Busting Learning                 MythsBy Karl M. KappBloomsburg University                        Twitter:@kkappMay 4, 201...
Let’s PlayFact or Fishy…
Rules• A statement is presented  – If “true” indicate: FactX  – If “false” indicate: FishyX• Text Response:
When teaching a process, such as anSOP, you should…Teach system componentsbefore teaching the fullprocess. Is that Fact   ...
Teach each component individually, then                 the learner is prepared to assimilate the                 stages o...
An animation is alwaysmore effective for learningthan a series of staticimages. Is that Fact   or Fishy?
A number of studies have failed to find that animations are         more effective than a series of static frames depictin...
Research is focused on Conceptual Information,        understanding of processes…like mechanism of action.            Anim...
Drag and drop a shapeonto the image.
Write the words“Informal Learning” inthe shape.                         Then right click and                         selec...
Select “3-D Format”.
Hi, how are you doing?...The tone of e-learningshould be informal andconversational. Is that Fact     or Fishy?
In 5 out of 5 studies, learners who learned                   with conversational text performed better                   ...
Formal:This program is about what type of bacteria cansurvive on different types of surfaces when preparing food.For each ...
An on-screen character isdistracting to the learner anddoes not facilitate learningas well as simple text. Is that Fact   ...
On transfer tests involving different word problems, the         group who had a character generated 30% more correct     ...
Two avatars are better                 than one?Motivator                             Mentor Expert     Fact or Fishy?
Yes, two avatars are          better than one.                                                         Fact             Mo...
When a graphic is the focus ofinstruction…Words should be presentedas text on screen ratherthan spoken. Is that Fact     o...
Learners may experience an overload of their visual/         pictorial channel when they must simultaneously process      ...
Learners remember facts better…When presented as bulletedlist rather than presented asa story.Is that Fact    or Fishy?
Researchers have found that the                   Yep, People tend to remember facts  human brain has a natural affinity  ...
NikePlus Stats for Karl
Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
One way to engage learners is to…Present them with a difficultchallenge. Is that Fact    or Fishy?
Fact.                  Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learnin...
Re-design the Instruction to  Start with a Challenge
Investigatory Training• Course Objectives  – Identify the Forms Required for an    Investigation  – Practice Interview Tec...
It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling ...
Games are effective tools for learningbecause…They provide interactivity tothe learner and forcecognitive processing. Is t...
It wasn’t the game, it was the level of                 interactivity within the game.                                    ...
Games can influencepeople to behave in a pro-social manner.Is that Fact   or Fishy?
FactGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocialbehavior. Journal of Personality and Soc...
28% helped to   pick up   pencils
33% helped to   pick up   pencils
67% helped to   pick up   pencils
22%intervened
56%intervened
Recommendations1) Craft instruction to provide opportunities to increase   engagement and interactivity to increase learni...
Recommendations7) When a graphic is the focus of instruction words should   be spoken rather than presented as text.8) Use...
Questions   ?            Book Signing
Busting Learning Myths: Fact of Fishy
Busting Learning Myths: Fact of Fishy
Busting Learning Myths: Fact of Fishy
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Busting Learning Myths: Fact of Fishy

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This presentation was given at the 2012 UL Eduneering Knowledge Summit. Here is the description:

Thought you knew about learning design and instruction? Test yourself as Learning myths are presented and exposed in this interactive question and answer session. Once the myths are exposed, we will discuss remedies to each myth based on the latest educational research. This evidenced-based presentation will provide you with the tools, evidence, and techniques you need to go back into your organization and present, design or purchase training that makes a difference.

