Astdtk2013 workshopmaterials

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Astdtk2013 workshopmaterials

  1. 1. Game Design and GamificationKoreen Olbrish Karl KappSenior Product Manager, lyndaCampus, lynda.com Professor of InstructionalTechnology, AuthorSoon to be Author! BloomsburgUniversity@koreenolbrish @kkapp
  2. 2. Who are you?Why are you here?What’s yourfavorite game? Points: Weirdest personal anecdote
  3. 3. Designing Performance‐Based Instruction Facts Concepts Rules - Elaborating - Examples - If-Then - Organizing - Non-Examples - Cause/Effect - Association - Attribute Classification - Concept ApplicationProcedures Principles Problem-Solving- Whole to Part Review - Teach Model - Multiple Scenarios- Learn Parts - Behavior Checklist - Professional Experiences- Assemble Procedure - Examples - Realistic Application
  4. 4. Jargon Memorization Facts • Designing for Facts – Elaboration‐links new information with  relevant prior knowledge • Superordinate‐context of new fact • Coordinate‐compare/contrast
  5. 5. Jargon Facts Memorization• Designing for Facts – Organizing—Placing facts into a  logical grouping (chunking) • Tables • Diagrams • Lists • Models • Mnemonics Roy G. Biv
  6. 6. Declarative Knowledge Games Matching Multiple Choice Organization‐Drag/Drop
  7. 7. Combine First‐Person with  Teaching Factswww.gadgetsgamesandgizmos. © Karl M. Kapp 2007com
  8. 8. Researchers have found that the  Yep, people tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity for  more accurately if they encounter narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more  convincing when built into narrative  tales rather than on legal precedent. http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/index.php/2007/05/accidental‐learning‐and‐power‐of/
  9. 9. Categories Concepts Concrete• Designing for Concepts – Concept is a class of items that share common  features and is known by a common name. • Example, Non‐Example • Attribute Classification
  10. 10. ConceptualKnowledge Games Examples Non‐ExamplesResults of Conceptual  Understanding
  11. 11. Conceptual Orienteering
  12. 12. Conceptual Orienteering Triggers Episodic  Memory
  13. 13. Rules Moisture causes out of tolerance• Designing for Rules – Rule is a statement that expresses a relationship  between concepts. • If‐Then • Cause/Effect • Concept Application
  14. 14. SOPs Procedures Step-by-Step• Designing for Procedures – Procedure is a sequence of steps the learner  performs to accomplish a task. • Whole to Part Review • Learn Parts • Assemble  Procedure
  15. 15. Procedures - Whole to Part Review - Learn Parts - Assemble Procedurewww.gadgetsgamesandgizmos.com © Karl M. Kapp 2007
  16. 16. Leadership Principles Trouble Shootin• Designing for Principles – Principle is a non‐sequential guideline that must  be adapted to a specific situation.  • Teach Model • Behavior Checklist • Examples
  17. 17. Example
  18. 18. Learning: http://www.enspire.com/
  19. 19. Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/
  20. 20. Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.c
  21. 21. Problem‐Solving• Designing for Problem‐Solving – Problem is previously un‐encountered situation  that requires the application of previously learned  concepts, rules, procedures, principles • Teach Model • Behavior Checklist • Examples
  22. 22. Problem SolvingKnowledge Games Branching  Simulation
  23. 23. Problem SolvingKnowledge Games Virtual 3D  Environments
  24. 24. Energy efficiency  certification requires a  field test. Energy Observation
  25. 25. Interplay Energy, in partnership with the Residential Energy Services Network(RESNET) created a simulation to measureapplied knowledge and understanding like a physical field test.
  26. 26. Objectives included: • Gas line leak detection • Ambient CO testing • Unvented appliance testing (ovens and stove top burners primarily) • Proper equipment usage • Appliance identification • Combustion appliance Zone (CAZ) understanding • Worst Case Depressurization• Vented Appliance (furnace, boilers, water heaters) tests: spillage, CO, draft
  27. 27. Inventory ObservationKapp, K. & O’Driscoll T. ( 2010) Learning in 3D: Adding a new dimension to enterrpise learning and collaboration. Pfeffier. PP.416.
  28. 28. Learners journey through a series of activities designed  to synthesize conceptual  learning.
  29. 29. Learning changes from being Disembodied and Transactional to Embodied, Relational and Experiential.
