beneficiation dri direct reduced iron egypt vermiculite types of uranium deposits in egypt iron ore pellets market quality requirements refractory iron ores magnetic separation magnetization roasting pig iron magmatic deposits nature of mineralization mine evaluation selectivity ore dilution shale gas gas hydrate natural gas value chain regasification underground mining manganese talc zeolites uranium occurrences in dykes calcination of gypsum deepwater production us shale oil production oil demand iraqi production growth prospects upstream costs increase motorization in asian countries placer deposits geologic conditions and characteristic of ore depo metals enrichment factors uranium occurrences uranium ore minerals aswan iron ore deposits bahariya iron ore deposits egyptian iron ore deposits sinai: gabal halal iron ore deposit oil shale underground mining method stratigraphy phosphate rocks olivine feldspar and feldspathoid sandstone rocks silica material-sand salt (sodium chlorite) garnet group minerals graphite asbestos sulfur minerals calcium carbonate minerals minerals and rocks industrial applications natural stones beneficiation processes iron phosphorus removal from iron types of iron ore products enrichment low-grade iron ironwork processes-technology steel industry in egypt roasting hydrogen-based fluidized bed minerals phase transformation mpth technology mpth refractory low grade iron ore shaft furnace rotary kiln flash magnetization roasting fluidized bed suspension fluidized roasting flash roasting furnace microwave assist steel & iron ore industries supply‐side challenges carbon‐neutral steelmaking dr grade pellet supply‐demand dri production scope and market size resources iron deposits availability ferrous scrap egypt iron scrap imports global scrap shortage scrap for stock eaf steel production steel scrap recycling iron ferrous scrap world scrap trade global steelmaking capacities electro steel industry grate-rotary kiln straight grate dri pellets direct reduced iron pellets induration technology binder sintering pelletizing process iron ore pellets iron ore usages of dri classification of dri hazards of dri quality of dri characteristics of dri gas-based processes coal-based processes direct reduction processes environmental sustainability finored process circored and finmet midrex® and energiron process gas-based solid coal overview of dr processes raw materials world production of dri direct reduction iron direct reduction furnace blast furnace ironmaking routes ironmaking processes ironworks iron production microwave reduction roasting low-grade iron ore technical solutions thermal or mixed processes phosphorus removal phosphate mineral oxyhydroxides comparison pig iron and dri cbic briquetted iron and carbon cbi cold briquetted iron hbi hot briquetted iron largest iron ore producers iron ore market world resources iron deposits environmental impact of iron o exporting of iron ore beneficiation processes of essentials of iron ore mining iron ores iic steel plants managemen suez steel co solb misr beshay steel group national port said steel egyptian steel companies ezz el dekheila steel company job search rodruin-egypt assessment of au-zn potentiality in gossan multi-element association geochemistry r-mode factor analysis supergene exploration in deep weathering profiles crushing international and country/hand made local quality and high quality types of crushing types of crusher mineral processing: crusher and crushing and uses gem variety occurrences optical properties physical properties classification structure chemical composition of garnet introduction wallrock alteration processes wallrock alteration types of wallrock alteration tourmalinization silicification: ((quartz+chert) sericitization pyritization potassic alteration phyllic (or sericitic) alteration nature of hydrothermal alteration hematitization greisenization fenitization feldspathization factors controlling the size and nature of alterat chloritization carbonatization (dolomitization) bleaching alteration haloes albitization skeletal crystals euhedral ~ subhedral crystals supergene texture hypogene texture secondary texture primary texture filling of voids voids grain bonding spheroidal grains poikiloblasts microscopic texture megascopic observations internal reflection inclusions external grain properties internal grain properties ore minerals textures ore texture liquefied petroleum gas (lpg) oil field pyramid giant oil field commercial butane commercial propane oil/gas diagenesis. conventional gas tar sand/bitumen hydrocarbon resources oil plays oil/gas generation conventional oil unconventional