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Contents :-
 Vision 2020
 Introduction
 5 facts about Manganese
 Where , How and What
 Formation of Manganese ore
 M...
Vision 2020
1.According to National Steel Policy 2008 , Steel production target
180 MT
2.60% is expected through BF route ...
Introduction:-
 Manganese ore in the form of ferro and silicomanganese alloys
are the most essential ingredients in the p...
5 facts about Manganese
The effectiveness of Manganese in increasing
mechanical properties depends on & is proportional t...
Where can you find manganese in nature?
Manganese is not found as the free metal in nature, however manganese
minerals con...
Formation of manganese ore
1.Hydrothermal
2.Sedimentary
3.Surficial
Sedimentary deposits are
formed by the deposition of
m...
Manganese
Bearing
Mineral
8
Pyrulosite
(Peroxide of Mn or Black Mn)
Psilomelane
(Hydrous oxide of Mn)
Cryptomelane
(Psilomelane containing some potash...
10
End Products
11
Size range for Manganese Ore for different
Industries
• 200mesh
(75micron)
• 200mesh
(75micron)
• 25 to 40mm;
• +85mm;10%m...
South Africa
24%
Ukrain
22%
Brazil
17%
Australia
15%
India
8%
China
7%
Gabon
4%
Kazakhstan
1%
Maxico
1%
Other countries
1%...
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
3829
3200
7500
2753
1720 1906
2208
4612
2000
1172
6961
3100
14000
3562
1828
2387
2...
1. Grootw Eylandt mines, Australia
2.Mamatwan-Wessels mines, south Africa
4. Azul mines, Brazil
3. Moanda mines, gabon
5. ...
1
2
5
3
4
6
7
89
10
11
BIHAR—ORISSA
1. BONAI—KEONJHAR & SINGHBHUM
2. KALAHANDI—KORAPUT
MADHYA PRADESH—MAHARASHTRA
3. NAGPU...
Ferro Alloys, 28.95%
Silicomanganese,
64.42%
Iron & Steel, 6.17%
Battery, 0.35% Lead and Zinc
Metallurgy, 0.04%
Chemicals,...
odisha, 44.20%
Karnataka, 22.37%
Madhya Pradesh, 12.96%
Maharastra, 7.94%
Andhra Pradesh, 4.09%
Jharkhand, 3.19%
Goa, 3.16...
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
88
14 0 5
271
329
353
523
0
322
2 0 18
136
648 650
566
7
Thousandtonn...
FUTURE DEMAND
2000-01
1.45 MT
2011-12
4.25 MT
2016-17
7.39 MT
2025-26
22.81 MT 2029-30
36.87 MT
21
Manganese Ore characteristics of
Indian deposits
Siliceous with medium to
High phosphorous
content
Ferruginous with low
ph...
MINING
Mining Method
Opencast Under ground
Dongri-Buzurg Open Cast Mine, MOIL, Maharashtra
23
Processing of manganese ore
1. Manganese ore processing practice in India
2. Need for processing
3. Process rout of benefi...
1. Most of the manganese ore mines have been operated by
selective mining for maintaining medium to high grade
ore at mini...
In India , due to some impurities associated with manganese ore above their desired
limits which is unsuitable for the fur...
Siliceous
ore
types
Quartz
Garnet,
Quartz
Apatite
Quartz
Gravity concentration methods
such as Heavy Media
Separation, Hea...
Ferruginous
ore
Hematite, Goethite,
Limonite
A process of magnetising
reduction roasting to convert
the ferruginous minera...
Equipment Size range
Heavy media Separation (HMS) -50+3mm
Heavy Media Cyclone (HMC) -6+0.2mm
Jigging -30+0.5mm
Spiral -1+0...
1. Beneficiation of Siliceous manganese ore
ROM Feed
(-75mm)
-75+25mm
Hand
Sorting
Conc.Reject
-25+6mm
Reject
(-25+6mm)
Co...
Sample:- Bharveli mines, balaghat.
Psilomelane & Pyrolusite are the main Manganese bearing minerals;
Quartz, mica & feldsp...
2. Beneficiation of high phosphorus ore
Apatite
Float
Manganese
Non float
Conditioning
Lower PH
to 6.5Manganese Mineral
Fl...
