Completed visual dictionary


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Completed visual dictionary

  1. 1. Sp10Concrete<br />BSCI 2400<br />April 25, 2010<br />Visual Dictionary<br />
  2. 2. Air Barrier Paper<br />A membrane that is applied over the sheathing in order to close up the joints and prevent air passage into the building. <br />
  3. 3. Attic Ventilation <br />Important for allowing water vapor and heat to escape the attic space.<br />Ridge Vent: a vent placed over the gap where the roof decking meets at the ridge<br />
  4. 4. Attic Ventilation Continued<br /><ul><li>Soffit Vent- allows air to come into the bottom of the attic so that the hot air can be pushed through the gable and ridge vents.</li></li></ul><li>Attic Ventilation Continued<br />Gable Vent- vent usually found on the upper portion of the house that allows heat and water vapor to escape<br />
  5. 5. Backhoe<br /><ul><li>Heavy machinery with a bucket used to dig footings for foundations and other excavation situations.
  6. 6. 2 ft. bucket width</li></li></ul><li>Batter Boards<br />Definition:<br />Boards used during the rough site work and excavation period to create the temporary outline of where the building will be constructed. <br />Helps ensure the building footings will be square and straight.<br />
  7. 7. Brick Arches<br />Radius Arch<br />
  8. 8. Brick Arches Continued<br />Jack Arch<br />
  9. 9. Brick Arches Continued<br /><ul><li>Arch with a Keystone:
  10. 10. Centering: the formwork used to support the arch during construction</li></li></ul><li>Brick Bonds<br /><ul><li>Running Bond- All stretchers, each course offset by half a brick
  11. 11. Flemish bond- stretcher and header alternate during course</li></li></ul><li>Brick Bonds Continued<br /><ul><li>Rowlocks
  12. 12. Headers</li></li></ul><li>Brick Bonds Continued<br /><ul><li>Soldiers
  13. 13. Stretcher Rowlocks</li></li></ul><li>Brick Bonds Continued<br /><ul><li>Sailors</li></li></ul><li>Brick Sizes<br />Standard Brick:<br />3½”X 2¼”X 8” <br />Utility Brick:<br />3½”X 3½” X 11 ½” <br />
  14. 14. Bulldozer<br /><ul><li>A piece of heavy equipment with a large blade on the front used to move large amounts of dirt around the site and set grade.</li></li></ul><li>Cladding<br />Brick<br />EIFS<br />
  15. 15. Cladding Continued<br />Wood Shingles<br />Shingles- sawn with smooth surface<br />Shakes- split and have rougher exterior <br />Stone<br />Random Rubble<br />
  16. 16. Cladding Continued<br /><ul><li>Wood Boards</li></li></ul><li>Code Requirements<br /><ul><li>Bedroom Window:
  17. 17. Minimum opening of 5.7 sq.ft.(only 5.0 if sill is less than 44” AFF)
  18. 18. Minimum opening width:20”
  19. 19. Minimum opening height: 24”
  20. 20. Actual Measurements: </li></ul>26 ¾” h X 29 ½” w=<br /> 5.48 sq.ft.<br />21” AFF <br />Window Meets Code<br />
  21. 21. Code Requirements Continued<br /><ul><li>Wood Stairs:
  22. 22. Code: Tread: 10” minimum</li></ul> Riser: 7 ¾” maximum <br /><ul><li>Actual:</li></ul> Tread: 11 ¾”<br /> Riser: 7 ¼”<br />Meets Requirements<br />
  23. 23. Concrete Joints<br /><ul><li>Control Joint- A groove cut into the concrete that is ¼ of the depth of the concrete slab
  24. 24. Purpose: To intentionally create a point of weakness in the concrete to better control where it will crack instead of allowing it to crack randomly.</li></li></ul><li>Concrete Joints Continued<br /><ul><li>Isolation Joint- Separates one slab of concrete from another slab, wall or column.</li></li></ul><li>Concrete Masonry Unit(CMU)<br /><ul><li>A block of hardened concrete with or without hollow cores that comes in many different sizes and be filled in with concrete for additional strength.