  30. 30. Fostering Pro‐Social  BehaviorGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.  Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211‐221.
  31. 31. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  32. 32. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  33. 33. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  34. 34. 22% intervened
  35. 35. 56% intervened
  36. 36. Summary• See Matching Content Types to Game Designs  Worksheet
  37. 37. Create two assessment and game activities within this chart for next week.  Type of  Instructional Strategy Game You Developed Knowledge
  38. 38. Let’s PlayFact or Fishy…
  39. 39. Rules• A statement is presented – If “true” indicate: FactX – If “false” indicate: FishyX• Text Response:
  40. 40. In a Meta-Analysis…Knowledge retention forgames was 17% higher than Lecture.Is that Fact or Fishy?
  41. 41. Fact KnowledgeR % Higher etention Lecture 17% Discussion 5% Declarative 17%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  42. 42. Percentages of Impact It wasn’t the game, it was level  Type of  of activity in the game. % Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% In other words, the engagement  Procedural of the learner in the game leads  14% to learning. Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  43. 43. Games/Simulations must be fun to be Educational. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  44. 44. FishySitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  45. 45. Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge  than classroom instruction. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology
  46. 46. 20% higher  Fact confidence levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  47. 47. An on-screen character isdistracting to the learner and does not facilitate learning as well as simple text. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  48. 48. On transfer tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character generated 30% more correct answers than the group with on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194.
  49. 49. Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?A. Person who watched an avatar that did not  look like them runningB. Person who watched an avatar that looked  like them runningC. Person  watching an avatar  that looked like  them loitering /hanging out
  50. 50. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like  themselves run, learners were more likely to  run than watching an avatar not like them or  watching an avatar like them loitering .Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
  51. 51. If learners watch an avatar that looks  like them exercising & losing weight,  they will subsequently exercise more in  the real world as compared to a control  group.Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 95-113.
  52. 52. Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic  agents (avatars) even when their functionality and  adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
  53. 53. Two avatars are better than  one?Motivator Mentor Expert Fact or Fishy?
  54. 54. Yes, two avatars are better  than one. Fact Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles through pedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 15(1), 95-115. Expert
  55. 55. Learners remember facts better…When presented as bulletedlist rather than presented as a story. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  56. 56. Fishy
  57. 57. Researchers have found that the  Yep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity for  more accurately if they encounter  narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more  convincing when built into narrative  tales rather than on legal precedent. Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie  Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html
  58. 58. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  59. 59. Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
  60. 60. One way to engage learners is to…Present them with a difficult challenge. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  61. 61. Fact. Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North  Central Regional  Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and  Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass
  62. 62. Re‐design the Instruction to  Start with a Challenge
  63. 63. Investigatory Training• Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Understand and Follow the Investigation Model 
  64. 64. It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused her boss of embezzling $10,000. What is the first thing you should do?
  65. 65. Games can influencepeople to behave in a pro- social manner. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  66. 66. FactGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.  Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211‐221.
  67. 67. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  68. 68. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  69. 69. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  70. 70. 22% intervened
  71. 71. 56% intervened
  72. 72. Take‐Away 1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention  for declarative and procedural knowledge.2) Games/Simulations do not need to be fun to be educational. 3) On screen characters can enhance e‐learning. 4) Two on screen characters (mentor and expert) are better  then one. 5) Onscreen avatars can influence off‐screen behavior. 6) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts. 7) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and  motivate them.  8) Games can influence people to behave in a pro‐social  manner.