Sample :- Chikla mines;
Braunite was the main manganese bearing mineral followed by Jacobsite & Hausmanite
are in minor am...
Option :-2
Sample:- South Tirodi mines;
Braunite was the principle manganese bearing mineral followed by Jacobsite in mino...
3. Beneficiation of Ferruginous manganese ore
35
Sample:- Sandur area , Karnataka;
Psilomelane & Pyrolusite were the manganese bearing minerals.
Hematite & Goethite were t...
Cost benefit Analysis of Beneficiated concentrate
1. Siliceous and high Phosphorous
37
2. Ferruginous ore
38
Price of Manganese ore
6 Month Manganese Prices and Price Charts
5 Year Manganese Prices and Price Charts
1 Year Manganese...
India
Manganese Ore Rs./t
MnO2 22127
Up to 25% Mn 1724
25 - 35% Mn 4571
35 - 46% Mn 10175
Above 46% Mn 12953
Andhra Prades...
Balaghat Mines
PO- Bharweli
Dist- Balaghat
Madhya pradesh
Pin- 481102
MANGANESE ORE INDIA LTD
Integrated Manganese Ore Ben...
Flow sheet of IMB plant, Bharveli mines, MOIL
Plant capacity – 5lakh TPA
42
Flow sheet of IMB Plant, Dongri-Buzurg, mine MOIL
Pyrolusite mineral(MnO₂)
Gangues- Quartzite,
weathered rock, Laterite et...
44
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  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Contents :-  Vision 2020  Introduction  5 facts about Manganese  Where , How and What  Formation of Manganese ore  Manganese bearing Minerals  Types and grade of Manganese ore  End use , size range and applications  World deposits  Indian deposits and Characteristics  Mining  Processing of Manganese ore  Cost analysis
  3. 3. Vision 2020 1.According to National Steel Policy 2008 , Steel production target 180 MT 2.60% is expected through BF route i.e. 110 MT 3.10kg of B.F. grade Manganese ore(28-30%Mn) is required for per tonne of iron ore, For 110MT , 1.1MT Manganese is required 4.Where as, around 15kg of Manganese based alloy (grade 65- 72%) is required for , per tonne of steel production, For 180MTPA by 2020, the requirement of manganese alloys would be around 2.7MTPA 5.From 2.7 MTPA , ferromanganese is 1.1 MTPA and Silicomanganese is 1.6MTPA . To produce that amount of high grade i.e. + 44% , we need an average grade of 25-30% Mn of ROM 4.2 MTPA and 3.7 MTPA respectively. 6.So for domestic steel production of 180 MTPA by 2020, we need total of 9 MTPA ROM (for ferromanganese 4.2 MTPA, for silicomanganese 3.7 MTPA and B.F. iron ore 1.1 MTPA ) of manganese ore by 2020. 3
  4. 4. Introduction:-  Manganese ore in the form of ferro and silicomanganese alloys are the most essential ingredients in the production of steel, both crude and stainless.  Presently, India is the second largest importer of manganese ore in the world after China.  MOIL Ltd, a public sector company is the major producer of manganese ore, contributing about 46% of the total production of the country in the year 2010-11.  The average grade of the domestically produced manganese ore has fell to 33.43% Mn from 38.70% Mn, leading to increased imports of high grade manganese ore.  The best ores (or blends) for manganese alloy production should have manganese to iron ratio of 7.5 to 1, be easily reducible, minimize energy consumption, be low in contaminants, have good physical structure and produce manageable amounts of slag. 4
  5. 5. 5 facts about Manganese The effectiveness of Manganese in increasing mechanical properties depends on & is proportional to the carbon content of the steel. Manganese helps to increase the steel’s hardenability. It is also an active deoxidizer. It improves machinability by combing with sulfur. Manganese improves yield at the steel mill by combing with the sulfur in the steel, minimizing the formation of iron pyrite (iron sulfide) which can cause the steel to crack & tear during high temperature rolling. 5
