Visual Dictionary - Mortar


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Visual Dictionary - Mortar

  1. 1. Visual Dictionary<br />By: Mortar<br />
  2. 2. Air Barrier Paper<br />The objective of the Air Barrier Paper is to prevent air infiltration and act as a water barrier.<br />This is preventing water from rotting the wood sheathing on the wall.<br />
  3. 3. Attic Ventilation<br />Soffit Vent – An opening under the eave of a roof, used to allow air flow into the attic<br />
  4. 4. Attic Ventilation (cont.)<br />Ridge Vent – A long open assembly that allows air to circulate in and out of a roof at the ridge<br />
  5. 5. Attic Ventilation (cont.)<br />Gable Vent – An opening in a gable, used for exhausting excess heat and humidity from an attic.<br />
  6. 6. Attic Ventilation (cont.)<br />Roof Turbine – a ventilation system that acts as a fan, circulating air through the attic<br />
  7. 7. Back Hoe<br />An excavator that consist of a bucket attached to a hinged arm on the back of the machine.<br />This is used to move earth,<br />Rubble, or other material;<br />Especially where more precise digging is required <br />This bucket was 18’’ wide<br />
  8. 8. Batter Boards<br />Temporary wooden frames built outside the corners of an excavation, to outline the excavation to take place.<br />
  9. 9. Brick Arches<br />Parabolic Arch<br />Roman Arch<br />
  10. 10. Brick Arches (cont.)<br />Arch with Keystone<br />Centering - Temporary formwork used for laying brick arches<br />
  11. 11. Brick Bonds<br />Stretcher bond – bricks are laid in overlapping rows of stretchers.<br />Flemish Bond – the courses alternate between headers and stretchers<br />
  12. 12. Brick Bonds (cont)<br />Header<br />Soldier<br />
  13. 13. Brick Bonds (cont.)<br />Rowlocks<br />Shiners<br />
  14. 14. Brick Bonds (cont.)<br />Sailors<br />
  15. 15. Brick Sizes<br />Queen Size Brick<br />3 x 2 ¾ x 8<br />Modular Brick<br />3 ½ x 2 ¼ x 7 ½ <br />
  16. 16. Bulldozer<br />A large, powerful tractor with a large vertical blade used for moving amounts of earth as well as tree stumps, rocks, etc.<br />
  17. 17. Cladding<br />Brick Cladding<br />EIFS Cladding<br />Stone Cladding<br />Coursed Rubble<br />
  18. 18. Cladding (cont.)<br />Wood Shakes<br />Wood Boards<br />Wood Shingles are cut with a saw rather than split like wood shakes are<br />
  19. 19. Code Requirements<br />IBC requires there to be a maximum sill height of 44 inches, and a minimum net opening size of 5.7 sq feet, or 5.0 sq feet if the opening is not more than 44 inches above or below the finish grade. Not less than 20’’ wide and 24’’ high.<br />Actual:<br /> Sill Height – 20 inches<br /> Width – 41 inches<br /> Height – 59 inches<br /> Net opening size – 7.8 ft²<br />Yes this window meets the egress codes<br />
  20. 20. Code Requirements (cont.)<br />The IBC requires that there is a minimum 10 inch tread depth and maximum 7-3/4 inch, minimum 4 inch riser.<br />Actual <br /> Tread Depth – 12 inches<br /> Riser – 7 inches<br />Yes these meet the IBC codes for stairs<br />
  21. 21. Concrete Joints<br />Control Joint – A pre-weakened line carved in the concrete, so that when the concrete expands and compresses, it will not crack.<br />Sidewalk Isolated from CMU wall<br />Cracked control joint<br />Isolation Joint – A joint between a concrete slab and another stationary item, to allow for the concrete’s expansion and contraction.<br />
  22. 22. Concrete Masonry Units (CMU)<br />A block of hardened concrete designed to be laid in the same manner as brick or stone<br />Can be made with or without holes.<br />Typically 8” high and 16” long.<br />4’’ CMU<br />16’’ CMU<br />
  23. 23. Decorative CMU<br />Split Block<br />
  24. 24. Doors<br />Flush Door<br />Top Rail<br />Panel<br />Stile<br />Lock Rail<br />6 Panel Door<br />Bottom Rail<br />
  25. 25. Doors (cont.)<br />Transom – A small window directly above a door<br />Sidelight - A narrow window directly on the side of a door<br />
  26. 26. Electrical Components<br />Power pole with transformer box -Used to bring power to a building or house and to reduce current to a usable voltage for service head <br />Service Head – Used to bring power into a building<br />
  27. 27. Electrical Components (cont.)<br />Meter - Used by the power company to obtain a readout of the amount of electricity used <br />
  28. 28. Electrical Components (cont.)<br />Duplex Receptacle - Used to plug electrical appliances into current source <br />Service Panel - Contains breakers that regulate safe current flow and distribute power to receptacles and duplexes in the house <br />
  29. 29. Framing Elements<br />1) Anchor Bolt<br />2) Sill Plate<br />
  30. 30. Framing Elements (cont.)<br />3) Floor Joist<br />
  31. 31. Framing Elements (cont.)<br />4) Subflooring<br />
  32. 32. Framing Elements (cont.)<br />5) Sole Plate<br />6) Stud<br />7) Top Plate<br />8) Ceiling Joist<br />
  33. 33. Framing Elements (cont.)<br />9) Rafter<br />10) Roof Decking<br />11) Sheathing<br />
  34. 34. Framing Elements (cont.)<br />12) Stringer<br />
  35. 35. Front End Loader<br />Excavators that are used mainly for uploading materials into trucks, laying pipes, clearing rubble, and digging<br />It cannot dig very low like a backhoe can, and cannot push with as much force as a bulldozer.<br />
  36. 36. Gypsum Board<br />Gypsum Board is a wall finish, in a board form made out of 2 sheets of paper filled with gypsum. It is then nailed to studs in a building to give the wall a finished look.<br />
