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5 barriers to communication-1


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5 barriers to communication-1

  1. 1. Barriers to Communication
  2. 2. Barriers to communication
  3. 3. Barriers to Communication <ul><li>In communication, as a psycho-semantic process, the word barrier implies , mainly something non-physical that keeps people apart or prevents activity, movement etc. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. social / ethnic / language barriers or lack of confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Negative forces may affect the effectiveness of communication by acting upon any or all of the basic elements of communication process </li></ul>
  4. 4. Barriers <ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of planning </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong / unclarified assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic problems (relating to words’ meaning) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-psychological barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Selective perception </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Information overloaded </li></ul><ul><li>Loss by transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Poor retention </li></ul><ul><li>Poor listening </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient period for adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Goal conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Offensive style </li></ul><ul><li>Time & distance </li></ul><ul><li>Abstracting </li></ul><ul><li>Inferring (conclude) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Barriers - sender <ul><li>Lack of planning </li></ul><ul><li>Vagueness about the “purpose” of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives to be achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of wrong language, resulting in badly encoded message </li></ul><ul><li>Unshared & unclarified assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Different perception of reality </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong choice of the channel </li></ul>
  6. 6. Barriers - Receiver <ul><li>Poor listener </li></ul><ul><li>Inattention </li></ul><ul><li>Mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Premature evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Bias / Lack of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Different perception of reality </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudinal clash with sender </li></ul><ul><li>Not in a fit physical state </li></ul>
  7. 7. Common barrier – both sender & receiver <ul><li>Absence of a common frame of reference affecting smooth interpretation of thoughts, feelings and attitudes from the sender to the receiver in a specific social situation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Noise <ul><li>Blaring of loud speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Poor telephone line </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty TV cable </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse weather conditions interfering transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty encoding </li></ul><ul><li>Inattention on the part of listener </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty decoding </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lack of Planning <ul><li>Not properly organized/composed </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted through a wrongly chosen medium </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong choice of time </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong choice of place </li></ul>
  10. 10. Wrong & unclarified assumptions <ul><li>All communications are made under some assumptions , which are never communicated </li></ul><ul><li>They may turn out wrong & cause communication failure </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. we often assume that others – </li></ul><ul><li>See the situation as we do </li></ul><ul><li>Should feel about the situation as we do </li></ul><ul><li>Think about the matter as we do </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the message as we understand it </li></ul><ul><li>All such assumptions may be incorrect. Hence one should try to verify whenever possible, It helps communication be effective </li></ul>
  11. 11. Semantic Problems <ul><li>The systematic study of transmission of meaning is semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Any problem arising from the expression/transmission of meaning are semantic problems/barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Not always necessary for the meaning in the mind of sender to be same as that in the mind of receiver </li></ul><ul><li>It is of vital importance for the sender to encode his message in such a way that receiver decodes it to get the intended meaning </li></ul><ul><li>One must aim at simplicity, clarity and brevity so as to minimize the chances of different interpretations. Use of jargons should also be avoided </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cultural Barriers <ul><li>Same category of words, phrases, symbols, actions, colors mean different things to people of different countries/cultural backgrounds </li></ul>
  13. 13. Emotions <ul><li>Encoding and decoding of messages depends to quite some extent on one’s emotional state at a particular time </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme emotions, like jubilation or depression, are likely to hinder effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>Anger is the worst enemy of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Message received when one is angry is likely to be interpreted in a very different manner than when one is calm and composed </li></ul><ul><li>Stress may also lead to building of negative emotions, further leading to communication breakdown </li></ul>
  14. 14. Selective Perception <ul><li>Receivers selectively see and hear depending upon their needs, motivations, background, experience and other personal characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>While decoding the messages they project their own interests and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Fact is we don’t see reality, we interpret what we see and call it reality </li></ul>
  15. 15. Filtering <ul><li>Sender manipulates information in such a way that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver </li></ul><ul><li>The more vertical levels in the hierarchical system, the more chances for filtering </li></ul>