  25. 25. 1 CMU=3 Brick Courses
  26. 26. Standard Size(Nominal):</li></ul> 8” X 8” X 16”<br /><ul><li>Actual Size: </li></ul> 7 5/8” X 7 5/8” X 15 5/8”<br />
  27. 27. CMU Continued<br /><ul><li>4” Block
  28. 28. 12” Block</li></li></ul><li>Decorative CMU<br />Split Block<br />Ribbed Block<br />
  29. 29. Doors<br /><ul><li>Flush Door</li></li></ul><li>Doors<br /><ul><li>Panel Door:</li></ul>Panel<br />Stile<br />Top Rail<br />Lock Rail<br />Bottom Rail<br />
  30. 30. Doors<br /><ul><li>Transom: a small window directly above a door
  31. 31. Sidelight: a tall, narrow window alongside a door</li></li></ul><li>Electrical Components<br /><ul><li>Power Pole with Transformer- Steps voltage down to desired amount (110/220 Volts)
  32. 32. Service Head- Assembly by which electricity is conducted from outdoor lines to the meter base</li></li></ul><li>Electrical Components<br /><ul><li>Meter- Keeps track of the amount of electricity being used.
  33. 33. Service Panel- Contains the main disconnect and circuit breakers</li></li></ul><li>Electrical Components<br /><ul><li>Duplex Receptacle: Used for plugging in household items such as lamps, phone, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Framing Elements<br />Anchor Bolts<br />Sill Plate <br />Floor Joists<br />
  34. 34. Framing Elements<br />4. Subflooring<br />5. Sole Plate<br />6. Stud<br />7. Top Plate<br />
  35. 35. Framing Elements<br />8. Ceiling Joists<br />9. Rafters<br />10. Roof Decking<br />11. Sheathing<br />
  36. 36. Front End Loader<br /><ul><li>Piece of heavy machinery used for transporting large amounts of soil or dirt from different points on the site or for loading dump trucks for the removal of the dirt from the site. </li></li></ul><li>Gypsum Board<br /><ul><li>An interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core between two paper faces.
  37. 37. Usually sanded and painted
  38. 38. Also known as “dry wall”</li></li></ul><li>Heat Pump<br /><ul><li>Compressor/Evaporator: Compresses gases which gives off heat. The air cools as it blows across the cooling coils in the air handler
  39. 39. Advantage: Highly efficient in mild climates
  40. 40. Disadvantage: May need additional heating source in areas with very cold climates. Not used as much up north.
  41. 41. Air handling unit: forces air through a duct system with a strong fan</li></li></ul><li>InsulationPurpose: to reduce the heat flow through the assembly of a building<br />Batt/Blanket- rolls or sheets of insulation easily installed between the studs in walls<br />Loose Fill- fiberglass insulation blown into place between ceiling joists in attics<br />
  42. 42. Insulation<br />Foamed- a mixture of two chemicals that react to form very affective insulation that also completely fills in cracks.<br />Rigid Board- comes in 4’X8’ sheets and is used as exterior sheathing for basement walls<br />
  43. 43. Lintel<br /><ul><li>A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or opening
  44. 44. Steel lintel</li></li></ul><li>Mortar<br /><ul><li>Flush Joint:
  45. 45. Troweled
  46. 46. 3/8” Joint
  47. 47. Engineering Building
  48. 48. Most likely Type S(Medium High Strength) Mortar</li></li></ul><li>Mortar Continued<br /><ul><li>Raked Joint:
  49. 49. Tooled
  50. 50. 5/8” Joint
  51. 51. Residential Building
  52. 52. Type N Mortar</li></li></ul><li>Oriented Strand Board(OSB)<br /><ul><li>A nonveneered building panel composed of long sheets of wood fiber oriented in specific directions and bonded together under pressure.</li></li></ul><li>Plumbing<br />Lavatory<br />Typical 1 ½” Drain Piping<br />Water Closet<br />Typical 3” Drain/Waste Pipe<br />
  53. 53. Plumbing<br />Plumbing Vent<br />Plumbing Vent: allows the plumbing system to drain by letting air in and eliminating the vacuum affect a closed drain would create<br />
  54. 54. Plumbing<br /><ul><li>Manufactured Shower/Tub </li></li></ul><li>Plumbing<br /><ul><li>Drop-In Sink</li></li></ul><li>Plywood<br /><ul><li>A wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer bonded together under pressure.
