Game Design and GamificationKoreen Olbrish Karl KappSenior Product Manager, lyndaCampus, lynda.com Professor of InstructionalTechnology, AuthorSoon to be Author! BloomsburgUniversity@koreenolbrish @kkapp
Who are you?Why are you here?What’s yourfavorite game? Points: Weirdest personal anecdote
Designing Performance‐Based Instruction Facts Concepts Rules - Elaborating - Examples - If-Then - Organizing - Non-Examples - Cause/Effect - Association - Attribute Classification - Concept ApplicationProcedures Principles Problem-Solving- Whole to Part Review - Teach Model - Multiple Scenarios- Learn Parts - Behavior Checklist - Professional Experiences- Assemble Procedure - Examples - Realistic Application
Jargon Memorization Facts • Designing for Facts – Elaboration‐links new information with relevant prior knowledge • Superordinate‐context of new fact • Coordinate‐compare/contrast
Jargon Facts Memorization• Designing for Facts – Organizing—Placing facts into a logical grouping (chunking) • Tables • Diagrams • Lists • Models • Mnemonics Roy G. Biv
Declarative Knowledge Games Matching Multiple Choice Organization‐Drag/Drop
Researchers have found that the Yep, people tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity for more accurately if they encounter narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent. http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/index.php/2007/05/accidental‐learning‐and‐power‐of/
Categories Concepts Concrete• Designing for Concepts – Concept is a class of items that share common features and is known by a common name. • Example, Non‐Example • Attribute Classification
ConceptualKnowledge Games Examples Non‐ExamplesResults of Conceptual Understanding
Leadership Principles Trouble Shootin• Designing for Principles – Principle is a non‐sequential guideline that must be adapted to a specific situation. • Teach Model • Behavior Checklist • Examples
Problem‐Solving• Designing for Problem‐Solving – Problem is previously un‐encountered situation that requires the application of previously learned concepts, rules, procedures, principles • Teach Model • Behavior Checklist • Examples
Problem SolvingKnowledge Games Branching Simulation
Problem SolvingKnowledge Games Virtual 3D Environments
Energy efficiency certification requires a field test. Energy Observation
Interplay Energy, in partnership with the Residential Energy Services Network(RESNET) created a simulation to measureapplied knowledge and understanding like a physical field test.
Objectives included: • Gas line leak detection • Ambient CO testing • Unvented appliance testing (ovens and stove top burners primarily) • Proper equipment usage • Appliance identification • Combustion appliance Zone (CAZ) understanding • Worst Case Depressurization• Vented Appliance (furnace, boilers, water heaters) tests: spillage, CO, draft
Inventory ObservationKapp, K. & O’Driscoll T. ( 2010) Learning in 3D: Adding a new dimension to enterrpise learning and collaboration. Pfeffier. PP.416.
Learners journey through a series of activities designed to synthesize conceptual learning.
Learning changes from being Disembodied and Transactional to Embodied, Relational and Experiential.
Fostering Pro‐Social BehaviorGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211‐221.
Rules• A statement is presented – If “true” indicate: FactX – If “false” indicate: FishyX• Text Response:
In a Meta-Analysis…Knowledge retention forgames was 17% higher than Lecture.Is that Fact or Fishy?
Fact KnowledgeR % Higher etention Lecture 17% Discussion 5% Declarative 17%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
Percentages of Impact It wasn’t the game, it was level Type of of activity in the game. % Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% In other words, the engagement Procedural of the learner in the game leads 14% to learning. Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
Games/Simulations must be fun to be Educational. Is that Fact or Fishy?
FishySitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology
20% higher Fact confidence levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
An on-screen character isdistracting to the learner and does not facilitate learning as well as simple text. Is that Fact or Fishy?
On transfer tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character generated 30% more correct answers than the group with on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194.
Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?A. Person who watched an avatar that did not look like them runningB. Person who watched an avatar that looked like them runningC. Person watching an avatar that looked like them loitering /hanging out
Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering .Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group.Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 95-113.
Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
Two avatars are better than one?Motivator Mentor Expert Fact or Fishy?
Yes, two avatars are better than one. Fact Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles through pedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 15(1), 95-115. Expert
Learners remember facts better…When presented as bulletedlist rather than presented as a story. Is that Fact or Fishy?
Researchers have found that the Yep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity for more accurately if they encounter narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent. Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html
Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
One way to engage learners is to…Present them with a difficult challenge. Is that Fact or Fishy?
Fact. Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass
Re‐design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
Investigatory Training• Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Understand and Follow the Investigation Model
It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused her boss of embezzling $10,000. What is the first thing you should do?
Games can influencepeople to behave in a pro- social manner. Is that Fact or Fishy?
FactGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211‐221.
Take‐Away 1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention for declarative and procedural knowledge.2) Games/Simulations do not need to be fun to be educational. 3) On screen characters can enhance e‐learning. 4) Two on screen characters (mentor and expert) are better then one. 5) Onscreen avatars can influence off‐screen behavior. 6) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts. 7) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and motivate them. 8) Games can influence people to behave in a pro‐social manner.