverings Durable Stair Good Carpets India, Indoneasia, Elasticity Ropes Not Soil easily Srilanka Good Furniture backings InsulatorsCOCONUT Hard fiber - coconut Coarse & Stiff Tarpaulins Itlay Poland, Strong Ropes Yugoslavia, Elasticity is Good Carpet backings Romania, Rot slowly Spain, Bast fiber- AlgeriaHEMP
FIBER USEFUL PARTNAME OF THE PLANT ORIGIN PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS Packaging fabrics Woody & Irregular Base Strength is Cloth for Belts & LOWER Than Flax Tapestries Elasticity is similar to Flax India, Strong Aroma Backing Bangladesh Can Rot Cloth for Floor CoveringsJUTE Bast fiber- Pakistan Easy to Dye Strong High Grade Blast Fiber like Flax Fine , Light & Smooth & uniform Durable -Kitchen & Easy to Dye Table Cloth Resistant to Light White & Has Belts & Lustre Ribbons Absorbency Good Bast fiber- Far-east Harder than CottonRAMIE USA Ropes Carpet , High -Strength Nets, Brazil, High-
Part-2-Fibers- Types Cellulosic Protein Regenerated fibers Synthetic Special use fibers
Classification of Fibers NATURAL FIBERS GROUP- (SUB Group) Name or Generic Name Animal (Protein) • Cultivated Silk • Wild( Tussar) Wool Virgin wool Wool Fine hair------------- Alpaca Lama, Vicuna, Guanaco, Camel, Rabbit, Angora, Mohair, Cashmere,
Fibers---PROTIEN- SILKSILKHistory Silk –.Chinese Empress Si-Ling Shi -Observed the caterpillar spinning itself into a Cocoon. She unraveled the filaments and made fabric… .. Cocoons were Smuggled to Europe and Mediterranean Region thus, produced silk …from then… Major Ones are- CHINA, INDIA, JAPAN , RUSSIA, BRAZIL, KOREA, THAILAND , TURKEY, FRANCE
Mulberry Silk- Cultivated SILKFibers--- PROTIEN- SILK Raw silk- Kills pupae with steam/ dryheat –SILK Cocoon placed in hot water-soften gum Filaments end found and wounded on a reel.• Emerging From Egg, - worm feed on 7-10 filaments wounded together on a reel. and is called Raw Silk. MULBERRY LEAVES.• Grows - As Caterpillar Spun Silk-• Fibroin is Extruded- ANIMAL PROTIEN Unwinnable remnants from Cocoon and• Fibroin Filaments -made from – Fibril Bundles other waste silk ---is converted into- Spun Yarn of long fibers Combed-are fine, smooth, regular ---------------again are made from – Micro fibrils.• Sericin- Silk GUM.- surrounds- 2 filaments Noil silk- and hold them together-is PIGMENTED. Shorter Waste Fiber Spun into- Coarser, Irregular, Nappy Yarn• 50,000 silkworm yield 1000kg of cocoons Wild Silk- Recovered yields 120kg of RAW SILK. Tussah-• We have Mulberry Silk & Wild Silk ( like Tussah) • Wild Tussah cocoons are gathered from Trees & Bushes • Difficult to Degum & Reel it • Retains its Reddish Brown Colour Degumming- Remove Gum- • Variation In Finess-like irregular streaks… by Gentle Boiling in mild soap solution. Weighting- Degummed silk Made heavier by firming again with Metallic salts
Fibers--- PROTIEN Thermal Insulation Good –Filament made into FINE FABRICSSILK (Enclose small volume of Air –cooling effect. Nevertheless…Compact silk are Good Insulators. .as..) Layer of Warm Air lying between Fabric & Skin---Does not escape easily too. )Properties Moisture Hygroscopic Absorption (Absorbs 1/3 of its weight of water vapour without feeling wet) Strength Very Good Tenacity Elasticity- & Outstanding Resilience-(does not wrinkle) Extensibility Very Good( 10-30%) Electrostatic charge Nil--As contain Moisture Fineness Coarse Fiber give Firm Handle. Next to skin Harder and Stiffer Than cotton …(LESS SUPLE) Luster/Fineness/Hand Has Luster, is Fine and Pleasant Handle… Sensitivity Perspiration/ Deodorant spray- cause Discoloration or Brittle the fiber ApparelApplications Accessories Household Industrial Textiles Dresses, Blouses; Scarves textiles Formal dress Gloves Drapes , Sewing Threads Sophisticated Lingerie Ties ,Hats Wall coverings, Carpets, Embroidered Threads Handbags Umbrellas Lampshades, Racing Bicycle tyres Artificial flowers Bed clothes
Fibers---PROTIEN- SILK Above Properties are of Degummed RAW Silk- ItSILK varies also as per ……..VarietyDEGUMMED- WEIGHTED- WILD SILKcultivated cultivated Wrinkles, SeldomWrinkles Little Degummed, Full ,Heavy, Stiff,Supple Less Durable, Coarse,Fine luster Stronger Luster Not Uniform, Harsh toRAW Handle,Smooth, Finest Heavier,SPUN/ Schappe-Fine, Darker, Duller,Smooth,regular Dull Luster,NOIL/Bourette More sensitiveCoarse, Neppy, to perspirationIrregular
