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Nanophysics

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Nanophysics

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Nanophysics

  1. 1. NANOPHYSICS
  2. 2. Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology • Nanomaterials is a field which takes a materials science-based approach to nanotechnology. • Nanomaterials studies materials that have very different properties on the nanoscale. • Nanoscale means smaller than one tenth of a micrometer in at least one dimension of an object.
  3. 3. Nanomaterials and nanotechnology • Nanotechnology is the study of controlling matter on an atomic or molecular scale. • Nanotechnology has the potential to change our lives by creating new materials that can be used in many fields. • These are medicine, electronics, biomaterials, energy production etc.
  4. 4. Properties Changes • When materials shrink to nanoscale, their properties will change drastically. • This can be explained by the largely increased surface area to volume ratio. • The larger ratio gives rise to new quantum mechanical effects. For example, electronic properties of many solids are altered when they reach nanoscale.
  5. 5. Properties Changes Macroscale Nanoscale Copper Opaque Transparent Platinum Inert Catalytic Aluminium Stable Combustible Gold Solid at Room Temperature Liquid at Room Temperature Silicon Insulator Conductor
  6. 6. Nanomaterials • Fullerenes • Silver • Iron • Platinum • Gold
  7. 7. Fullerenes • Fullerenes are molecules made completely out of carbon, regardless of its molecular structure. They can come in spheres, cylinders, ellipsoids or tubes. • Cylindrical fullerenes are also known as carbon nanotubes or buckytubes. • Fullerene=Buckyball
  8. 8. Variations (Structural Differences) • buckyball clusters • Nanotubes • Megatubes • Polymers • Nano “onions” • linked "ball-and-chain" dimers • fullerene rings
  9. 9. Introduction • The first fullerene (buckminsterfullerene C60) was made by Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley in 1985. • The name was a homage to Richard Buckminster Fuller as fullerenes resemble his geodesic domes.
  10. 10. Introduction • The discovery of fullerenes expanded mankind’s knowledge of carbon allotropes. Carbon allotropes known before 1985 Discovered in 1985 Graphite Fullerenes/ Buckyballs Diamond Amorphous carbon like: Soot and Charcoal
  11. 11. Properties of fullerenes • Fullerenes are stable chemically, but not completely unreactive. • Fullerenes are also sparingly soluble in many solvents, including toluene and carbon disulfide. Solutions of pure buckminsterfullerene have a deep purple colour. • Solutions of C70 are a reddish brown. • The higher fullerenes C76 to C84 have a variety of colors. • C76 has two optical forms, while other higher fullerenes have several isomers. • Fullerenes are the only known carbon allotropes that can be dissolved in common solvents at room temperature.
  12. 12. Applications: Nanotubes • They can conduct heat efficiently. They have extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties. • Solar cells developed at the New Jersey Institute of Technology use a carbon nanotube complex, formed by a mixture of carbon nanotubes and carbon buckyballs. • Nanotubes are also used to improve ultracapacitors. • implemented in nanoelectromechanical systems • Transistors in electrical circuits
  13. 13. Applications: : Nano Onion • Used in therapy for cancer/ tumors • Possible application in the lubricant industry • Applications of fullerenes as a whole • Armor • Potential medicinal use
  14. 14. Nanoparticle Applications • Optical • Anti-reflection coatings. Tailored refractive index of surfaces. Light based sensors for cancer diagnosis . • Magnetic • Increased density storage media. Nanomagnetic particles to create improved detail and contrast in MRI images. Taken from: Malvern.com
  15. 15. Nanoparticle Applications • Thermal • Enhance heat transfer from solar collectors to storage tanks. Improve efficiency of coolants in transformers. • Mechanical • Improved wear resistance. New anti-corrosion properties. New structural materials, composites, stronger and lighter. Taken from: Malvern.com
  16. 16. Nanoparticle Applications • Electronic • High performance and smaller components, e,g, capacitors for small consumer devices such as mobile phones. Displays that are cheaper, larger, brighter, and more efficient. High conductivity materials. Taken from: Malvern.com
  17. 17. Nanoparticle Applications • Energy • High energy density and more durable batteries. Hydrogen storage applications using metal nanoclusters. Electrocatalysts for high efficiency fuel cells. Renewable energy, ultra high performance solar cells. Catalysts for combustion engines to improve efficiency, hence economy. Taken from: Malvern.com
  18. 18. Nanoparticle Applications • Biomedical • Antibacterial silver coatings on wound dressings. Sensors for disease detection (quantum dots). Programmed release drug delivery systems. “interactive” food and beverages that change color, flavor or nutrients depending on a diner’s taste or health. Taken from: Malvern.com
  19. 19. Nanoparticle Applications • Environmental • Clean up of soil contamination and pollution, e.g. oil. Biodegradable polymers. Aids for germination. Treatment of industrial emissions. More efficient and effective water filtration. • Surfaces • Dissolution rates of materials are highly size dependant. Activity of catalysts. Coatings for self cleaning surfaces, Pilkington’s glass for example. • Personal care • Effective clear inorganic sunscreens . Taken from: Malvern.com
  20. 20. Silver Nanoparticle • Silver nanoparticles are silver particles that are between 1 nm and 100 nm in size. • Some silver nanoparticles are composed mainly of silver oxide. • Ways to produce silver nanoparticles: 1.Physical vapour deposition 2.Ion implantation 3.Wet chemistry
  21. 21. Silver Nanoparticle • Medical Uses: 1.bone cement 2.surgical instruments 3.surgical masks 4.wound dressings 5.treatment of HIV-1
  22. 22. Iron Nanoparticle • They are highly reactive because of their large surface area. • Iron nanoparticles are widely used in: 1.medical and laboratory applications 2.remediation of industrial sites contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds
  23. 23. Iron Nanoparticle • Iron nanoparticles can be used to treat several forms of ground contamination, including grounds contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated organic solvents, and organochlorine pesticides. • They tend to agglomerate on soil surfaces and can be easily transported through ground water.
  24. 24. Platinum Nanoparticle • Platinum nanoparticles are usually in the form of a suspension or colloid of sub-micrometre- sized particles of platinumin a fluid, usually water. • A colloid is defined to be particles which remain suspended without forming an ionic or dissolved solution. • Platinum nanoparticles range between 2-3nm.
  25. 25. Platinum Nanoparticle • They have antioxidant properties and are substantially researched. • Platinum nanoparticles may have applications in the following areas: 1.Nanotechnology 2.Medicine 3.Synthesis of novel materials with unique properties
  26. 26. Platinum Nanoparticle • Platinum nanoparticles are fabricated by the reduction of hexachloroplatinate. • Platinum nanoparticles have been used to increase the lifespan of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. • They can cause inflammation and lung disease.
  27. 27. Gold Nanoparticle • Colloidal gold/Gold nanoparticles is a suspension (or colloid) of sub-micrometre- sized particles of gold in a fluid — usually water. • Since ancient times, colloidal gold is synthesized for staining glass. • A relatively simpler method of producing gold nanoparticles is to reduce chloroauric acid.
  28. 28. Gold Nanoparticle • Now, colloidal gold is a subject of substantial research as it may have applications in many fields: 1. Electron microscopy 2. Electronics 3. Nanotechnology 4. Materials science • Colloidal gold is used as a therapy for rheumatoid arthritis in rats. • The implantation of gold beads near arthritic hip joints in dogs has been found to relieve pain.

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