  73. 73. [insert client logo][insert name] Design DocumentDesign Document2/7/2013Harrisburg UniversityLTMS 531
  74. 74. Client Name[insert name] Design DocumentTable of ContentsTable of Contents .......................................................................................................................................... 2Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 4 ARG Goal ............................................................................................................................................ 4 Game Theme & Storyline .................................................................................................................. 4Instructional Strategy.................................................................................................................................... 5 Target Audience................................................................................................................................. 5 Learning Objectives ........................................................................................................................... 5Game Play ..................................................................................................................................................... 6 Learner Role....................................................................................................................................... 6 Game Structure ................................................................................................................................. 6 Team Structure .................................................................................................................................. 6 Non-Player Characters....................................................................................................................... 6 Clue Distribution ................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.Game Components ....................................................................................................................................... 7Tracking and Scoring ..................................................................................................................................... 8 Individual vs. Team ............................................................................................................................ 8 Storyline Points.................................................................................................................................. 8 Bonus Points and Content ................................................................................................................. 8Portal Functionality ....................................................................................................................................... 9 Player Perspective ............................................................................................................................. 9 District Manager of Internet Sales Perspective .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.Content ....................................................................................................................................................... 10 Scenarios.......................................................................................................................................... 10Schedule ...................................................................................................................................................... 11Appendix: Scenario Script ........................................................................................................................... 13© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 2
  75. 75. Client Name[insert name] Design Document Scenarios Overview ......................................................................................................................... 13 Scenarios Script ............................................................................................................................... 14© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 3
  76. 76. Client Name[insert name] Design DocumentIntroduction: Executive SummaryXXBusiness IssueXXGame GoalXXGame Theme & StorylineXXIntroduction to the GameXX© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 4
  77. 77. Client Name[insert name] Design DocumentInstructional StrategyTarget AudienceXXLearning Objectives 1. XX© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 5
  78. 78. Client Name[insert name] Design DocumentGame PlayLearner RoleXXGame StructureXXTeam Structure [if applicable]Non-Player CharactersXX XXAbout the Character: XXGame Role: XXXXAbout the Characters: XXGame Role: XXGame TechnologyXX© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 6
  79. 79. Client Name[insert name] Design DocumentGame ComponentsThe following graphics illustrate all components to be included in the game: [insert play flow elements]© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 7
  80. 80. Client Name[insert name] Design DocumentTracking and ScoringScoring in the game will be both individually tracked as well as team tracked.Individual vs. TeamXXStoryline Points [if applicable]XXBonus Points and Content [if applicable]XX© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 8
  81. 81. Client Name[insert name] Design Document[Technology] FunctionalityIn addition to standard functionality (eg, login, password management), the following is a list offunctionality from the perspectives of each player type for this game.Player PerspectiveXXCharacter PerspectiveXXPlayer Use CaseXX© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 9
  82. 82. Client Name[insert name] Design DocumentContentScenarios© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 10
  83. 83. Client Name[insert name] Design DocumentSchedule [How the game is rolled out/timed, if applicable]Date Description NotesBefore Week 1Week 1 –MondayWeek 1 –TuesdayWeek 1 –WednesdayWeek 1 –ThursdayWeek 1 – FridayWeek 2 –MondayWeek 2 –TuesdayWeek 2 –WednesdayWeek 2 –ThursdayWeek 2 – FridayWeek 3 –MondayWeek 3 –TuesdayWeek 3 –Wednesday© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 11
