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Chemistry Unit 2 Part 5 - The Representative Elements


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Chemistry Unit 2 Part 5 - The Representative Elements

  1. 1. Unit 2 Part 4 Organization of the Modern Periodic Table
  2. 2. Metals, Nonmetals, and Metaloids <ul><li>metals- those elements on the left side of the chart. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high luster, electrically conductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malleable </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>nonmetals- those elements on the right side of the chart. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no luster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brittle, nonmalleable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non conductive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>metaloids- elements with properties of both metals and nonmetals. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Representative Elements
  5. 5. The Transition Metals
  6. 6. Inner Transition Metals
  7. 7. Hydrogen <ul><li>Although in Group 1A, hydrogen shares few properties with other elements in the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. Over 90% of the mass in the universe is hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen can behave like a metal or a non- metal. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Alkali Metals <ul><li>Alkali (arabic al-qili – meaning “ashes of a saltwort plant”) </li></ul><ul><li>These Group 1A elements react with water to form alkaline (basic) solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are soft enough to cut with a knife </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Lithium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Least reactive in group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to Magnesium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Compounds: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lithium Hydride – Batteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lithium Carbonate – treat bipolar disorder. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Sodium and Potassium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most abundant of the Group 1A elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both react “vigorously” with water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium chloride – table salt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium chloride – “salt” substitute. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium Nitrate – explosive. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Alkali Earth Metals <ul><li>Alchemy used the word “earth” to describe elements that did not melt in fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Most compounds of this group do not dissolve in water. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Beryllium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to control nuclear reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to make tools for the petroleum industry </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential in humans for bones and teeth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium Carbonate – antacid, major component of limestone, chalk, and marble. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lime – calcium oxide. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful in the construction of strong and lightweight alloys. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium oxide – high melting point </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Strontium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fireworks “red” color </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to color glass. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some compounds used for medical diagnostics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly radioactive – once used to paint the hands on watches to glow in the dark. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Boron Group <ul><li>These elements are always found combined with other elements in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Boron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Least representative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borax – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borosilicate glass – withstands high temperature differences. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Aluminum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most abundant metal in the earth’s crust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bauxite – ore of aluminum oxide. It is used as an abrasive. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gallium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gallium Arsenide – converts solar energy from electricity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gallium based laser – “blue-ray” DVD players. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Carbon Group <ul><li>Wide range of properties within one group. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic and biological chemistry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganic compounds. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>Compounds of itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphite, Coal, Diamond. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allotropes – same elements in the same state with different structures and properties. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Silicon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in computer chips and solar cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silca – silicon dioxide. Major component of sand. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead was one of the first metals separated from ore. Once used for plumbing, now known to cause brain damage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Car batteries. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Nitrogen Group <ul><li>Nitrogen- colorless, odorless gas; makes up 78% of Earth’s atmosphere. Common element in explosives. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus – essential for plant growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Antimony, Arsenic, and bismuth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arsenic sulfide – toxic but used at one time to treat illness </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Antimony sulfide – makeup to darken eybrows. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bismuth- “Pepto-bismol” and in Wood’s alloy (fire sprinklers) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Oxygen Group (Chalcogens) <ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two common allotropes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 – 21% of the earth’s atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 3 – unstable gas that decomposes under heat and UV radiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most abundant element in earth’s crust. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow with multiple allotropes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur dioxide – emission responsible for acid rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen sulfide – “rotten egg” smell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver sulfide – silver tarnish </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Selenium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium Selenate - found in multivitamins. Works with Vitamin E to prevent cell damage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locoweed – contains toxic concentrations of selenium. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in solar panels, photocopiers, and microprocessors </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Polonium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely Toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered by Marie and Piere Curie (1898). Named for her homeland (Poland) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Halogens <ul><li>Flourine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most reactive nonmetal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added to toothpaste and drinking water to prevent decay. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although a toxic gas, is used to disinfect sewage and drinking water. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Bromine and Iodine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium Bromide, and Sodium Iodine coat photographic film. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goiter – condition where body is deprived of iodine. Ex: Iodized salt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water purification tablets. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Noble Gases <ul><li>Colorless and non reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Helium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by divers to prevent the bends. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found on earth in Natural gas wells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas is a leading supplier of Helium. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Neon, Argon, and Krypton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argon is used in high temperature welding to prevent combustion. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Radon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive gas </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Transition Metals <ul><li>“ B” Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Most are solids at room temperature with high melting points. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more unpaired electrons the greater the hardness and higher the melting point. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can vary in their loss of electrons </li></ul>
  32. 32. Inner Transition Metals <ul><li>Lanthanide Series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Silvery” metals with high melting points. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically found mixed together in nature and very difficult to refine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neodymium and Praseodymium – Welder’s Glasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yttrium oxide and europium oxide – TVs and CRTs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lanthanide – used in projectors and sunglasses </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Actinide Series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 3 exist in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transuranium element – synthetic elements exist beyond Atomic number 92. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plutonium – nuclear “fuel” for power plants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americium – smoke detectors. </li></ul></ul>