Fibers---PROTIEN- WOOLWOOL History WOOL FELTS – were known in China, Babaylon, Egypt… Shearing not Pulling-of Wool- Invention During Iron Age- (Cutting Tools..found) Sheep breeding… Started in 14th century in Spain.. Then in 18th century in Australia.. Australia has 14% worlds sheep..population….Major Ones are-AUSTRALIAUSSRNEW ZEALANDCHINA,ARGENTINAURUGUAYSOUTH AFRICATURKEY,GREAT BRITAINPAKISTANGERMANY
Fibers--- PROTIEN- WOOL Shearing SHAVING the sheep- for FleeceWOOL ClassingPLANT Fleece GRADED -(1-best -4-worst) -as per-• WOOL fiber is made of –Keratin- •Fineness, ( PROTIEN MOLECULE )• Long Chain Protein Molecules -formed Into FIBRILS- •Crimp,• FIBRILS combine into- FIBRILLAR BUNDLES •Impurities,• FIBRILLAR BUNDLES- Mass of Cell •Color• It has Scales on Fiber surface Scouring Dirt & Grease is removed- By Gentle Scouring Fiber Carbonizing Vegetable Impurities Removed –by Fibril fibrils Sulphuric Acid Bundles Processing Protien molecule Fibers processed into- Wollens or Worsted
Fibers--- PROTIEN- WOOL Thermal Insulation Excellent –WOOL Bulky Looser yarn -better insulation than Fine combed yarns)Properties Moisture Absorption Hygroscopic Strength Practically Not Durable Lower than normal Apparel Elasticity Excellent Electrostatic charge Develop only Small Charge As contain Moisture Fineness Coarse / Fine depending on Variety Next to skin Softness of wool depends on its Fineness Fammability Does not Burn easily Formability Durable shape Can be re-oriented under Heat & Moisture Felting Due to Scales Heat , Moisture & Mechanical action –felting happen Apparel Accessories Household IndustrialApplications Suites Ties textiles Textiles Costume Pullovers Socks Blankets Fire protecting Waist Coats, Hats clothing Overcoats, Carpets Scarfs Industrial felts Dresses Drapes Stockings Furnishings.
Fibers---PROTIEN- WOOL WOOL TYPE FINE MEDIUM LONG , COARSEWOOL- Merino /Classification Breed Rambouillet South down Lincoln Fineness/ Diameter Finest-15-23 Medium-24-30 Coarse above 30 Length 15-120 120-150 Over 150 Crimp/Waviness Highly crimped Normal crimped Low crimped Australia/ Sources South Africa Argentina, Uruguay New Zealand, Great Britain Fine Outerwear, knitted & Woven Heavier, Sporting Carpets, Furniture Applications Shawl, Socks Clothing Coverings Shearing First shearing- (fine & not very strong) after 6 months….WOOL- Second shearing – after 10-12 months from 1st shearingClassification 6-month, 8month, 12month interval…shearing Source Australian, New Zealand, Cape Origin Virgin Wool- Shorn from healthy sheep Dead Wool from Sheep died from Natural death Skin Wool- from slaughtered sheep Recovered Wool- From Production waste & Second hand clothing Spinning Worsted----Spun into Fine, Smooth, Combed Yarns Woolens---More Voluminous, On Woolen Spinning System
Fibers---PROTIEN- WOOLWOOL- ALPACA Both wild & domesticated-Classification South America LLAMA Sorted by Color + Fineness ALPACA VICUNA SOFT, LESS CRIMP, VERY WARM GUANACO Blankets, Overcoats, Expensive knitted SHORN –every 2 years jackets, VICUNA CAMEL SOFT, LESS CRIMP, FINE, Beige in Color SHORN – Outer wear, Interlinings every Year CASHMERE In Magnolia,LLAMA SHORN – Due to-High Altitudes- Has unusual FINE every Year under fleece GUANACO Fleece separated-by fineness & color Sorted by Color + Fineness SOFT, LIGHT , LUSTROUS, EXPENSIVE MOHAIR/YAK Angora Goat SHORN – Texcas, S.Africa, Turkey Twice in a years LONG CURLED SILKY TEXTURE White ,Good for dyeing Outerwear ANGORA/RABBIT Angora Rabbit SHORN – Europe, East Asia Four times in a year FINE , VERY LIGHT
Part-2-Fibers- Types Regenerated fibers Synthetic MAN-MADE FIBER SPINNING PROCESS
MAN-MADE FIBERof FibersPROCESSClassification SPINNING3 MAJOR SPINNING PROCESS1. Wet Spinning- Spinning from a Polymer SolutionPolymer solution is extruded into bath containing chemicalswhich Neutralize Solvent & Solidify FilamentsE:G- Viscose, Acrylics ELEMENTS- Com mon to ….. All 3 methods • Reservoir & Metering Pump Fiber forming material • Spinning Jet (S pinneret) Fluid in which Filam Neutralize Solvent & Solidify Filaments ents are Formed • Take up Mecha nism draws the Filaments & W inds them onto a pa ck age.
