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Visual Dictionary


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Visual Dictionary

  1. 1. VISUAL DICTIONARY<br />Vitreous<br />
  2. 2. Air Barrier Paper<br />A solid material, much life a permeable plastic, that is applied continuously over a building to help block airflow and outside forces that act upon a structure.<br />
  3. 3. Attic Ventilation<br />Attic Ventilation is used to keep attics cold in the winter by blocking the entry of heat and moist air. During the summer, it helps to move hot air out of the attic.<br />1.)Soffit Vent<br />
  4. 4. Attic Ventilation<br />2.) Ridge Vent- Helps to provide evenly distributed ventilation to the underside of the roof.<br />3.) Gable Vent- Provides ventilation by allowing heat to escape in the summer months and prevent condensation in the winter.<br />
  5. 5. Attic Ventilation<br />4.) Roof Turbine- A passive ventilation system that removes air from the attic.<br />
  6. 6. Backhoe<br />A piece of machinery that is used for digging on construction sites. The width of the bucket on this particular backhoe is 18 inches, or 1 and a half feet.<br />
  7. 7. Batter boards<br />Boards that are set horizontally on stakes place in the ground to outline the perimeter of the building and the desired level of the foundation walls.<br />
  8. 8. Brick Arches<br />Segmental Arch<br />
  9. 9. Brick Arches<br />Rowlock Arch<br />
  10. 10. Brick Arches<br />Arch (Jack) with keystone<br />
  11. 11. Brick Arches<br />Centering- temporary bracing used to support an arch until the arch becomes self-supporting.<br />
  12. 12. Brick Bonds<br />Stretcher- Rows of alternating stretchers<br />Common-rows of alternating stretchers, with header rows every 6th row<br />
  13. 13. Brick Bonds<br />1.) Rowlock<br /> 2.)Header<br /> 3.)Stretcher<br /> 4.)Soldiers<br />
  14. 14. Brick Bonds<br />5.) Sailor<br />
  15. 15. Brick Sizes<br />Modular Brick: 3 5/8”x 2 1/4”x 7 5/8”<br />Utility Brick: <br /> 3 5/8”x 3 5/8”x 11 ½”<br />
  16. 16. Bulldozer<br />A tractor-like piece of equipment that has a metal piece of equipment attached to the front that can push large amounts of soil and dirt.<br />
  17. 17. Cladding<br />Brick Clad Structure<br />EFIS Clad Structure<br />
  18. 18. Cladding<br />Stone clad structure- random ashlar pattern<br />Wood Board Clad Structure<br />
  19. 19. Cladding<br />Wood shingle- Sawn wood that is uniform and doesn’t need hand dress.<br />Wood shake- Pieces of pine usually that are split instead of sawn like typical shingles.<br />
  20. 20. Code Requirements<br />Measurements: Width- 33”, Height- 26”, Area- 5.98 sq ft, Sill height- 24” <br />IBC Requirements: Width- 20” minimum, Height- 24” minimum, Area- 5.7 sq ft minimum, Sill Height- 24” minimum<br />The window meets the IBC requirements for an egress window.<br />
  21. 21. Code Requirements<br />Measurements: Tread- 12”, Riser- 7”<br />IBC Requirements: Tread- 11” minimum, Riser- 7 ¾” maximum<br />The stairs meet the IBC requirements.<br />
  22. 22. Concrete Joints<br />Isolation joint- An isolation joint is a joint that has the purpose of isolating the slab from something else, whether it be from a column or a wall.<br />Isolation joint- isolating slab from wall<br />
  23. 23. Concrete Joints<br />Control Joint- a groove cut into the surface of concrete to allow some cracking in the concrete that wont be easily visible.<br />
  24. 24. Concrete Masonry Unit<br />CMU are large concrete brick blocks. They are made up of portland cement and aggregates, usually sand or fine gravel. The typical dimensions of a block are 8in x 8in x 16in.<br />
  25. 25. CMU<br />Different sized CMU<br />
  26. 26. Decorative CMU<br />Split Block<br />Ribbed Block<br />
  27. 27. Doors<br />Exterior Flush door<br />
  28. 28. Doors<br />Exterior Panel Door<br />Panel<br />Stile<br />Top Rail<br />Lock Rail<br />Bottom Rail<br />
  29. 29. Doors<br />Transom- horizontal crosspiece that is used to separate a door from the windows directly above it<br />
  30. 30. Doors<br />Sidelight- windows that vertically surround a door<br />
  31. 31. Electrical Components<br />Transformer:<br />Reduces the voltage from the power lines down to a voltage that is usable by homes<br />Service Head:<br />The entry point of the power line into the home<br />Meter:<br />Measures how much electricity is being used<br />
  32. 32. Electical Components<br />Service Panel:<br />Distributes the incoming power throughout the house and provides a point for overload protection and isolation for each circuit.<br />Duplex Receptacle:<br />A dual outlet for electrical devices to gain access to electricity.<br />
  33. 33. Framing Elements<br />#2- Sill Plate<br />#1- Anchor Bolt<br />
  34. 34. Framing Elements<br />#4- Subflooring<br />#3- Floor Joist<br />
  35. 35. Framing Elements<br />#5- Sole plate<br />#6- Stud<br />
  36. 36. Framing Elements<br />#8- Ceiling Joist<br />#7- Top Plate<br />
  37. 37. Framing Elements<br />#10- Roof Decking<br />#9- Rafter<br />
  38. 38. Framing Elements<br />#12- Stringer<br />#11- Sheathing<br />
  39. 39. Front End Loader<br />A piece of equipment used to load loose material and move from one place to another or load onto another piece of machinery.<br />
  40. 40. Gypsum Board<br />Board with a gypsum plaster core bonded to layers of paper, used to cover walls.<br />