oil natural gas natural gas plays occurrence of oil and gas umbrella terms classification of fossil petroleum system and still occur at sukari gold mine smelting and waste disposal practices has occurred or gaseous waste. environmental contamination and water waste filter cakes and smelting residues. mine wastes ma furnace dusts slags leached ore residues sludges but also at mineral processing plants and smelter and monitoring. wastes are not only produced durin sukari tailings storage facilities” (tsf) secure disposal process chemicals – and therefore require treatmen dump leach acids metalloids mine wastes are problematic because they contain h submarine tailings disposal riverine tailings disposal seepage flow to surface water and groundwater in-pitwaste disposal thickened discharge and paste disposal disposal methods water balance of a tailings dams fundamental constructed elements of a tailings dam tailings dam styles (or configurations) dynamic simulation of a tailing storage facility ( tailings disposal methods acid mine waters sulphidic mine wastes tailings waters tailings liquid tailings solids tailings & tailings composition wastewater waste-rock disposal (rock dumps) mines wastes casting blowing weighing melting of wax before core casting of the molten m gold mills pre- to early dynastic gold hammers ancient gold hammers (stone hammers) this technique introduced by the romans but predom arab times gold mill trench of an early dynastic gold mining site hawara pyramid of princess neferuptah xii dyn usek queen nefertiti pendant necklace king tutankhamun: the boy king's golden mask and copper were recovered from this region during silver reveal that gold in the treasury of rameses iii at madinet habu the ancient egyptian gold explorers have pursued the gold that lies beneath egypt has a rich and dynamic history of gold explo different styles of hydrothermal ore deposits mesozonal epizonal: hydrothermal ore deposits hypozonal: orogenic different types of hydrothermal vein classification of hydrothermal deposits the main steps in hydrothermal processes origin of hydrothermal fluids (or the main sources causes of deposition hydrothermal processes banded iron formation iron deposits supergene secondary enrichment deposits laterite deposits residual deposits deposits formed by evaporation methods resources from the sedimentary environments evaporation chemical deposition (sedimentation) chemical concentration mechanical concentration supergene enrichment weathering exogenous (surficial) processes sedimentary cycle ore minerals hosted by contact metasomatic deposit skarn ore deposits processes and characteristics of contact metasomat types of metamorphic deposits metamorphic /metasomatism processes metamorphic deposits and zr in carbonatites ree platinum group elements (pges) ni – cu – fe (± pt) sulfides fe-ti (± v) oxides types of magmatic ore deposits:chromite late magmatic deposit early magmatic deposit immiscible-liquid-injection immiscible liquid segregation residual liquid injection injection of material concentrated elsewhere by di (layer types) segregation of early formed crystals simple crystallization without concentration (diss magmatic (or liquid ) immiscibility fractional crystallization (or crystal fractionati mode of formation of orthomagmatic ores mode of formation of magmatic ores deposits magmatic- layered mafic intrusion volcanic massive sulphide (vms) sedimentary massive sulphide (sedex) placer vein skarn mississippi valley (mvt) porphyry cu- mo ore deposits classified by evans (1997) into broad historical perspective & different classifications epigenetic ore deposit syngenetic ore deposit ore deposit types and models oreshoots orebodies geographical localization of ore deposits morphology of ore deposit depth of occurrence mineral deposits structural control ore deposits ore deposit geology and related sciences ore deposit constitutes the presence of multiple extractable products mineralogy and texture of the ore shape and depth of the deposit geological factors affecting economics of ore extr the extraction of an economic commodity from ore which commodities are included by the definition o the significance of ore deposit size ore deposit environments a geological definition of an ore deposit mineral deposit plaster blocks building plaster decorative plaster plasterboards uses of gypsum products in home interiors the modern use of gypsum in construction: plasterb making gypsum board gypsum board properties and uses of gypsum plasters hard finish plaster flooring hard wall plaster plaster of paris gypsum plasters production steps of gypsum egyptian gypsum deposits