  37. 37. Heat Pump<br />Compressor/ Evaporator<br />Compressor/Evaporator – Moves hot or cold air from outside and moves it inside<br />Air Handling Unit - Internal unit that further moves and continues to heat or cool the air<br />Advantages: It can both heat and cool interior spaces very effectively<br />Disadvantages: Relatively noisy compared to other heating/cooling systems. Also, it is rather difficult to zone.<br />Air Handling Unit<br />
  38. 38. Insulation<br />Insulation lowers the heating and cooling costs of the house by limiting heat transfer through the walls and ceiling.<br />Batt Insulation<br />Loose Fill Insulation<br />
  39. 39. Insulation (cont.)<br />Foam Insulation<br />Rigid Board Insulation<br />
  40. 40. Lintel<br />A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening.<br />Steel Angle Lintel<br />
  41. 41. Mortar<br />Flush Joint<br />Tooled<br />3/8 inch<br />Used on stairs<br />Type S Mortar<br />Concave Joint <br />Tooled<br />½ inch<br />Used on School<br />Type S Mortar<br />
  42. 42. Oriented Strand Board<br />This is a non-veneered panel product made from strands of wood arranged in specific orientations. <br />The strands are compressed and glued into 3-5 layers.<br />
  43. 43. Plumbing<br />Lavatory<br />1.5 Inch Pipe<br />Water Closet<br />3 Inch Pipe<br />
  44. 44. Plumbing (cont)<br />Bathtub without gypsum Installed<br />
  45. 45. Plumbing (cont.)<br />When air travels down a pipe, it displaces air. Air vents allow this air somewhere to relocate to <br />Plumbing Vent<br />
  46. 46. Plumbing (cont.)<br />This is a picture of a Drop-In Sink<br />
  47. 47. Plywood<br />Plywood is a type of engineered board Made from thin sheets of wood or veneers glued together.<br />Veneer – thin slices of wood usually thinner than 3mm <br />
  48. 48. Radiant Barrier<br />Radiant Barrier- reflective barriers inhibit heat transfer by thermal radiation. Thermal energy may also be transferred via conduction or convection, however, radiant barriers do not necessarily protect against heat transfer via conduction or convection. <br />
  49. 49. Rebar<br />½ inch #4 rebar<br />The grooves are formed to create friction between the bar and the concrete it is installed in. This increases the overall strength of the concrete<br />
  50. 50. Steep Roof Drainage<br />A gutter is a narrow channel, or trough, forming the component of a roof system which collects and diverts rainwater shed by the roof.<br />
  51. 51. Steep Roof Drainage (cont.)<br />A downspout takes the water from the gutter to the ground, running it away from the building<br />
  52. 52. Steep Roof Drainage (cont.)<br />A splashblock is a concrete structure that directs water from a downspout away from the building<br />
  53. 53. Steep Roof Materials<br />Underlayment provides a second layer of protection for the roofing. It is installed first and helps with the shingles to keep moisture out. It is necessary for roofing manufacturers’ warranties.<br />
  54. 54. Steep Roof Materials (cont.)<br /> Clay Tile Roof<br />
  55. 55. Steep Roof Materials (cont.)<br />A shingle is a roof covering that consists of individual overlapping elements that are normally flat rectangular shapes that are laid in rows without the side edges overlapping. A single layer is used to ensure a water-resistant result. Shingles are laid from the bottom to the top.<br />Metal Panel Roof – usually made from galvanized steel or aluminum<br />
  56. 56. Steep Roof Materials (cont.)<br />Wood Shake Roof<br />
  57. 57. Steep Roof Shapes<br />Mansard<br />Gable<br />
  58. 58. Steep Roof Shapes (cont.)<br />Gambrel Roof<br />Hip Roof<br />
  59. 59. Steep Roof Terms<br />Ridge – the point at the top of the roof where the sides meet<br />Valley – part of an area that protrudes from a portion of the structure that directs rain downwards<br />
  60. 60. Steep Roof Terms (cont.)<br />Eave – the trim of the sloping roof <br />Rake – the front portion of a gabled roof<br />
  61. 61. Steep Roof Terms (cont.)<br />Fascia – the area above the soffit that faces the viewer<br />Soffit – area underneath the fascia <br />
  62. 62. Steep Roof Terms <br />A building without a fascia lacks the area above the soffit that faces a viewer<br />
  63. 63. Stone<br />Coursed Rubble<br />Random Rubble<br />
  64. 64. Stone (cont)<br />Random Ashlar<br />Coursed Ashlar<br />
  65. 65. Vapor Retarder<br />A vapor retarder can be specially treated paper, thin plastic sheeting, or low permeance paint that prevents condensation of water vapor inside wall or ceiling materials. The trapped moisture has the potential of damaging the wallboard and paint as well as total structural deterioration. <br />The vapor retarder is most commonly put in southeastern climates warm in winter side.<br />
  66. 66. Waterproofing<br />
  67. 67. Weep Hole<br />A hole in the mortar joints of a brick wall that allows any water that gets behind the masonry a place to escape between the bricks or stone, keeping moisture from staying behind the masonry<br />
  68. 68. Welded Wire Fabric<br />This is a 6”x6” grid pattern<br />
  69. 69. Windows<br />This is a single hung window because it has a bottom sash that can slide up and down, but a top sash that remains stationary<br />This is a casement window because it has a sash that rotates outward on its side from the exterior casing<br />
  70. 70. Windows (cont.)<br />This is a double hung window because it has two sashes that move parallel to each other<br />