  41. 41. Heat Pump<br />1.)Compressor/Evaporator: The compressor reduces the pressure of the gas<br />2.)Air Handling Unit- A system used to regulate and circulate air as part of the HVAC system.<br />Advantage of a heat pump: Heat pumps save energy by multiplying the amount of heat energy it takes in, which saves on the energy bill.<br />Disadvantage of a heat pump: High upfront cost<br />
  42. 42. Insulation<br />The purpose of insulation is to regulates the flow of heat into a house or room. Insulation is rated by R-flow. The higher the R-flow, the more insulate a house is.<br />1.)Batt/Blanket- precut pieces of insulation that usually have an R-factor of 3.1 to 4.2.<br />2.)Loose Fill- small pieces of insulation that are blown in to create a seamless blanket. It has a R-factor of 2.3 to 2.8 usually.<br />
  43. 43. Insulation<br />Foamed Insulation- used as an insulating and air-sealing product for wall cavities. Spray foam expands to reach all cracks and air spaces. It has a high R-rating.<br />
  44. 44. Insulation<br />Rigid Board Insulation- Regulates flow of heat into structure. It has an R-value of 4 usually.<br />
  45. 45. Lintel<br />The purpose of a lintel is to support the weight of the wall above an opening, such as a vent or window. It acts as a support beam and disperses the loads to either side of the opening.<br />Concrete Lintel<br />
  46. 46. Mortar<br />Mortar 1: Tooled,<br />Size is 3/8 inch<br />It is used on a retaining wall for a garden.<br />Type of mortar is N, which is typically used for garden walls.<br />Mortar 2: Tooled<br />Size is 3/8 inch<br />It is used on a brick clad building<br />Type of mortar is M, which is used for heavy bearing walls.<br />
  47. 47. Oriented Strand Board<br />A non-veneered panel product that is made by layering pieces of wood unevenly onto each other. It is manufactured from rectangular strips of wood compressed and bonded with wax and resin adhesive.<br />
  48. 48. Plumbing<br />Water Closet- state size piping used to drain is 3”<br />Lavatory- state size piping used to drain is 1 ½ “<br />
  49. 49. Plumbing<br />The plumbing vent releses sewer gases into the air out of the house and helps equalize pressure in the plumbing pipes.<br />
  50. 50. Plumbing<br />Drop in kitchen sink<br />
  51. 51. Plywood<br />Plywood is an engineered wood that is made by gluing together pieces of wood veneers at alternate 90˚ angles to improve the strength.<br />Veneer- thin covering over a surface<br />
  52. 52. Radiant Barrier<br />Radiant barrier is a highly reflective material that reflects radiant heat rather than absorbing it.<br />
  53. 53. Rebar<br />The surface of the rebar is so that it binds mechanically to the concrete.<br />#4 size diameter<br />
  54. 54. Steep Roof Drainage<br />Gutter: A channel that runs around the perimeter of a roof of a builing to collect rainwater and divert it away from the building.<br />Downspout: A pipe that connects to the gutter and carries the water down to the ground and away from the house or structure.<br />
  55. 55. Steep Roof Drainage<br />Splashblock- Helps direct rainwater away from the foundation, which helps prevent erosion or the soil and prevent moisture problems around the foundation.<br />
  56. 56. Steep Roof Materials<br />Underlayment: Used to protect the roof sheathing and structure from moisture and outside forces.<br />Shingle: A roof covering element that is overlapped to ensure water resisting and an extra layer of covering for the roof.<br /> Metal Shingles<br />
  57. 57. Steep Roof Materials<br />Clay Tile Roof<br />
  58. 58. Steep Roof Materials<br />Metal Panel Roof- Aluminized steel<br />
  59. 59. Steep Roof Shapes<br />1.) Hip<br />2.)Gable<br />
  60. 60. Steep Roof Shapes<br />Gambrel Roof<br />
  61. 61. Steep Roof Terms<br />1.)Valley- formed where two roofs join at an angle<br />2.)Eave-the edge of a roof<br />3.)Ridge-horizontal line formed by the sloping members at the top of a roof<br />
  62. 62. Steep Roof Terms<br />2.)Rake- the inclined edge of a sloped roof over a wall<br />3.)Fascia- Any horizontal surface which goes across the top of a wall or structure<br />4.) Soffit- the shown undersurface of any exterior overhanging roof eave<br />
  63. 63. Steep Roof Terms<br />Roof without fascia- no overhang is present on this building. Fascia is any horizontal surface across the top of a wall or structure.<br />
  64. 64. Stone <br />Coursed Rubble Pattern<br />Random Rubble Pattern<br />
  65. 65. Stone<br />Random Ashlar Pattern<br />Coursed Ashlar<br />
  66. 66. Vapor Retarder<br />A material that slows down the transmission of water vapor under specified conditions.<br />
  67. 67. Waterproofing<br />Liquid applied waterproofing<br />The waterproofing helps stop water from entering the basement.<br />
  68. 68. Weep Hole<br />A small hole left in masonry to provide an outlet for water trapped between the building and masonry to move to the outside and evaporate.<br />
  69. 69. Welded Wire Fabric<br />The size of the WWF is 6 by 6-8 by 8. Welded wire fabric is a series of wires arranged at right angles and welded together. It is used as a primary reinforcement in concrete, because concrete is strong in compression, but weak in tension.<br />
  70. 70. Windows<br />Encasement Window- Window that swing outward by turning a handle or crank.<br />
  71. 71. Windows<br />Double Hung Window- Window with an upper and lower sash that slide vertically in separate grooves.<br />
  72. 72. Windows<br />Awning Window- A window that opens outward and is positioned horizontally.<br />