MAN-MADE FIBERFibersClassification of SPINNING PROCESS2. Dry spinning-(Warm Air) Spinning from a Polymer Solution-Polymer solution is extruded into the Stream of Warm airwhich Evaporates Solvent & Solidify FilamentsE:G - Acetate, Acrylics
MAN-MADE FIBERFibersClassification of SPINNING PROCESS3.Melt Spinning- (Cold Air) Spinning from a Polymer MeltMolten Polymer - extruded into the stream of Cold airwhich Cools the MELT & Solidify FilamentsE.G -Polyester, Nylon
MAN-MADE FIBERFibersClassification of SPINNING PROCESS• Spinneret Shape – determines the Shape of FilamentE:G…Could be Circular or Some other shape.•Different Cross sections- influences- LUSTER & HAND of fabric• Filaments from different spinneret can be Combined into a TOW… & Chopped into STAPLE fiber…• MONO-filament- Spinneret has one Hole• MULTI-filament-Spinneret has several Hole
Part-2-Fibers- Types Regenerated fibersCALLED Regenerated Coz …………Cellulose Scarcely is Alteredduring Process.Hence after Fiber Formation is AGAIN Cellulose. Therefore REGENRATED.
Regenerated fibers Cellulosic:- Man -Made Fibers Viscose Cuprammonium Acetate Organic process process process process E;G Cupro E:G E;G E:G Acetate, Viscose, triacetate Lyocell ModalHISTORY….1900 is seen as the birth of Man- Made Fiber IndustryArtificial Stockings after 1st World War." Roaring Twenties”, Artificial Silk Lingerie etc…
Regenerated fibersViscose processVISCOSE- Use SODIUM HYDROXIDE solution+ CARBON DISULPHIDE to dissolve CELLULOSE.MODAL- Made from Modified Viscose Fiber. ( Solidifying bath has different chemicals resulting in Longer Cellulose molecules, improvement structure. Therefore, Higher strength.)Cuprammonium processCUPRO- COPPER OXIDE & other copper compounds used to dissolve CELLULOSE.Acetate processACETATE & TRI-ACETATE – where cellulose HYDROXYL GROUP is replaced by ACETYL GROUP. Hence properties are different.Organic process-LYOCELL- Now AMINE OXIDE with water (organic) is used.
R. Fibers--- VISCOSEProperties Thermal Insulation Low, can be controlled to some extent • Ex tracted Moisture More Absorbent than Cotton Eucal from yptus - Absorption /Beac /P hwoo ine d Strength Lower than Cotton •Fibe r len Elasticity Wrinkle easily than C gth shorter otton S STRE o NGTH , LOWER Electrostatic charge Low as Contain Moisture . Fineness Fine and soft Next to skin Comfortable Coloration Excellent Luster High Luster to Matt ( depends on cross section)Applications CARE Viscose Swell in Water. Hence causes fabric to shrink. In Modal it is Less.FILAMENT- Viscose STAPLE -Viscose MODALUse for Blouses, Shirts, Used in Blends- Used Primarily inLUSTROUS dresses, Drapes, Cotton , Wool Linen BLENDS- with CottonFABRICS Lingerie, Ribbons type- & Polyester Trimming For- Absorbency, Uniformity, Underwear,Outerwear.LINNING FABRICS Luster
Classification of Fibers Synthetic Fibers Polyamides (Nylon) Poly acrylic, poly-olefins elastane Polyesters Polyvinyl-chloride elastodiene Polyvinyl-alcohols Poly-tetra-fluro-ethylene HISTORY…. Synthetic fibers breakthrough was with- NYLON STOCKINGS. in 1950s. Lycra-(Elastomers) Developed in 1959etc… 1st generation was Cellulosic-Fiber- 2nd generation was Synthetic Fiber 3rd generation is of – ARMIDS, CARBON, CERAMIC. fibers.