types of calcium sulfate calcium sulfate deposition process occurrence of gypsum tungsten carbide ball zirconia (ysz) ball alumina ceramic ball ceramic grinding media stainless steel ball chrome steel ball cast iron grinding media iron core pu mill balls carbon steel ball steel ball chrome ball steel grinding media agate ball flint pebble ball natural grinding media grinding media ball glass ball plastic ball bennington marble balls types of ball basalt mesh basalt geo-textile basalt rebar secondary basalt rock fiber products cbf yarns cbf roving chopped fibers continuous basalt fibers primary basalt rock fiber products basalt rock fiber products manufacturing process of basalt fibre fiber forming process plant layout of basalt fibre formation basalt fibre production spinning of basalt fiber basalt sources for fiber production comparison with e-glass properties of basalt fibers basalt rock fibre distribution map of basaltic occurrences in egypt geochemical anomalies stepwise discriminant analysis on the dip angles of the housing fractures and the gold contents in relation to geometric features of besides physico-chemical factors the estimated au values in the umm rus deposit are primary geochemical haloes umm rus au-mine zonality conditions of crystallization south eastern desert graphic and granophyric textures rapid crystallization at volatile-saturated condit migif-hafafit area growth kinetics diffusion pegmatites graphic quartz-feldspar intergrowths fertile granite pan-african southern eastern desert granite-pegmatite suite s-type fertile- post-collisionl granite-pegmatite suite abu rusheid and nugrus-sikait area wadi sikait complex building purposes concrete aggregate flint/chert chert aggregates dolomite/dolostone aggregates road or asphalt aggregates bedded cherts mill chert (nodular or concretion cherts reserves and resources continuity domains primary factors that affect the estimation of valu value (grade) continuity geological continuity continuity issues for mine management production stages drilling and blasting stope development design and sequencing orebody delineation parameters influencing dilution geotechnical monitoring detailed design issues global (block) design issues basic input underground mine design mining methods and dilution geological dilution underground mining studies mining recovery ore recovery mine economics mining losses mineral losses mining dilution dilution planned and unplanned dilution internal a mine design mining studies recovery in mining open pit dilution large and giant sized deposits of the rare earth e ree global economic supply and demand application of ree to petroleum systems application of rees in geological studies applications of rees geology of rees classification of rare earth elements to review the geology of rare earth elements. to d carbonates porosity types porosity in carbonate dissolution porosity in sandstone dual porosity in sandstone progressive destruction of bedding through biotur grain packing in sandstone factors that affect porosity in sandstones sandstones porosity types porosity in sandstone porosity values porosity calculated effective porosity absolute (or total) porosity pore space porosity classification secondary (induced) porosity primary (original) porosity origins of porosity in clastics and carbonates types porosity porosity definition reservoir porosity l-bar and t-bar sequences common siliciclastic stratigraphic successions generalized (siliclastic) shoreline profile with carbonate depositional environments sedimentary facies changes and facies models facies sequences facies associations facies analysis depositional systems analysis sedimentary (litho) facies types of unconformities stratigraphy boundaries lithostratigraphy actualism classification of clastic sedimentary rocks depositional environment setting types of sedimentary environments sedimentary depositional environments or barred) middle east north africa precambrian co compression basin restriction's impact on source rocks climate economic tight gas reservoir production tight gas reservoir hydraulically fractured fracturing/refracturing formation damage carbonate reservoir heterogeneity impact of bioturbation on reservoir heterogeneity scales of fluvial reservoir heterogeneity fluvial sandstone reservoirs hierarchical scales of siliciclastic geologic rese diagenetic and reservoir quality and heterogeneity reservoir heterogeneity in sandstone bodies levels of reservoir heterogeneity assessing reservoir heterogeneity factors causing reservoir heterogeneity classification of heterogeneity/ scales of geologi styles of geologic reservoir heterogeneity