  84. 84. Client Name[insert name] Design DocumentWeek 3 –ThursdayWeek 3 – FridayPost-game© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 12
  85. 85. Client Name[insert name] Design DocumentAppendix: Scenario ScriptScenarios Overview© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 13
  86. 86. Client Name[insert name] Design DocumentScenarios Script© 2011 CONFIDENTIAL 14
  87. 87. ASTD TechKnowledge® 2013 Conference & Exposition Tuesday, January 29 Room 114GAME DESIGN AND GAMIFICATION WORKSHOP # 8 Karl M. Kapp, Ed.D. Professor, Instructional Technology Bloomsburg Unviersity kkapp@bloomu.edu 570-389-4849 Kapp Notes: http://www.uleduneering.com/kappnotes/ Koreen Olbrish Senior Product Manager, lyndaCampus lynda.com Handout
  88. 88. Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-2
  89. 89. Symbols and IconsBelow is a list of symbols and icons that will trigger you to important items within thisHandout Symbol/Word Meaning Note Important information for you to know or remember.? Question Write an answer or think about and write a response or ask a question. Write Take notes or write information into your learner guide. Think Think about a concept or idea.Definition Definition of a term you should know.Play Play a game or participate in an activity.IntroductionThis decidedly unacademic workshop provides a broad scientific overview of what weknow from research about the effectiveness of games and game-elements to changelearner behaviors. This engaging, exciting workshop shows you how to use the existingresearch literature in your own design and delivery of game-based learning. You will beprovided with tips and techniques for matching research findings to your own learningdesign for games and gamification. We’ll move the concepts from research to practicewith plenty of examples. We’ll even match game types with content types for bothinstructor-led training and elearning design.This interactive workshop includes many examples of using game-based learning forperformance improvement and highlights how organizations have used games to achievelearning success. And, yes, you will play and design a game in this workshop. Discoverhow research-based practices fit in with todays fast-paced need for quick, effectiveinstruction and how you can take elements such as Challenge, Feedback, Levels andStorytelling and create an engaging game-based learning experience.? QuestionThink about how you can use games for learning. Do you currently use games forlearning and how effective do you believe them to be?Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-3
  90. 90. Agenda9:00-9:30 Introductions and Getting StartedOf course we are starting with a game and then quickly debrief on what made that gamesuccessful and what would make it even better! Meet other attendees and begin to discusselements that make games appropriate for learning. This is learning by experience. We willdiscuss both online and classroom-based game and game design.9:30-10:15 Aligning Your Game to Business OutcomesThere is no point in creating a game in a business environment if it doesn’t help improveperformance. This section of the workshop discusses several methods for ensuring that thelearning objectives you establish in the game link to the business outcomes of your organization.This is necessary to ensure your game is a learning and business success.10:15-10:30 Break10:30-11:30 Overview of Game Design/Develop ProcessWhat does it take to design a game? What are the steps in the process and which are the mostcritical to success. This section discusses how games are design and provides tips and techniquesfor ensuring the game process produces a learning focused game.11:30-12:30 Conceptualizing and Creating a Game ConceptWhat does it take to design a game? What are the steps in the process and which are the mostcritical to success. This section discusses how games are design and provides tips and techniquesfor ensuring the game process produces a learning focused game.12:30-1:45 LunchHere is where we get food, put it in our mouths and eat it! Yum, everyone likes food especially inthe middle of the day, you don’t want to miss this basic need on Maslow’s Hierarchy.1:45-3:15 Paper Prototyping the GameThe best time to change a game is before it’s been programmed. In this section, we’ll take ourideas from the game concepts we’ve developed and play paper-based versions of our ideas. We’lltest our concepts and see if we can improve upon our concept.3:15-4:00 Development ConsiderationsHere we’ll look at a several different types of game development software . We’ll discuss“lessons learned” from the perspective of development and review a checklist that you need tokeep in mind for game development.4:00-4:15 Break4:15-5:00 Closing and share outIn this section, we’ll share lessons learned from the workshop, review the tools and techniques weleveraged to create our game concept and our paper prototypes and we’ll discuss the next stepsfor each individual.Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-4
  91. 91. ObjectivesIn this workshop, you will learn: • How to apply game-based strategies to the presentation of learning content. • Principles for adding games to learning curriculums. • Four motivational aspects of games that improve learning recall and application. • Six ideas for designing games for learning.? QuestionWhat is your goal for the workshop? Write down your goals for the workshop and makesure the instructor is on-target with meeting your needs. If not, ask questions and makesure you gain what you’d like from the information presented.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-5
