Silicon; Si Samantha Brossart Dr. WaltersCHE 120 fall semester, 2011
HistoryO Discovered by Jons Jacob Berzelius, a Swedish chemist in 1824O Silicon comes from the Latin word for flint; siexO Silicon is pronounced SIL-i-ken
PropertiesSilicon:O Is a solid at room temperature.O Melts at 1687 K (1414°C or 2577°F).O Boils at 3538 K (3265°C or 5909°F).O Has a density of 2.3296 grams per cubic centimetersO At room temperature two allotropes exist; amorphous and crystalline. O Amorphous appears as a brown power. O Crystalline has a metallic luster and a grayish color.
AvailabilityO Silicon is the seventh most abundant element in the universe and the second on the earths crust.O SiO2 Silicon dioxide is silicons most common compound, and also the most abundant compound in the earths crust. Commonly Silicon Dioxide takes the form of ordinary sand, but also exists as quartz, rock crystal, amethyst, agate, flint, jasper and opal
UsesO Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), also known as water glass, is used in the production of soaps, adhesives and as an egg preservative.O Silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) is used to create smoke screens.O Silicon is also an important ingredient in silicone, a class of material that is used for such things as lubricants, polishing agents, electrical insulators and medical implants.
ReferencesO Berzelius Jons Jacob. Scientific Identity. Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Web. 11 November 2011.O The Element Silicon. Jefferson Lab. Steve Gagnon. Web. 11 November 2011.O Mineral’s; Silicon. The Mineral Mine. Long Beach, CA. web. 11 November 2011.O Silicon Facts. About.com Chemistry. Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Web. 11 November 2011.