fractured reservoir facies carbonate reservoir facies siliciclastic reservoir facies reservoir characterizations reservoir types petroleum reservoirs global natural gas production natural gas resources evolution of global natural gas reserves by region uses of natural gas various products (or fractions) of raw gas types of natural gas resources condensate natural gas types of natural gas liquids types of natural gas dry and wet natural gas characterization natural gas natural gas composition tight gas coalbed methane the resource triangle types of natural gas resource worldwide unconventional gas production unconventional resources unconventional gas reservoir shale gas production cost curve evaluation shale gas roadmap to shale gas shale gas play produce the shale gas main shale gas reservoir characterization shale gas revolution current management practices for disposal of cbm p irrigation of crops with cbm water what is sodic water and why is it considered sodic what is saline water and why is it considered sali cbm product water coal seams as aquifers benefits of cbm how do we estimate the amount of methane gas which what and why cbm? or coal-mine methane (cmm) coal seam gas (csg) coal bed methane (cbm) world estimate of tight oil tight oil solutions tight oil challenges light tight oil (lto) recovery techniques to produce from tight reservoir logging in tight reservoir factors to consider for tight reservoir characteristic of tight reservoir principle types of tight reservoir inhibitor injection depressurization gas production methods form hydrates’ thermal stim production from hydrates where are gas hydrates located? depositional environment of methane hydrate do we have the technology to extract methane from resource pyramid for gas hydrates world gas hydrate resource gas hydrate stability conditions gas hydrate petroleum system: the stability of methane hydrate in nature types of methane hydrate deposits concern associated with gas hydrate structural geometries of gas hydrates typical hydrate forming gases hydrates fundamentals hydrate clathrates fracturing challenges in unconventional gas reserv functions of the fracturing fluid the hydraulic fracturing processes why we fracture shale gas wells…! key considerations for hydraulic fracturing of gas why cause and effect with respect to production ar what can we control during a fracture treatment? fracturing materials the hydraulic fracturing process described the importance of complex hydraulic fracture geome etc.) is given for its application to shale gas pr concept being developed commercially applied the status of the technique (for instance and some considerations on costs are given. final and its rationale (reasons for use) is identified. an overview is given. the technique is then brief patent databases and commercial websites. for ea by searching the open literature mercury removal dehydration acid gas removal gas processing anti-surge and performance compressors scrubbers and reboilers heat exchangers gas treatment and compression treating natural gas heater- treater (or flow treater or emulsion treat water removal treating oil-field emulsions emulsion low-temperature separation method stage separation method separation methods types of separators principles and operation of production separators separating and treating well fluids floating lng (flng) revolutionary lng technologies: flng and fsru pipeline network liquefacation lng markets (r)evolution liquefied natural gas (lng) movement: lng offshore pipelines types of pipelines natural gas infrastructure: pipeline systems movement: pipelines and storage movement of natural gas global movement of natural gas lng transportation sales lng/gas specifications quality of lng lng a safe fuel? liquefied natural gas (lng) life cycle how much does lng cost? storage major natural gas trade movements tänker shipping pipe transportation compressor drive efficiency liquefaction :train size lng industry and technology (or lng value chain) production of lng liquefied natural gas (lng) production process ;underground mining methods; extracted metal; mini extracted mining prospecting; mineral exploration; mining methods; surface mining methods; mechanical oil shale; shale; oil; heavy oil; extract oil well log; types of logs; the bore hole image; int reservoir mapping; petroleum; oil; subsurface; gas density/neutron; factors affecting on log readings types of well logs theories of measurement. ssp sp (spontaneous potential) sonic shale-base line& sand line self potential log resistivity logs resistivity (induction) gem minerals industrial minerals non-metallic mineral deposits metallic ores