Fibers--- NYLON / POLYAMIDE Thermal Insulation Depends on whether fiber produced isProperties Flat, Textured, Staple. Moisture Absorption LittleAmide group Strength Highest Tensile strengthNylon6- Elasticity Very resilient, Wrinkle freeNylon 6.6- Electrostatic charge Has it, reduced by FinishHigh drape, stiff Fineness From Micro to Coarse Next to skin Fine soft- for Apparels Luster Matt to high Luster Formability Thermoplastic- can be set Resistance Resistant to alkalis, Fungi. Moulds, Sensitive to Dry heat & Light, AbrasionApplications resistance.. FILAMENT- STAPLE ARAMIDS Sheer Stockings, Lingerie, Pile Upholstery Used in Blends- Used Primarily in Swimming wear, Sportswear, Cotton , Wool Protective Clothing Linen type- Bullet proof jackets Water proof clothing Racing drivers Umbrellas, Linnings, Dresses, Blouses Fleece fabrics etc Fire fighters
Fibers--- Synthetic- POLYESTER Thermal Insulation Depends on whether fiber produced isProperties Flat, Textured, Staple.Ester- Moisture Littlegroup Absorption Strength Highest Tensile strength Elasticity Very resilient, Wrinkle free Electrostatic charge Has it, reduced by Finish Fineness From Micro to Coarse Next to skin Fine soft- for Apparels Luster Matt to high Luster Formability Thermoplastic- can be set Resistance Resistant to Alkalis Acids, Fungi.Applications Moulds, Light & Heat. FILAMENT-usually textured STAPLE Dresses, Blouses , Ties, Scarves, Used in Blends- with Rain wear, Linnings, Net curtains Cotton , viscose, modals, wool FLAME RESISTANCE- good for children wear, hotel Filling material-Fberfill beddings, Theater. Waddings HIGH TENACITY- Tent proof, tarpaulins, tyre cords, .. Sewing threads
FIBER NAME PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS Bulky spun, wool like-durable, Propylene + Blended Esp. with WOOL. Socks, Blankets, Awnings, Ammonia Resistance to weather Outerwear, Carpets,ACRYLIC Alone / Blended Poor –Shrink when washed Furnishings Modified Acrylics- Are Flame resistantMODA-ACRYLIC Protective Clothing Used for Warm &DUNOVA Acrylic Fiber Very PORUS Absorbent-Underwear Excellent Abrasion , wind, water Protective Clothing resistance.. Carpeting, Umbrellas. Sports Elasticity, goods,NYLON Amide Heat set Widest end use- Heat-Flame-resistant,POLYESTER Antistatic, High Crimp, Ester Very Versatile fiber Low pill, High strength.. Strong abrasion resistance Low softening temp. Ropes, Cables, Nets, Filters No wrinkle Sports UndergarmentsOLEFINS Upholstery, carpeting Poly-ethylene Absorbs no water Carpet backing
FIBER NAME Sub-group PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS Water repellentFLUORO Tetra Fluoro-ethylene Heat & Chemical resistanceFIBERS Cannot be dyed Weather proof clothingCHLOROFIBERS PVC High Chemical resistance Protective & thermal wear Highly extensible, Elastic, Dyed easily, Compared to Rubber Swimwear, stockings,ELASTOMERS Poly urethane Dyed, Washable Stretch clothingRUBBER Elastomer Extensible, dyeable, resistance Elastomer to body oils, long shelf life than Shape wear, Hosiery,SPANDEX/lycra rubber, Swimwear, Biking Poly Vinyl Alcohol- Water- Soluble & insolubleVINYALS PVA types Adhesives, Separation yarns Resistance to Alkalis, Heat,ARMIDS Amide Chemicals, Flame, aromatic, P rotective Clothing
FIBER NAME Sub-group PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS Does not Burn Draperies of Public buildings, Low moisture Absorption Reinforced plasticsGLASS GLASS Brittle High strength, High HeatCARBON CARBON resistance Reinforced plastics Lurex- thin sheet of metal likeMETAL METAL fine ribbon Lurex trims & borders,
Classification of FibersFibers- Burning & Microscopic tests