  92. 92. Do Games Impact Learning?Before discussing the details and elements of games, let’s discuss the research behind theuse of games for learning and instruction.The chart below summarizes the findings from the article Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulationgames. Personnel Psychology. As indicated by Sitzmann, “Meta-analytic techniqueswere used to examine the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation gamesrelative to a comparison group (k=65, N=6,476). Consistent with theory, post-trainingself-efficacy was 20% higher, declarative knowledge was 11% higher, proceduralknowledge was 14% higher, and retention was 9% higher for trainees taught withsimulation games, relative to a comparison group. Type of Knowledge % Higher with Simulation/Games Declarative 11% Procedural 14%Sitzmann found that simulation games were 17% more effective than lecture and 5%more effective than discussion, the two most popular instructional methods in classroominstruction. Type of Delivery % Higher with Simulation/Games Lecture 17% Discussion 5%Sitzmann goes on to indicate that “Trainees learned more, relative to a comparison group,when simulation games conveyed course material actively rather than passively, traineescould access the simulation game as many times as desired, and the simulation game wasa supplement to other instructional methods rather than stand-alone instruction. However,trainees learned less from simulation games than comparison instructional methods whenthe instruction the comparison group received as a substitute for the simulation gameactively engaged them in the learning experience.”Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-6
  93. 93. GamesPlayWhat is a game? Before defining a game, let’s play a few. ThinkWhat do these games have in common? What makes them different? What makes agame, a game?Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-7
  94. 94. Cost of Serious Game DevelopmentThe chart below indicates the cost of creating interactive learning games at differentlevels. The chart also matches the different kind of game designs with the appropriatetype of knowledge best taught with each design.Type of Level of Interactivity Type ofGame Play Knowledge(Customer Development) Taught Low Medium HighExploration/Simulation $25,000- $35,000- $50,000- Problem-Engine/Free Play Area $35,000 $50,000 $150,000 SolvingBranching story, On-Line $10,000- $15,000- $30,000- ConceptualBoard Games $15,000 $30,000 $50,000 Knowledge/ RulesMatching, Trivia Games, $1,500- $3,000- $5,000- DeclarativeDrag and Drop Games $3,000 $5,000 $20,000 Knowledge/ Fact/JargonKarl M. Kapp ©2013 1-8
  95. 95. Elements of Games WriteLet’s think about the elements that make up a game. List the elements below.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-9
  96. 96. Defining the terms “Game” and “Gamification” WriteWrite your definition of a game below:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________DefinitionA game is a system in which players engage in an abstract challenge, defined by rules,interactivity and feedback that results in a quantifiable outcome often eliciting anemotional reaction.What is the concept of “Gamification”? Gaming (Serious ) Games Gamification Whole Part Toys Playful Design Playing From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”, Deterding, S. et. alDefinitionGamification is using game-based mechanics, aesthetics and game thinking to engagepeople, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems.”Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-10
  97. 97. Tell a StoryAlthough not commonly considered in the same sentence, storytelling and presentationshave a lot in common. In fact, in many areas they have a high degree of overlap. Inpresentations we have an agenda, in a story we have a plot. In presentations we havegoals or information we want to impart, in a story we have a morale or an underlyingtheme or symbolism. In storytelling we have characters; in presentations we want peopleto take action or perform a certain task.Elements of a StoryTo create a good story, the following elements must be present: • Characters • Plot (something happens) • Tension • Resolution • ConclusionAdding these elements together creates an effective story for a presentation. In fact,research shows that people remember and act upon facts more easily when those facts arecontained in a story than we the facts are presented in a list..According to an article in the May 22, 2007 issue of the New York Times, an article titledThis is Your Life (and How You Tell It) psychologists are starting to research howpeople tell their life stories as a method of gaining insight into the personalities of peopleand understanding how they learn.The article notes that: Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list… and [individuals] rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-11
  98. 98. Building a GameHere are a variety of key questions to consider when developing a role-play based game.The questions are designed to provide the foundation for the development of the game. 1. What is the performance objective supported by the game? How is it assessed? What are the learning objectives of the game? Concept to be In-Game Activity Assessment of Learning taught Negotiation skills Bartering and purchasing Learners will be required to related to supplies. (for example in a space purchase a jetpack and oxygen obtaining the game, Jetpacks might be rare tank within “the right price range” best price in the but extremely helpful within the based on the scarcity of the item. shortest time for game and, therefore, expensive Learners will be assessed based on a given product. and hard to obtain, while oxygen starting bid, subsequent bids and tanks might be abundant and amount of time to acquire object. easy to obtain.) Concept to be In-Game Activity Assessment of Learning taught 2. What is the plot? What happens during the game? 3. Where does the game study take place? Setting the scene.Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-12
  99. 99. Building a Game: Characters Use this chart to develop the characters for the game.Name Role/ Position Gender Attitude Attire RepresentsJohn Potential Male Friendly Shirt tie, Suit-no Elusive potential customer. Customer jacketMary Sales Female Helpful Business Casual Proper procedure for Representative initiating potential customer contact.Lou Ann Co-Worker Female Unfriendly Business Casual Provides critical information regarding pre- qualification of potential customer.USER New Sales N/A N/A N/A Person who needs to pre- Representative qualify John during the case study.Name Role/ Position Gender Attitude Attire Represents  Note Keep characters to a Limited in number of dimensions. Keep to a few key characters. Putting It All Together  Write Write a brief description of your game on a note book. Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-13