  55. 55. Veneer- A thin layer, sheet, or facing.</li></li></ul><li>Radiant Barrier<br /><ul><li>A reflective foil placed adjacent to an airspace in the roof or wall to prevent the passage of infrared energy by reflecting it back.</li></li></ul><li>Rebar<br /><ul><li>The deformations found on the rebar helps the concrete bond to the rebar for better support.
  56. 56. Size: #4 Rebar (1/2”)</li></li></ul><li>Steep Roof Drainage<br /><ul><li>Gutter- a channel that collects rainwater and snowmelt at the eave of the roof</li></li></ul><li>Steep Roof Drainage<br /><ul><li>Downspout- a vertical pipe for conducting water from the roof to a lower level</li></li></ul><li>Steep Roof Drainage<br /><ul><li>Splashblock-A small precast block of concrete or plastic used to divert water at the bottom of a downspout and prevent ground erosion.</li></li></ul><li>Steep Roof Materials<br /><ul><li>Underlayment- Layer of waterproof materials that protects the sheathing from getting wet until the roofing can be applied.
  57. 57. Also called building felt.</li></li></ul><li>Steep Roof Materials<br />Clay Tile Roof<br />
  58. 58. Steep Roof Materials<br /><ul><li>Shingles- Small units applied in overlapping layers with staggered vertical joints. Allows for expansion and contraction and vent water vapor easily
  59. 59. Type- Wood Shakes</li></li></ul><li>Steep Roof Materials<br /><ul><li>Metal Roof:
  60. 60. Common materials- copper, aluminum, tin. </li></li></ul><li>Steep Roof Shapes<br /><ul><li> Gambrel
  61. 61. Gable</li></li></ul><li>Steep Roof Shapes<br /><ul><li>Hip
  62. 62. Mansard</li></li></ul><li>Steep Roof Terms<br /><ul><li>Ridge-top of roof where edges meet
  63. 63. Valley-where two slopes come together
  64. 64. Eave-lowest horizontal line
  65. 65. Fascia- exposed vertical face of the eave
  66. 66. Soffit- the underside of the roofing overhang
  67. 67. Rake- a fascia on a slope</li></li></ul><li>Steep Roof Terms<br /><ul><li>Building without a fascia:</li></li></ul><li>Stone<br />Random Rubble<br />Coursed Rubble<br />
  68. 68. Stone<br />Random Ashlar<br />Coursed Ashlar<br />
  69. 69. Vapor Retarder<br /><ul><li>A layer of material intended to obstruct the passage of water vapor through a building assembly.
  70. 70. Usually placed on inside of the building.</li></li></ul><li>Waterproofing<br /><ul><li>An impervious membrane applied to the outside of the foundation to prevent water passage.
  71. 71. Fully Adhered</li></li></ul><li>Weep Hole<br /><ul><li>A small opening with the purpose of permitting the drainage of water that accumulates inside a building assembly. </li></li></ul><li>Welded Wire Fabric<br /><ul><li> Laid inside form work prior to pouring concrete to provide better support for the concrete. Helps prevent cracking and separating during periods of freezing and thawing.
  72. 72. Supported by high chairs.
  73. 73. 6” X 6” grid</li></li></ul><li>Windows<br />Sliding Window- unlike hung and double-hung windows that move in the vertical direction, sliding windows open and close in the horizontal direction.<br />
  74. 74. Windows<br /><ul><li>Out-swinging Casement Window- hinged along the vertical edge of the window</li></li></ul><li>Windows<br /><ul><li>Single-Hung Window: only the bottom sash can be opened and closed</li>