Visual Dictionary - Porosity

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Visual Dictionary - Porosity

  1. 1. Visual Dictionary <br />Porosity<br />
  2. 2. Air Barrier Paper<br />Air barriers retard the flow of air but do not stop the air completely. They also function to prevent the passage of water through the wall. In this case, the air barrier paper is located behind the brick to stop moisture and air from penetrating the exterior walls of the building.<br />
  3. 3. Attic Ventilation<br /><ul><li>Soffit Vent- An opening under the eave of a roof, used to allow air flow into the attic or the space below the roof sheathing.
  4. 4. Ridge Vent- Passive air-exhaust unit located along the ridge of a sloping roof to exhaust attic air.
  5. 5. Gable Vent- Passive exhaust ventilation unit located high on the gable end, used to exhaust attic air.
  6. 6. Roof Turbine- Pulls and exhausts moist, hot air from attic</li></ul>Pictures on Next Page<br />
  7. 7. Attic Ventilation Pictures<br />Soffit Vent<br />Roof Turbine<br />Ridge Vent<br />Gable Vent<br />
  8. 8. Backhoe<br /><ul><li> A piece of excavating equipment consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm usually used for digging footings, trenches, etc.</li></ul>Width of bucket – 22”<br />
  9. 9. Batter Boards<br /><ul><li>A temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation to carry marks that lie on the surface planes of the basement that will be built in the excavation.
  10. 10. Used to locate the precise location of the building.</li></li></ul><li>Brick Arches<br /> Tudor<br /> Roman<br />Arch with a Keystone<br />Centering – temporary formwork used to support arches during construction<br />
  11. 11. Brick Bonds<br />Common Bond<br />A couple of rows of stretchers with a row of headers <br />Running Bond<br /> Wall made entirely of stretchers<br />
  12. 12. Brick Bonds Cont.<br />Rowlock<br />Header<br />Soldiers<br />Sailors<br />Stretcher Rowlock<br />
  13. 13. Brick Sizes<br />Modular Brick - 3 ½” x 2 ¼” x 7 ½” <br />Engineer Norman – 3 ½” x 2 ¾” x 11 ½”<br />
  14. 14. Bulldozer<br />A crawler, equipped with a substantial metal plate, used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, etc., during construction work. <br />
  15. 15. Cladding<br />Brick Clad Structure<br />Stone Clad Structure<br />EIFS Clad Structure<br />Cont. on Next Page<br />
  16. 16. Cladding Cont.<br />Wood Board Clad Structure<br /> Wood Shingle/ Shake<br />Wood Shingles are sawn and smooth, Wood Shakes and split and usually not smooth. These appeared to be wood shingles.<br />
  17. 17. Code Requirements<br />Code: Max sill height of 44” above the floor and a min net opening of 5.7 sq ft<br />It is up to code because it is larger than 5.7 sq. ft.<br />2’6” wide. 3’1” height.<br />Area = 7’7”. 12” sill AFF.<br /> Risers 7 ¼” Tread 11 ¼” <br />Code: Min 10” tread & Max 7 ¾” risers<br />The Stairs meet the IBC because the risers and tread are within the range of the code <br />
  18. 18. Concrete Joints<br />An intentional, linear discontinuity in a structure or component, designed to form a plane of weakness where cracking can occur in response to various forces sp as to minimize or eliminate cracking elsewhere in the structure. <br /><ul><li>Isolation Joint - A joint, such as an expansion joint, between two adjacent structures which are not in physical contact. </li></ul>Isolates Column from Slab<br />
  19. 19. Concrete Masonry Unit<br />1 CMU= 3 Brick Courses<br />block of hardened concrete, with or without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same manner as a brick or stone; a concrete block.<br />Nominal (Typical) CMU Dimensions-<br />8” X 8” X 16”<br />6” and 4”<br />
  20. 20. Decorative Concrete Masonry Units<br />Split Block<br />Ribbed Block<br />
  21. 21. Doors<br />Transom<br />Top Rail<br />Sidelight<br />Lock Rail<br />Panel<br />Bottom Rail<br />Stile<br />Transom- a small window directly above a door<br />Sidelights- a tall narrow window alongside a door<br />
  22. 22. Electrical Components<br />Transformer box- An electrical device that changes the voltage of alternating current. <br />Service Head- A fitting that is placed on the service drop end of service entrance cable and is designed to minimize the amount of moisture that can enter the cable. <br /><ul><li>Meter- A device that measures the amount of electrical energy supplied to or produced by a residence, business or machine.
  23. 23. Service Panel- Distributes electrical current to the various circuits within a home.
  24. 24. Duplex Receptacle- Duplex receptacles usually have break-away tabs to separate the top and bottom halves so that the two outlets can be placed on separate circuits.</li></ul>Pictures on Next Page<br />
  25. 25. Electrical Components<br /> Transformer Box<br /> Service Panel<br />Function – an electrical device that changes the voltage of alternating current<br />Service Head<br />Meter<br />Duplex Receptacle<br />
  26. 26. Framing Elements<br />Anchor Bolt<br />Sill Plate<br />Floor Joist<br />Subflooring<br />Sole Plate<br />Stud<br />Anchor Bolt<br />Sole and Sill Plate<br />Floor Joist<br />Stud<br />Subfloor<br />
  27. 27. Framing Elements<br />7. Top Plate<br />8. Ceiling Joist<br />9. Rafter<br />10. Roof Decking<br />11. Sheathing <br />12. Stringer<br />Roof Decking & Rafter<br />Ceiling Joist<br />Top Plate<br />Stringer<br />Sheathing<br />