  100. 100. Matching Content Types to Game Designs (continued)Type of Definition Instructional Gamification ExampleKnowledge Strategies ElementsDeclarative An association between Elaboration Stories/Narrative TriviaKnowledge two or more objects. Organizing Sorting Hangman These are typically facts, Association Matching Drag and jargon and acronyms. Repetition Replayability Drop Content that must be memorized.Conceptual A grouping of similar or Metaphoric Matching and Wack aKnowledge related ideas, events or devices sorting Mole objects which have a Examples and Experiencing the You Bet! common attribute or a set non-examples concept of common attributes. Attribute classificationRules-Based A statement that Provide Experience Board gamesKnowledge expresses the examples consequences Simulated relationships between Role Play work tasks concepts. Rules provide parameters dictating a preferred behavior with predictable results.Procedural A series of steps that Start with the Software challenges SoftwareKnowledge must be followed in a big picture Practice scenarios, particular order to reach Teach “how” Equipment a specific outcome. Step- and “why”. simulations by-step instructions for performing a task.Soft Skills Non-sequential Analogies Social Simulator Leadership guidelines for dealing Role playing simulation with social interactions. This includes negation skills, leadership skills and selling skills.Affective Knowledge about Encourage Immersion Darfur isKnowledge attitudes, interest, values, participation Providing success Dying beliefs and emotions. Believing Encouragement success is from celebrity-type possible figures Celebrity endorsementPsychomotor The intersection of Observe Demonstration VirtualDomain physical skills and the Practice Haptic Devices Surgery cognitive knowledge. Simulator Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-14
  101. 101. Elements of a Game Design DocumentHere are the elements of a game design document. The idea is that by completing thegame design document, it helps the team envision the game.Element ExampleOverview of Concept The concept is to create a web-based single player online game for pharmaceutical sales representatives that provide engaging, relevant, and personalized learning on the topic of opening and closing a conversation with a physician. Topics covered in the game are tied to our ABC engagement model. The game is based on a realistic setting of a physician’s office. The game will happen from a third-person perspective and the learner will be evaluated on credibility, affability and the ability to become an information source for the physician.Outcome Pharmaceutical sales representatives will properly use the ABC model to gain more time with the physician and become a valuable resource to the physician.Instructional At the end of the game, the learners will be able to:Objectives • Properly apply the three steps of an ABC opening. • Properly apply the two steps of the ABC closing. • Appropriately prepare for a call on a physician. Affective • Behave in a warm, friendly, professional manner toward the physician.Description of The learners will be able to customize an avatar in terms of eyes, skin, hairCharacter(s) and be able to select different styles of cloths. The learners will interact with six NPCs, three female and three male each representing ethnic and personality diversity. The NPC physicians will each have different amounts of time they are able to spend with the sales representative.Environment Home office for the learner and then six different offices, the learner will walk their character to a car which has a map on the passenger’s seat. The map has images each representing a different physician’s office location. The learner will click on the map to arrive at the front door of that location. Six physician offices need to be created. Office one: Rural small family practice. Older filing cabinets, small waiting room space with six chairs. Office two:….Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-15
  102. 102. Elements of Game Design DocumentElement ExampleDescription of Upon entering into the Learning Management System and launching theGameplay game, the learner is placed into an office where customization can occur. After the learner customizes their avatar, they hear an audio of a phone ringing. They must click on the phone to answer it. At that time, the voice provides them with instructions on how to navigate through the game. At the end of the call, instructions are given as to the next step. When the call is over, the learner must click on the computer to view a list of physicians. Each image and name is clickable to receive more information. The learner must then prioritize the list to decide in what order to visit the physicians. Next…Reward Structure The points in this game will be based on three variables. These variables are credibility, affability and the ability to become an information source for the physician. Each will be scored separately and then an overall score will be provided called the “Engagement Score.” Within the game, a focus will be on a mastery orientation toward the goal. This means each learner works to master the content in the game and overall score is not related to any other learner’s scores. Feedback will be provided immediately with an unobtrusive popup accompanied by a longer explanation available after play.Look and Feel of The goal is to provide a realist looking avatar in three dimensions. The playerGame will be able to see both the front and back of the avatar through a spinning function. The environment will contain 3D objects that are typical colors, black phone, gray computer terminal, brown brief case. The heads up display will contain six elements. The first is…Technical Description This game will be developed using Caspian’s ThinkingWorlds software to provide the 3D environment that is required. The game will be accessed via the corporate intranet and will not require any client downloads. The results need to flow into our learning management system when the player completes the game in a compatible format. Additionally, …Timeline This can be a Gantt Chart or other method of showing the estimated time to complete the project.Karl M. Kapp ©2013 1-16

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