  6. 6. Where can you find manganese in nature? Manganese is not found as the free metal in nature, however manganese minerals consisting of oxides, silicates, and carbonates are the common. Most Manganese is obtained from ores in Australia, Brazil, Gabon, India, Russia, and South Africa. Manganese nodules on ocean floors holds contain about 24% manganese. How was manganese Discovered? Proposed to be an element by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1774, manganese was discovered by Johan Gottlieb Gahn, a Swedish chemist, by heating the mineral pyrolusite (MnO2) in the presence of charcoal later that year. What kind of metal is manganese? Manganese is a pinkinsh-gray, chemically active element. It is a hard metal and is very brittle. It is hard to melt, but easily oxidized. Manganese is reactive when pure, and as a powder it will burn in oxygen, it reacts with water (it rusts like iron) and dissolves in dilute acids. 6
  7. 7. Formation of manganese ore 1.Hydrothermal 2.Sedimentary 3.Surficial Sedimentary deposits are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles to settle and accumulate or minerals to precipitate from a solution. 7
  8. 8. Manganese Bearing Mineral 8
  9. 9. Pyrulosite (Peroxide of Mn or Black Mn) Psilomelane (Hydrous oxide of Mn) Cryptomelane (Psilomelane containing some potash or soda) Braunite (Anhydrous sesquioxide of Mn) Indian Manganese Ore deposit Psilomelane + Braunite = 90% of Total Reserve of manganese in country Common Mineral Forms of Manganese ore in India 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. End Products 11
  12. 12. Size range for Manganese Ore for different Industries • 200mesh (75micron) • 200mesh (75micron) • 25 to 40mm; • +85mm;10%max • -10mm;10%max • 10 to 40mm; • +40mm;10%max • -10mm:10%max Steel making Grade Blast furnace grade Chemical Grade Battery Grade 12
  13. 13. South Africa 24% Ukrain 22% Brazil 17% Australia 15% India 8% China 7% Gabon 4% Kazakhstan 1% Maxico 1% Other countries 1% World reserve of Manganese Ore, 2012 14
  14. 14. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 3829 3200 7500 2753 1720 1906 2208 4612 2000 1172 6961 3100 14000 3562 1828 2387 2930 8652 1590 2290 2005 2011 World Production of Manganese Ore During 2005 & 2011 in ‘000 tones 15
  15. 15. 1. Grootw Eylandt mines, Australia 2.Mamatwan-Wessels mines, south Africa 4. Azul mines, Brazil 3. Moanda mines, gabon 5. Molango mines, Mexico 6. Nonoalco mines, Mexico 7. Urucum mines, Brazil 8. Nchwaning mines, South Africa 9. Gloria mines, South Africa 10. Woodie-woodie mines, australia Top Ten producer of Manganese in the world Top ten Manganese mines in the world 16
  16. 16. 1 2 5 3 4 6 7 89 10 11 BIHAR—ORISSA 1. BONAI—KEONJHAR & SINGHBHUM 2. KALAHANDI—KORAPUT MADHYA PRADESH—MAHARASHTRA 3. NAGPUR--BHANDARA—BALAGHAT 4. JHABUA ANOHRA PRADESH SRIKAKULAM KARNATAKA 6. SANDUR—BELLARY 7. SHIMOGA 8. NORTH KANARA GOA 9. GOA GUJARAT 10. PANCH MAHAL RAJASTHAN 11. BANSWARA Distribution of Manganese ore deposits in India MANGANESE ORE DEPOSITES---- The total resources of Manganese ore in the country as per UNFC system as on 01.04.2010(NMI) are placed at 430MT. Out of these 142MT are categorized as reserves and balance belongs to resources category. The overall grade of the Manganese ore reserve in the country in the range of 30 – 35% Mn.(NMI 1.4.2010) 17
  17. 17. Ferro Alloys, 28.95% Silicomanganese, 64.42% Iron & Steel, 6.17% Battery, 0.35% Lead and Zinc Metallurgy, 0.04% Chemicals, 0.04% Others, 0.03% Industrial Consumption of Manganese ore in India Ferro Alloys Silicomanganese Iron & Steel Battery Lead and Zinc Metallurgy Chemicals Others 18
