History• What does the element’s name mean? – Its name came the compound in Latin ‘magnes’ which is used in glass-making.• Where was it discovered? – It was discovered by heating the mineral pyrolusite (MnO2) in the presence of charcoal• Who discovered it? – It was discovered by Swedish chemist Johan Gottlieb Gahn in 1774.
Properties• What is its state at room temperature? – Solid• What is its color? – Gray-white• What is its melting and boiling points? – Melting: 1247 °C – Boiling: 2061 °C• What is its density? – 7.43 g/cm3 at 20°C• Are any of these properties important in the• common uses of the element? – It is so brittle that it cannot be machined in its pure form. – It reacts more rapidly at higher temperatures.• What are the major isotopes, and are there any important uses of any radioactive isotope? – It has 21 isotopes with mass numbers 46 to 66. 55Mn is the only stable isotope. – None of the radioactive isotopes have any important uses.
Availability• Where is the element found? – Manganese never occurs in nature as a pure element, so it always combines with oxygen or other elements. – It is found mixed with iron ores. The largest producers of manganese ore in the world are China, South Africa, the Ukraine, Brazil, Australia, Gabon, and Kazakstan. – Manganese also occurs abundantly on the ocean floor in the form of nodules. – Manganese is also found in the Earth’s crust and is the 12th most abundant element found there.• What do people have to do to get the element? – The usual method for producing pure manganese is to heat manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) with carbon or aluminum. These elements remove the oxygen and leave the pure metal.• How much does the element typically cost? – $6.5 per 100g
Uses• What are the primary uses of the element by itself? – Manganese is essential to iron and steel production. It is a key component of low-cost stainless steel formulations and certain widely used aluminum alloys. – Manganese is used to decolorize glass and make violet colored glass. What are the major compounds containing this element, and what are they used for? – Manganese oxide goes into fertilizers and ceramics and is also used as a black-brown pigment in paint and as a filler in dry cell batteries. – Manganese carbonate is the starting material for making other manganese compounds.
Fun Facts• Manganese is one of the chemical elements that has both positive and negative effects on living organisms. – A very small amount of the element is needed to maintain good health in plants and animals. If manganese is missing from the diet, enzymes do not operate efficiently leading cells to die and the organism to become sick. – An excess of manganese can create health problems including weakness, sleepiness, tiredness, emotional disturbances, and paralysis.
Works Cited• "Manganese." Chemicool Periodic Table. Chemicool.com. 17 Jun. 2011. Web. 11/18/2011<http://www.chemicool.com /elements/manganese.html>.• "Manganese, Chemical Element - Overview, Discovery and Naming, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Occurrence in Nature, Isotopes." Chemistry: Foundations and Applications. Advameg, Inc. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/L- P/Manganese.html>.• "Manganese (Mn) - Chemical Properties, Health and Environmental Effects." Water Treatment and Purification - Lenntech. Lenntech. Web. 12 Nov. 2011.<http://www. lenntech.com/periodic/elements/mn.htm>.