Nanofinishes for UV protection in textiles

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  • Ultraviolet (UV) photons harm the DNA molecules of living organisms in different ways. In one common damage event, adjacent bases bond with each other, instead of across the “ladder.” This makes a bulge, and the distorted DNA molecule does not function properly. (Illustration by David Herring)
  • Nanofinishes for UV protection in textiles

    1. 1. MYTHILI TUMMALAPALLI 2010TTZ8217 SUBMITTED TO DR. BHUVANESH GUPTA
    2. 2.  UVA (320 to 400 nm)  UVB (290 to 320 nm)  UVC (200 to 290 nm)
    3. 3. UV-B irradiance at the surface based on the abundance of ozone, as measured by NASA’s Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument during the month of November, 2000.
    4. 4. Courtesy: http://www.cushnshade.com
    5. 5. Aerospace Aviation Petrochemical Electronics Machinery Environment Protection..
    6. 6.  Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) Eλ = erythemal spectral effectiveness Sλ = solar spectral irradiance in W/m2/nm Tλ = spectral transmittance of fabric Δ λ = the bandwidth in nm λ = the wavelength in nm
    7. 7.  Solar Protection Factor (SPF) MED = Minimum Erythrymal Dose Higher the UPF and SPF values, better the UV protection by the fabric
    8. 8. Courtesy: http://www.cushnshade.com
    9. 9.  Fiber chemistry  Fabric construction, porosity, thickness and weight;  Moisture content  Dye concentration, whitening agents, UV absorbers  Finishing chemicals
    10. 10. UV absorbers Colors Finishes - - NANO
    11. 11.  Nanotechnology - structures sized between 1 to 100 nm in at least one dimension  ZnO, TiO2 , ZrO - absorb the UV radiation  ZnO, TiO2 - non-toxic, compatible with human skin, chemically stable under both high temp. and UVR, easily available
    12. 12.  High surface-to-volume ratio - adhere well to the fabric  Transparent appearance  High surface area and high surface energy - bound to the surface of the fibres by van der Waals forces - wash fastness
    13. 13.  Cotton/polyester  Higher UPF  Woven better UPF than knitted  Polyester/cotton blend - better UPF than pure cotton - UV absorption of polyester Karthivelu et al., Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research, Vol. 34, September 2009, pg. 267-273
    14. 14.  Hexamethyelenetetramine and zincnitrate  Cotton fabric - treated in hot water to obtain 1D needle-shaped nano ZnO crystallites
    15. 15. (a) before treatment, (b) after soaking in the SiO2 solution, (c) after chemical deposition of ZnO, and (d) after hot water treatment at 100 °C for 2.5 h
    16. 16. (a) before treatment, (b) after soaking in the SiO2 solution, (c) after chemical deposition of ZnO, and (d) after hotwater treatment at 100 °C for 2.5 h. (a) before treatment, (b) after soaking in the SiO2 solution, chemical deposition of ZnO, and boiling water treatment for 3 h, and (c) after 20 washes Mao et al., Thin Solid Films, Vol. 517, 2009, pg. 2681–2686
    17. 17.  CeO2 -excellent UV absorption - low photocatalytic activity  CeO2 + ZnO - reduce the catalytic and photocatalytic activities  Fine ZnO:CeO2 particles with very small size - unique UV absorbing ability, high stability at high temp., high hardness, and low activity as catalyst J. F. Lima et al., Applied Surface Science, Vol. 255, 2009, pg. 9006–9009
    18. 18.  Layered fabric systems with electrospun ZnO nanocomposite fiber webs - various conc of ZnO in a range of web area densities  Extremely thin, Light-weight, Mechanically flexible  Desired functionalities imparted without significant increases in weight or thickness
    19. 19. SEM micrographs of (a) electrospun polyurethane nanofiber web, (b) electrospun polyurethane/ZnO nanocomposite fiber web and the cross-sectional view of a nanocomposite fiber (inset), and (c) cross-sectional view of a layered fabric system
    20. 20. S. Lee, Fibers and Polymers, Vol.10, No.3, 2009, pg. 295-301
    21. 21.  Anti microbial + UV protective
    22. 22. Transmission spectra of PES fabrics loaded of with TiO2 nanoparticles D. Mihailovic et al., Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 79, 2010, pg. 526– 532
    23. 23.  Particle-embedded acrylic coatings transparent to visible light but absorb UVR  UV absorption behavior of nano- and micron size particles  Thick coatings of 10 μm and 20 μm applied to Kevlar fabrics
    24. 24. Absorption spectra from various size TiO2 particles P. Katangur et al., Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 91, 2006, pg. 2437 – 2442
    25. 25.  Cotton, Polyester, Cotton/Polyester Blend – Coated with ZnO – Gamma Irradiation for curing  UPF increased with an increase in the concentration of the UV absorber M. H. Zohdy et al., European Polymer Journal, Vol. 45, 2009, pg. 2926–2934
    26. 26. SEM micrographs of (a) uncoated polyester fabrics (b) ZnO coated polyester SEM micrographs of (a) untreated Cotton fabrics (b) Alum/ZnO coated fabric
    27. 27. UPF &UV transmittance of coated PET fabrics UPF & UV transmittance of coated cotton fabrics
    28. 28.  Large surface area – better UV absorption  Transparent appearance on coatings  Applied using different techniques  Reasonable wash fastness  Can be used to produce multifunctional components
    29. 29.  Richard A. Scott, “Textiles for Protection,” Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2005.  D. Saravanan, AUTEX Research Journal, Vol. 7, No 1, March 2007.  Hoffmann et al., Arch Dermatol, Vol. 137, August 2001.  Karthivelu et al., Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research, Vol. 34, September 2009, pg. 267-273.  Mao et al., Thin Solid Films, Vol. 517, 2009, pg. 2681–2686.  J. F. Lima et al., Applied Surface Science, Vol. 255, 2009, pg. 9006–9009.  S. Lee, Fibers and Polymers, Vol.10, No.3, 2009, pg. 295-301.  D. Mihailovic et al., Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 79, 2010, pg. 526–532.  P. Katangur et al., Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 91, 2006, pg. 2437 - 2442.  H. Zhang et al., Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 94, 2009, pg. 278–283.  M. H. Zohdy et al., European Polymer Journal, Vol. 45, 2009, pg. 2926–2934.  www.wikipedia.org  Fernando et al., Nanotechnology Applications in Coatings, ACS Symposium Series, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 2009.  M. D. Newman et al., Journal of American Academy of Dermatology, October 2009.

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