  18. 18. odisha, 44.20% Karnataka, 22.37% Madhya Pradesh, 12.96% Maharastra, 7.94% Andhra Pradesh, 4.09% Jharkhand, 3.19% Goa, 3.16% Rajasthan, 1.35% Gujurat, 0.69% West Bengal, 0.05% States wise resources of Manganese ore in India 19(As on 1:04:2010)
  19. 19. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 88 14 0 5 271 329 353 523 0 322 2 0 18 136 648 650 566 7 Thousandtonnes State State wise production of manganese ore 1999-2000 & 2011-12 1999-2000 2011-12 20
  20. 20. FUTURE DEMAND 2000-01 1.45 MT 2011-12 4.25 MT 2016-17 7.39 MT 2025-26 22.81 MT 2029-30 36.87 MT 21
  21. 21. Manganese Ore characteristics of Indian deposits Siliceous with medium to High phosphorous content Ferruginous with low phosphorus and High alumina content Occurrences Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya pradesh Occurrences Odisha, Goa, Karnataka 22
  22. 22. MINING Mining Method Opencast Under ground Dongri-Buzurg Open Cast Mine, MOIL, Maharashtra 23
  23. 23. Processing of manganese ore 1. Manganese ore processing practice in India 2. Need for processing 3. Process rout of beneficiation of manganese ore 4. Beneficiation of different type of Indian manganese ore 5. Cost–benefit analysis of beneficiation concentrate
  24. 24. 1. Most of the manganese ore mines have been operated by selective mining for maintaining medium to high grade ore at mining cut off 20% Mn . 2. At this cut-off , blast furnace grade and mixed grade ore (+25% Mn) is readily exploited leaving low grade ores (<25% Mn) untouched. 3. The present industrial practice causes huge loss of manganese values in process/mine rejects and their stacking has adverse effect on environment causing ecological imbalance. 4. No low grade ores are exploited (below mine cut-off and threshold grade i.e. -20+10 % Mn. 25
  25. 25. In India , due to some impurities associated with manganese ore above their desired limits which is unsuitable for the further application of manganese ore. Impurities associated with manganese ore 26
  26. 26. Siliceous ore types Quartz Garnet, Quartz Apatite Quartz Gravity concentration methods such as Heavy Media Separation, Heavy Media cyclone, jigging, Spiralling, Tabling or high Intensity magnetic Separation. Flotation or Gravity Concentration cum Flotation Electrostatic separation or sometimes flotation. Ore gangues Process upgradation 27
  27. 27. Ferruginous ore Hematite, Goethite, Limonite A process of magnetising reduction roasting to convert the ferruginous minerals to magnetite followed by low intensity magnetic separation as its liberation size. Complex ore Quartz, apatite, Garnet, Clay, Feldspar, Hematite, Hydrated Iron oxide minerals. Required three or even more Steps for the elimination of the gangue & production of high grade concentrates. Combination of Gravity- Magnetic, ESS & Flotation Ore type gangue Process Of upgradation 28
  28. 28. Equipment Size range Heavy media Separation (HMS) -50+3mm Heavy Media Cyclone (HMC) -6+0.2mm Jigging -30+0.5mm Spiral -1+0.03mm Tables -1+0.03mm Flotex density separator -1mm Cyclone -3mm Low Intensity Magnetic Separator 1200 gauss High Intensity Magnetic Separator 7000 to 12000 gauss Size classification of beneficiation equipment for Manganese ore 29
  29. 29. 1. Beneficiation of Siliceous manganese ore ROM Feed (-75mm) -75+25mm Hand Sorting Conc.Reject -25+6mm Reject (-25+6mm) Conc. (-25+6mm) -6mm O/F -0.2mm U/F -6+0.2mm Conc. -6mm Reject -6mm 30
  30. 30. Sample:- Bharveli mines, balaghat. Psilomelane & Pyrolusite are the main Manganese bearing minerals; Quartz, mica & feldspar are the main gangue minerals. FEED:- 41.9% Mn 19.0% SiO₂ 3.3% Fe 1.6% Al₂O₃ 3.7% BaSO₄ Reject:- 27.9% Mn 50.28% SiO₂ Weight yeild of 38.4% Conc.:- 50.8%Mn 9.2% SiO₂ Weight yield of 61.6% Processing of manganese 31