  16. 16. Information Overload (Availability of huge amounts of data which the receiver is unable to handle effectively) <ul><li>Results-fatigue, disinterest and boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Very often relevant information gets mixed up with irrelevant details and therefore goes ignored by receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>Screening of information is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Messages should be directed only to those people who are likely to benefit from the information </li></ul><ul><li>Major points should be highlighted leaving out all irrelevant details </li></ul>
  17. 17. Loss by Transmission <ul><li>When messages pass on from person to person in a series of transmissions they are likely to become less and less accurate. They get diluted on the way </li></ul>
  18. 18. Poor Retention <ul><li>Necessity of repeating the message using several channels/media </li></ul>
  19. 19. Poor Listening <ul><li>Poor listening and hasty evaluation is a major problem </li></ul><ul><li>Reason is mostly people are too much involved in their own problems and pampering their own egos </li></ul><ul><li>We should keep our eyes, ears open, rise above our egos, empathize with others </li></ul>
  20. 20. Insufficient Period for Adjustment <ul><li>Change in shifts in time, transfer to another department, change in profile,… </li></ul><ul><li>People respond to change in different ways and require their own time to think about full meaning, implications and consequences of the message </li></ul>
  21. 21. Goal Conflicts <ul><li>Various units and sub units in an organization internalize their own goals, leading to splitting or bifurcation of interests </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts act as communication-reduction mechanism. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Offensive Style of Communication <ul><li>When a manager sends a message in such a way that the juniors become defensive he/she contributes to negative factor of poor interpersonal relationship. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Time & Distance <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>The frequency of communication encounters affects the human relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Different shifts/meeting at wrong time, phone call at wrong time affect the communication </li></ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty sitting arrangement at office may create communication gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Boss can minimize status difference between himself and his employees </li></ul>
  24. 24. Abstracting (conceptual, not concrete <ul><li>We use language to communicate our experiences and feelings but we can’t communicate every detail of it. </li></ul><ul><li>We abstract the reality and report only the valuable characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>We observe partially and communicate partially because our experience of the event is also partial </li></ul><ul><li>When we try to convert our observations and experiences into words, we further abstract it by using selective words which involve leaving out the details </li></ul>
  25. 25. Wrong Inferences <ul><li>More dramatic than facts and give scope for gossip </li></ul><ul><li>Inferences supported by facts are essential for professionals when they analyze material, solve problems and plan procedures </li></ul>
  26. 26. Socio - Psychological <ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness of one’s status affects 2-way flow of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Creates personal barriers caused by superior-subordinate relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Though 2-way vertical channel exists in every organization </li></ul><ul><li>Few subordinates choose to communicate with their superiors and vice versa </li></ul><ul><li>Though organizations are changing by adopting flat structures, psychological distance between superior – subordinate exists </li></ul>
  27. 27. Barriers – Socio - Psychological <ul><li>Perception* & reality </li></ul><ul><li>Human communication takes place in the world of reality which surrounds us – our sensory environment </li></ul><ul><li>Sense organs stimulated by signs (external) </li></ul><ul><li>Sense Perceptions received by our brain through our senses recreate within each one of us the world which exists within our mind as its content </li></ul><ul><li>2 aspects of same reality – </li></ul><ul><li>External which surrounds the communicator & </li></ul><ul><li>Internal – mental representation as seen / believed by the individual </li></ul><ul><li>(Insight, observation) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Barriers – Socio – Psychological <ul><li>5 sense organs – </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes – sight </li></ul><ul><li>Ears – sound </li></ul><ul><li>Nose – smell </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue – taste </li></ul><ul><li>Flesh – touch </li></ul><ul><li>Objects which excite the sense organs are called “signs” </li></ul><ul><li>Senses respond to signs - sensations - transported to the brain through the sensory nerve network </li></ul>
  29. 29. Barriers – Socio - Psychological <ul><li>Perceptions are mental images of external work stored in our brain – viewpoint, experience, knowledge, feelings & emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions constitute- </li></ul><ul><li>what we are </li></ul><ul><li>How we think </li></ul><ul><li>How we feel OR </li></ul><ul><li>How we respond to something </li></ul>
  30. 30. Barriers – Socio - Psychological <ul><li>These stored perceptions colour and modify whatever our brain receives from any signs or set of signs, fresh data, thoughts or messages. </li></ul><ul><li>These conditioning perceptions are called “filters” </li></ul><ul><li>The mind ‘filters’ the message received from the signs and gives it meaning according to individual perception </li></ul>
  31. 31. Barriers – Socio - Psychological <ul><li>An individuals filter is “ unique” </li></ul><ul><li>B’coz filters differ, different individuals respond to a sign (word, gesture etc) with different understanding and will assign a meaning according to his/her filter </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of a unique filter in each individual communicator and receiver causes the communication gap (distortion) in the message sent and message received </li></ul>
  32. 32. Barriers – Socio - Psychological <ul><li>Easy to remove gaps in face–to–face communication </li></ul><ul><li>Understand through listeners facial expression, body language gestures etc. or listener will express </li></ul><ul><li>In a written communication - audience is invisible –– semantic gap between intended meaning and interpreted meaning remains unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback does help but it may be too late </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic – relating to words’ meanings </li></ul>