  28. 28. Front End Loader<br />Primarily used to load material (asphalt, demolition debris, dirt, feed, gravel, logs, raw minerals, recycled material, rock, sand, wood chips, etc.) into or onto another type of machinery.<br /> Differs from a backhoe and bulldozer by only being able to “scoop” material into its bucket and dump it in another location, not dig holes or scrape off land.<br />
  29. 29. Gypsum Board<br />An interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces. <br />Drywall, Sheetrock, Plasterboard<br />
  30. 30. Heat Pump<br />Advantage – Heats house efficiently <br />Disadvantage - Difficult to zone because the furnace supplies air to the supply ducts at a single temperature <br />Compressor/ Condenser<br />- Forces air into the supply duct to move over a heating or cooling coil<br />Air Handling Unit<br />- Cleans and dehumidifies internal air and redistributes the air into the house<br />
  31. 31. Insulation<br />Purpose – used to reduce heat flow in OR out of a building<br />Foam Insulation<br />Batt Insulation<br />Loose Fill Insulation<br />Rigid Board Insulation<br />
  32. 32. Lintel<br />A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening <br /> Steel Lintel<br />
  33. 33. Oriented Strand Board<br />OSB is an engineered, non-veneered wood product formed by layering strands or flakes of wood in specific orientations.<br />It is manufactured in wide mats from “cross-oriented” layers of thin, rectangular wooden strips compressed and bonded together with wax and resin adhesives.<br />
  34. 34. Plumbing 1<br />Lavatory<br />1 ½” drain piping <br />Water Closet<br />3” piping<br />Manufactured Tub<br />
  35. 35. Plumbing 2<br />The VTR provides relief of sewer gases, admission of oxygen for aerobic sewage digestion, and maintenance of the trap water seals which prevent sewer gases from entering the building. <br />Plumbing Roof Vent<br />Drop-in Sink<br />
  36. 36. Plywood<br />Layers of chipped wood are glued together, each with its grain at right angles to adjacent layers for greater strength. There are usually an odd number of plies, as the symmetry makes the board less prone to warping, and the grain on the outside surfaces runs in the same direction. The plies are bonded under heat and pressure.<br />Veneer- A thin layer of wood or other material for facing or inlaying wood.<br />
  37. 37. Radiant Barrier<br />A reflective foil placed adjacent to a airspace in roof or wall assemblies as a deterrent to the passage of infrared energy<br />
  38. 38. Rebar<br />The deformation in the rebar help it to bond tightly to concrete <br />This rebar was a #4 because its 4/8 or ½ inch thick<br />
  39. 39. Steep Roof Drainage<br />Gutter- a narrow channel forming the component of a roof system which collects and diverts rainwater shed by the roof. A gutter’s purpose is to protect a building&apos;s foundation by channeling water away from its base.<br />Downspout- A pipe for carrying rain water from a roof or gutter to the ground or to a drain. <br />Splash-block- A small masonry block laid with the top close to the ground surface to receive roof drainage from downspouts and to carry it away from the building.<br />Pictures on Next Page <br />
  40. 40. Steep Roof Drainage<br />Gutter<br />Splash-Block<br />Downspout<br />
  41. 41. Steep Roof Materials<br />Underlayment – layer of waterproof material used between roof sheathing and roofing, temporary protection of OSB sheathing before roofing is applied <br />Shingle – A building material used as siding or roofing<br />Metal Roof – Roof material that is prefabricated and ready to be set on-site. Galvanized Steel is usually used.<br /> Underlayment<br />Wood Shingle Roof<br />Clay Tile Roof<br />Metal Panel Roof<br />
  42. 42. Steep Roof Shapes<br />Gable Roof<br />Mansard Roof<br />Hip Roof<br />Gambrel Roof<br />
  43. 43. Steep Roof Terms 1<br />Soffit – underside of roof overhang<br />Eave – the horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roof<br />Rake – Sloping edge of a roof<br />Fascia – exposed vertical face of an eave<br />Ridge – level intersection of two roof planes in a gable roof<br />Valley – trough formed by two roof slopes<br />Building without a Fascia – building without exposed vertical face of an eave<br />
  44. 44. Steep Roof Terms 2<br />Fascia<br />Ridge<br />Valley<br />
  45. 45. Steep Roof Terms 3<br />Rake<br />Soffit<br />Eave<br />Building without Fascia<br />
  46. 46. Stone<br />Random Rubble Pattern<br />Coursed Rubble Pattern<br />Random Coursed Pattern<br /> Coursed Ashlar Pattern<br />
  47. 47. Vapor Retarder<br />Vapor retarder is a layer of material intended to obstruct the passage of water vapor through a building assembly. Installed on the warm-in-winter side of a structure<br />
  48. 48. Waterproofing<br />This form of waterproofing is liquid applied<br />Waterproofing protects the wall from water seeping in<br />
  49. 49. Weep Hole<br />A weep hole is a small opening left in the outer wall of masonry construction as an outlet for water inside a building to move outside the wall and evaporate. <br />
  50. 50. Windows<br />Single-hung<br />Sliding<br />Casement<br />Single-hung Window because it’s a window with 2 overlapping sashes, the lower can slide vertically in its track and upper is fixed<br />Sliding Window because its a window with 1 fixed sash, and another that moves horizontally<br />Casement because its a window with a hinged sash that swings in or out like a door comprising either a side-hung, top-hung or occasionally bottom-hung sash or a combination of these types, sometimes with fixed panels on one or more sides of the sash. Usually these windows are operated by a crank. <br />

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