  31. 31. 2. Beneficiation of high phosphorus ore Apatite Float Manganese Non float Conditioning Lower PH to 6.5Manganese Mineral Float (Conc.) Silica Non Float(tailing) Option 1 Water spray Manganese Mag (Conc.) Apatite & silica Non-mag(Tailing) Option 2 O/F U/F FEED Water addition ROM 70% -200mesh 32
  32. 32. Sample :- Chikla mines; Braunite was the main manganese bearing mineral followed by Jacobsite & Hausmanite are in minor amout. Quartz was the main gaunge mineral followed by hematite in minor amount. Apatite was observed to be the only phosphorous bearing mineral intimately associated with manganese minerals. Option:-1 FEED:- 38.2% Mn 0.31% P 22.84% SiO₂ 8.32% Fe Reject:- 27.3% Mn 0.58% P Weight yield of 39.9% Conc.-(phosphorus Float) 31.8% Mn 1.65% P Weight yield of 8.8% Processing of Manganese ore 1st Stage Conc.- (cleaner stage) 45.5% Mn 0.1% P Weight yield of 60.1% Cleaner Stage 33
  33. 33. Option :-2 Sample:- South Tirodi mines; Braunite was the principle manganese bearing mineral followed by Jacobsite in minor amount. Quartz was the main gaunge mineral. Apatite was observed to be the only phosphorous bearing mineral intimately associated. FEED:- 43.5% Mn 9.4% Fe 0.31% P Reject(Non-mag):- 32.25% Mn 1.05% P 7.47% Fe Weight yield of 20.6% Conc.(Mag):- 46.27% Mn 0.41% P 9.35% Fe Weight yield of 79.4% Processing of Manganese ore 34
  34. 34. 3. Beneficiation of Ferruginous manganese ore 35
  35. 35. Sample:- Sandur area , Karnataka; Psilomelane & Pyrolusite were the manganese bearing minerals. Hematite & Goethite were the iron minerals present in the sample. FEED:- 34.1% Mn 17.7% Fe 6.9% Al₂O₃ 8.5% SiO₂ 0.5% BaSO₄ Reject(Mag) :- 24.4% Mn 24.2% Fe 7.8% SiO₂ Weight yield of 60% Conc.(Non-mag):- 49.5% Mn 9.1% Fe 9.2% SiO₂ Weight yield of 40% Processing of Manganese ore 36
  36. 36. Cost benefit Analysis of Beneficiated concentrate 1. Siliceous and high Phosphorous 37
  37. 37. 2. Ferruginous ore 38
  38. 38. Price of Manganese ore 6 Month Manganese Prices and Price Charts 5 Year Manganese Prices and Price Charts 1 Year Manganese Prices and Price Charts Historical Manganese Prices and Price Chart 39 http://www.infomine.com/investment/metal-prices/manganese/
  39. 39. India Manganese Ore Rs./t MnO2 22127 Up to 25% Mn 1724 25 - 35% Mn 4571 35 - 46% Mn 10175 Above 46% Mn 12953 Andhra Pradesh Manganese Ore Rs./t MnO2 NA Up to 25% Mn 1120 25 - 35% Mn 2280 35 - 46% Mn 2648 Above 46% Mn NA Jharkhand Manganese Ore Rs./t MnO2 15000 Up to 25% Mn NA 25 - 35% Mn 4500 35 - 46% Mn NA Above 46% Mn NA Karnataka Manganese Ore Rs./t Up to 25% Mn 1872 25 - 35% Mn 4365 35 - 46% Mn 3600 Above 46% Mn NA Madhya Pradesh Manganese Ore Rs./t MnO2 NA Up to 25% Mn 1866 25 - 35% Mn 4214 35 - 46% Mn 9374 Above 46% Mn 13044 Maharastra Manganese Ore Rs./t MnO2 52318 Up to 25% Mn 2468 25 - 35% Mn 5153 35 - 46% Mn 10382 Above 46% Mn 12722 Odisha Manganese Ore Rs./t MnO2 22348 Up to 25% Mn 5305 25 - 35% Mn 8263 35 - 46% Mn 14524 Above 46% Mn 16724 Average Sale Price for August 2014 (Source - MINERALS & METALS REVIEW, September 2014) 40
  40. 40. Balaghat Mines PO- Bharweli Dist- Balaghat Madhya pradesh Pin- 481102 MANGANESE ORE INDIA LTD Integrated Manganese Ore Beneficiation Plant MOIL Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh 41
  41. 41. Flow sheet of IMB plant, Bharveli mines, MOIL Plant capacity – 5lakh TPA 42
  42. 42. Flow sheet of IMB Plant, Dongri-Buzurg, mine MOIL Pyrolusite mineral(MnO₂) Gangues- Quartzite, weathered rock, Laterite etc. 43
  43. 43. 44
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