practical prospector's guide to minerals rock-form 8- التفسفر " "phosphorescence fluorescence التفلر luminescence التضوء tarnish التصدؤ "streak المخدش opalescence للألأء خاصية الأوبال play of color عرض اللون color اللون the physical characteristics of minerals الخواص ا معادن سليكات التيتراهيدرون المنفرد neosilicates م لخواص الضوئية المعادن "minerals" خواص المعادن و خطوات التعرف wadi el noaman wadi nassib umm bogma wadi el arish gini el deheissa budra abu natash copper sulfur turquoise kaolinitic clay limestone coal abu zenima musabba salama farsh el ghozlan metallic deposits in sinai south sinai sinai uranium resources; uranium reserves in egypt; conv nonconventional u-types egyptian uranium zeolites industry trends zeolites market forecast middle east market of zeolites north american market of zeolites asia pacific market of zeolites market of zeolites zeolites demand by region adsorbents catalysts structure detergent powders zeolites consumption global zeolites demand manufacturers zeolite zeolites production world zeolites production worldwide zeolite resources application zeolite world asbestos production by type world asbestos production where asbestos is found type of asbestos uses of asbestos properties of asbestos c osha’s asbestos standard most common types of asbestos asbestos fibrous min mining of asbestos asbestos grades applications of asbestos fibres application of asbestos amphibole asbestos uses of vermiculite egyptian vermiculite eastern desert gabal hafafit area vermiculite occurrences production and reserves of vermiculite vermiculite expansion processing vermiculite grades of vermiculite typical vermiculite properties الرمال ، رتب وانواع الرمال، extraction of silicon typical grading curves for processed glass sand industrial sand applications formation of silica sand grade sand silica sand gypsum filler minerals perlite barite wollastonite pyrophyllite clay calcium carbonate black onyx mexico blocks; tropical blue- blue-grey types of dimension stones ; granite block pink gra natural rock types rocks’ blocks ornamental stones dimension stones رخام منطقة ادفو المنيا مصادر الرخام في مصر تركيب الرخام ابداع الرخام natural stone recycle materials shrinkage of aggregates physical properties of aggregates types of aggregates void slag crushed rock aggregate stones rock jetty breakwaters sea defences geotextiles wirral coastal erosion rip-rap continuous mechanical excavation one control room value chain metal supply mining future nanopigments subatomic level sol-gel method nanoclay nanocomposite nanostructures application of nanoclay nanomaterials nano-kaolin nanotechnology atomic level types synthetic nature processes tidal power (waves and tides) flowing water (hydroelectric) hydropower biomass energy landfill methane wave geothermal energy (geothermal power) wind energy solar energy: (energy from sunlight hydrogen energy zeolite catalysts molecular sieves dehydration and rehydration cation exchange hurghada st. john's island pharaohs geziret el zabargad egyptian islands red sea islands giftun island nile islands el atshan gabal gattar sitra lake uranium occurrences in pan-african younger granite um ara categories of egyption uranium deposits categories of uranium deposits uranium deposits in egypt uranium occurrence in the egypt wadi araba as well as in sabkha nugrus area ei-maghrabiya (el erediya and el missikat) vein types uranium occurrences in sedimentary rock sequences gabal qatrani gabal hafhuf (bahariya oases) hamash um gheig zn-pb mine maakal genina gharbia atshan cu-ni-co ara east and ara west gabbro akarem abu gurdi um garayiat egat darhib helgit um samuki abu swayel copper deposits in egypt qusseir‐safaga phosphate deposits red sea coast phosphate idfu‐qena phosphate deposits new valley phosphate nile valley phosphate phosphate microfacies dakhla phosphate abu tartur ore phosphate hadrabia um nar gabal semna um anab wadi el dabbah wadi kareim abu marawat gabal um shaddad iron ore deposit of sedimentary nature diwan banded iron ore deposits wadi um ghamis el zarqa el emra gabal el hadid halaib "elba" district manganese ore deposits elba manganese deposits in eastern desert wadi abu shaar el qibli (black hill) wadi mialik near abu ghosun um bogma district manganese deposits in sinai peninsula northern sinai coast main occurrences of ti-fe oxide deposits in egypt massive type interlayer with gabbroic rocks in the abu ghalaga ore deposit korabkanci titano-magnetite ore egyptian black sand placer deposits type rashid east abu ghalaga ilmenite ore deposit categories occurrences of asbestos magnesite and talc asbestos-vermiculite deposits in mg-rich metapelit corundum