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Busting Learning Myths: Fact of Fishy

  1. 1. Busting Learning MythsBy Karl M. KappBloomsburg University Twitter:@kkappMay 4, 2012 kkapp@bloomu.edu
  2. 2. Let’s PlayFact or Fishy…
  3. 3. Rules• A statement is presented – If “true” indicate: FactX – If “false” indicate: FishyX• Text Response:
  4. 4. When teaching a process, such as anSOP, you should…Teach system componentsbefore teaching the fullprocess. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  5. 5. Teach each component individually, then the learner is prepared to assimilate the stages of the entire process. Fact Otherwise you risk overloading the learner’s memory by presenting everything all at once.Clark, R., Nguyen, F. & Sweller, J. (2006) Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load.New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 162-165.
  6. 6. An animation is alwaysmore effective for learningthan a series of staticimages. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  7. 7. A number of studies have failed to find that animations are more effective than a series of static frames depicting the same material. Why: Learners have to mentally animate content in still graphics. Learners control pace and speed of information presented. Memory is not overloaded by rich detail and transitory nature of presentation.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 84-86.
  8. 8. Research is focused on Conceptual Information, understanding of processes…like mechanism of action. Animations work well when showing hands on procedures and transformational changes such as an animated demonstration of a computer procedure.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 84-86.
  9. 9. Drag and drop a shapeonto the image.
  10. 10. Write the words“Informal Learning” inthe shape. Then right click and select “Format Shape.”
  11. 11. Select “3-D Format”.
  12. 12. Hi, how are you doing?...The tone of e-learningshould be informal andconversational. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  13. 13. In 5 out of 5 studies, learners who learned with conversational text performed better on subsequent transfer tests than students who learned with formal text. Fact Learners produced between 20 to 46 percent more solutions to transfer problems than the formal group.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 184-185.
  14. 14. Formal:This program is about what type of bacteria cansurvive on different types of surfaces when preparing food.For each type of bacteria a solution will be described.The goal is to learn which conditions allow bacteria tosurvive on what surface. Some hints are providedthroughout the program.Informal:You are about to learn about different types of bacteria and howthey can survive on different types of surfaces when preparingfood. For each type of bacteria a solution will be described toyou. Your goal is to learn which conditions allow bacteria tosurvive on what surface. I will be guiding you by givinghints.
  15. 15. An on-screen character isdistracting to the learner anddoes not facilitate learningas well as simple text. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  16. 16. On transfer tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character generated 30% more correct answers than the group with on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194.
  17. 17. Two avatars are better than one?Motivator Mentor Expert Fact or Fishy?
  18. 18. Yes, two avatars are better than one. Fact Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles throughpedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence inEducation, 15(1), 95-115. Expert
  19. 19. When a graphic is the focus ofinstruction…Words should be presentedas text on screen ratherthan spoken. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  20. 20. Learners may experience an overload of their visual/ pictorial channel when they must simultaneously process graphics and the printed words that refer to them. When visuals are relatively complex, using audio allows the learner to focus on the visual while listening to the explanation.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 117.
  21. 21. Learners remember facts better…When presented as bulletedlist rather than presented asa story.Is that Fact or Fishy?
  22. 22. Researchers have found that the Yep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity more accurately if they encounter for narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times.Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html
  23. 23. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  24. 24. Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
  25. 25. One way to engage learners is to…Present them with a difficultchallenge. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  26. 26. Fact. Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educationalreform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action planfor educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
  27. 27. Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
  28. 28. Investigatory Training• Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Understand and Follow the Investigation Model
  29. 29. It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling $10,000.What is the first thing you should do?
  30. 30. Games are effective tools for learningbecause…They provide interactivity tothe learner and forcecognitive processing. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  31. 31. It wasn’t the game, it was the level of interactivity within the game. Fact In other words, the engagement of the learner in the game leads to the learning.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructionaleffectiveness of computer-based simulation games. PersonnelPsychology .Review of 65 studies
  32. 32. Games can influencepeople to behave in a pro-social manner.Is that Fact or Fishy?
  33. 33. FactGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocialbehavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211-221.
  34. 34. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  35. 35. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  36. 36. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  37. 37. 22%intervened
  38. 38. 56%intervened
  39. 39. Recommendations1) Craft instruction to provide opportunities to increase engagement and interactivity to increase learning.2) Teach system components before teaching the entire process.3) Animations are not always the best tool for teaching concepts. Static images tend to work better.4) Tone of elearning should be conversational.5) On screen characters can enhance elearning.6) Two on screen characters (mentor and expert) are better then one.
  40. 40. Recommendations7) When a graphic is the focus of instruction words should be spoken rather than presented as text.8) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts.9) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and motivate them.10)Games can influence people to behave in a pro-social manner.
  41. 41. Questions ? Book Signing

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