migif-hafafit mineralization distribution of the ophiolite in egypt ore types chromite ore deposits in egypt classification of mineral deposit in egypt egyptian metallic ores mineral commodities egyptian mining egypt mineral resources egyptian mineral industry mineral deposits known t possible areas for investment in mineral industry pollutant underground mines settings ventilation ventilation control fans laws of ventilation rules for calculation of air requirements dividers air flow ig farben process magnetherm process dead burned magnesia fused magnesia production process beneficiation and mineral processing of magnesium pidgeon process magnesite dolomite thermal reduction of magnesium oxide fused magnesia caustic calcined magnesia mintek process magnesium extraction by electrolytic processes sea water property characterization of clay minerals structure of clay adsorbed ion charge (inner sphere complex charge a isomorphous substitution origins of charge deficiencies different silicate clay minerals types of clay minerals china clay processing interaction of clay particles charged” clay particles cation exchange capacity ion hydration hydrogen bond clay-water interaction swelling clays osmotic pressure clay grades diffuse double layer imperfections in the crystal lattice -isomorphous cation replaceability production magnesium hydroxide and calcium chlori solvay process for the manufacture of soda ash lime purposes for the utilize of soda ash production of lime hardening of plaster magnesium classification of hydrated lime lime cycle production of magnesium from seawater and dolomite purposes for the utilize of lime industrial uses of limestone process for production magnesium and calcium chlor feldspar in ceramic manufacture bauxite hall-héroult process bayer process alumina production feldspar in glass manufacture cryolite preparation of fused alumina separation of heavy minerals from black sand/sand processing sand zircon to zirconium sand into silicon-silicon carbide beneficiation and mineral processing of sand and ti-bearing minerals heavy mineral sand sand and silica sand challenges factors gtl – challenge oil market demographic factors rowth factors contracts speculation brent crude trading hedging pot market contract specifications wti prices difference between light sweet crude complex strategies dated brent crude oil futures trading oil and natural gas value chain; petroleum indust growth factors for oil market; demographic factors gtl – challenge for the oil market after 2020 principal challenges for oil market suction cutter dredges bucket wheel hydraulic dredges hydraulicking mining dredging mining types of excavation methods using dredging placer mining bucketline dredges placer mining costs mineral reserves geological database configuration indicated mineral resources resource evaluation reserve definition inferred mineral resources mine geology responsibilities measured mineral resources mineral resource and reserve declarations and asse feasibility study mineral resource asset management choice of mining and processing methods processes and considerations surface and underground mining: what’s the diffe types of mining what determines the type of mining? choice of mining method what is mining? mineral supply and demand ore value and profitability of mining concentrations of metals what is an ore deposit? why do we need mines? depth of ore deposits structure of ore deposits thickness ore deposits shape of ore deposits conservation chemical and mineral characteristics of ores dip ore deposits degree of breakability stability of ore rocks life cycle of a metal resource lessening of ore deposit types of ore deposit environmental impacts of nonrenewable mineral reso stages in the life cycle of a mine project mine life cycle reclamation development exploration life cycle of deposits mine planning cycle exploitation life-cycle of a mine project bio-accumulative and toxi (pbt ) persistent harmful environmental effects of mining sources of metal pollution prospecting technology of solution mining; frasch process-sul equipment for production of brine solution mining sylvinite methods to control the size of the caverns technology of the salt production hot leaching solution mining of carnallitite with selective dissolution the effects of scheduling on the optimal outline manual design ultimate pit pit wall stability lerchs-grossman method computer methods open pit mining method a simple example floating cone method the management of pit optimization pit diameter pit slope strip ratio cutoff grade pit depth open pit bench terminology open pit optimization open pit stability bench bench height known recoverable resources quartz-pebble conglomerate deposits sandstone deposits uranium geology phosphorite and lignite deposits breccia complex deposits surficial deposits gabal gattar uranium uranium resources metasomatite deposits unconformity-related deposits intrusive deposits limestone deposits volcanic deposits radioactive elements production from mines vein deposits geochemical stability of iron-rich minerals manganese nodules principal iron-bearing minerals bog iron ore deposits ironstone (sedimentary iron) ore deposits sedimentary manganese deposits world resources iron deposit egyptian manganese ore deposits oil market at a junction structure of the crude oil market debate over reserves:pessimists and optimists non-opec supply opec supply annual production of crude oil main categories of participants in the internation global oil demand vs production by region through petroleum supply and demand outlook oil and total energy world consumption pipelines system: gas transportation advantages of pipeline transportation arab gas pipeline (agp) jetty typical mode wise transportation crude oil & petr europe gas pipeline gas transmission pipelines crude oil / petroleum product transportation tankers pipelines system: crude oil transportation petroleum product pipeline operation deepwater oil bitumen conventional oil and unconventional oil oil sand coal liquefaction or gas to liquids heavy crude oil global discovered resource and yet-to-find opec countries unconventional prospective resources fractured source rock polar (arctic) oil abrasive nature abrasive minerals selected nature and synthetic abrasive minerals types of abrasive minerals good abrasive factors affecting rate of abrasion abrasive minerals synthetic abrasive minerals classification of abrasives mineralogy and mineral composition of phosphorite marine sedimentary phosphate deposits types of phosphorite deposits igneous phosphate deposits origin of phosphorite types of sedimentary phosphorite deposition use of phosphate biogenic (or guano bird global phosphate rock production world phosphate rock reserves and resources classification of phosphatic sedimentary marine ro or island) deposits potash deposits in dead sea evaporation sequence of seawater world potash mine production potash deposition continental non-marine marine evaporites evaporation of seawater inland lakes barred basins evaporate minerals salt (halite) deposition calcium sulfate deposition deposition from oceanic waters diagenesis of evaporites salt domes rates of evaporite deposition evaporites chemistry of evaporites surface sulfur mining frasch process sulfur usage underground sulfur mining world sulfur production origin of chert silica geochemistry flint bedded chert granular microquartz chert varieties megaquartz sources of silica in marine water opal (or opaline silica) chalcedony chert – problematic origin nodular cherts porcelanite jasper amorphous silica petroleum contracts agreement;egypt production sha petroleum reserves; oil resources; standardizatio benchmark of crude oil; west texas intermediate (w industrial minerals; non-metallic mineral deposi caving underground methods sublevel caving longwall block caving cut and filling stoping; underground mining method shrinkage stoping;; vertical crater retreat stopin underground mining methods sublevel; stoping room; pillar russian code jorc miocene -pliocene mesozoic paleogene eocene holocene mammal faunal paleocene neogene tertiary cenozoic oligocene cretaceous jurassic--lias-black jura dogger-brown jura belemnites keuper reptiles triassic malm -- white jura ammonites muschelkalk pangea permian crinoids mississippian gondwana carboniferous laurasia fauna flora silurian -devonian: facies ordovician paleozoic climate cambrian trilobites graptozon tectonics and paleoclimate mass extinction partial melting nature igneous rocks bowen’s reaction series lava magma differentiation magma fractional crystallization crystal systems elements of crystals crystallography metamorphic facies graphic representation mineral parageneses ceramics; application of ceramics;fabricating and mineral processing; beneficiation type bogue’s equations cement manufacture of portland cement type of cement processes clay minerals resources; nonrenewable; resources ; industrial m egypt: civilization and geology glass; sand; soda ash residual mineral deposits; laterites; laterite-typ oxidized zone chemical changes involved electrowinning gossans and cappings supergene zone morphology of zoning formation of copper oxides diamond-properties-famous crystals-production coun
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