Games, Gamification and Interactivity for Learning


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Games, Gamification and Interactivity for Learning

  1. 1. Games, Interactivity and  Gamification for Learning By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning &Instruction  EMAIL: TWITTER: @kkapp BLOG:‐notes/
  2. 2. Covert Takeaway Challenge
  3. 3. Presentation Ripped  from the pages…
  4. 4. Notes Slides Additional Ideas
  5. 5. 4 2 3
  6. 6. What variables do I balance to keep my person happy? Work Life Harmony How should I manage my time?
  7. 7. What leadership strategy should I use?
  8. 8. I am going to  need more  coffee.
  9. 9. Not another  online  lecture.
  10. 10. Sorry, had you  on mute, could  you repeat the  question.
  11. 11. “Study of 2,300 people found only 6% of  organizations are successful in influencing  behavior change among employees.” ‐‐Al Switzler
  12. 12. What is this “game” stuff? Gamification is using game-based mechanics, aesthetics and game-thinking to engage people, motivate action promote learning, and solve problems. Game-based Learning is the use of a game to teach knowledge, skills and abilities to learners using a self-contained game. Simulation Learning is a realistic, controlledrisk environment where learners can practice specific behaviors and experience the impacts of their decisions.
  13. 13. We need to think more like Game Designers
  14. 14. The Dragon Slayer Mission
  15. 15. You are a game designer at SuperGame Corporation which has hit some hard times lately.
  16. 16. It is Friday at 4:55 PM and you only have two things on you mind… 
  17. 17. Hey someone wants us to create a game about slaying dragons.
  18. 18. We are competing internally for the project. Winning team earns the right to work on the project.
  19. 19. Two Development Teams teama teamb
  20. 20. Rules • A statement is presented – Choose the best response • Text Keyword Response: – To 37607 Standard Texting Fees  Apply!  Take out  your text‐ machines
  21. 21. How To Respond via Texting Amaze Inamaze alright TIPS 1. Polleverywhere has no access to your phone number 2. Capitalization doesn’t matter, but spaces and spelling do Amaze
  22. 22. Each team will be confronted with a series of questions. The team that correctly answers the questions wins the work.
  23. 23. What about the other team?
  24. 24. Losers are assigned to “watching paint dry” game development.
  25. 25. Wow, I heard about that project, its almost as fun as… never mind. Dragon Slaying is much better.
  26. 26. First decision about this dragon slaying game is how to start the game…what should the players first in-game experience be?
  27. 27. You have two choices: Tell the player three things he/she needs to know about slaying dragons. or Begin with a fight between the player and a small, dangerous dragon.
  28. 28. Why does this answer make sense? Not Sure?
  29. 29. Good game designers know that games are engaging because they require action right away. Action draws in the player and encourages further engagement. Start by battling a dragon.
  30. 30. Research indicates that learners who used interactive games for learning had the greater cognitive gains over learners provided with traditional classroom training. Vogel, J. J., Vogel D.S., Cannon‐Bowers, J., Bowers, C.A., Muse, K., & Wright, M. (2006). Computer gaming and  Interactive simulations for learning: A meta‐analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 34(3), 229‐243. 
  31. 31. Too often instructional design is about the content and not about the actions that need to occur. Game Design is about action.
  32. 32. Ok, next decision. Provide a map with the location of all the dragons. or Create a sense of mystery and curiosity concerning the location of dragons.
  33. 33. It is always a good idea to build curiosity and mystery into a game. Reveal locations of dragons throughout the course of the player’s journey.
  34. 34. Here are some of my notes on the subject.
  35. 35. A sense of suspense, mystery and intrigue draws people into games and can draw them into learning as well.
  36. 36. OK, next decision, should we: Make the game easy so we don’t discourage the players. or Make the game challenging, knowing some players will fail the first few times.
  37. 37. It needs to be challenging. Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology  for educational reform. North Central Regional  Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing  better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass. Chapter 2  “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  38. 38. In fact, give them the Kobayashi Maru of challenges.
  39. 39. Harsh!
  40. 40. Look! Things that are too easy or too difficult will not pique a learner’s interest because they lead to boredom or frustration. Research has shown that challenge is correlated with both intrinsic motivation and motivation related to the desire to seek competence and self confidence. White, R.W. (1959) Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297‐333. 
  41. 41. Well said!
  42. 42. Well, the next decision, should we: Put the player at risk, they could die at any moment. or Let the player safely explore the environment.
  43. 43. Seriously, you are asking me this question. The player needs to be at risk.
  44. 44. No risk, or danger equal no skin in the game. Get the player emotionally involved by putting him or her at “mock” risk.
  45. 45. In games, failing is allowed, it’s acceptable, and it’s part of the process. Games accommodate failure with multiple lives, second chances and alternative methods of success.
  46. 46. Do you punish failure in your learning design or do you allow and encourage the freedom to fail?
  47. 47. Last decision, should we: Give player choices about what level to enter the game. or Create one path for every player.
  48. 48. Choices, players need choices. Look, let me tell you what motivates people.
  49. 49. People are motivated when they have autonomy, mastery and relatedness.
  50. 50. Hey, isn’t that the Self-Determination Theory?
  51. 51. Why, yes…yes it is.
  52. 52. When given control over their learning, research has shown that learners invested more and attempted more complex strategies than when they had no control. So give learners control. Cordova, D.I., & Lepper M. R. (1996) Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: Beneficial effects of  contextualization, personalization and choice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 715‐730
  53. 53. Lot of information, thanks. So let me ask one more question.
  54. 54. Ok, so which team won?
  55. 55. Well, there all winners to me….
  56. 56. Ugh….
  57. 57. How about a re-cap…
  58. 58. Slide courtesy of Angel Green of Allen Interactions Twitter: @LearnerAdvocate
  59. 59. Here are five tips to help an instructional designer to think like a game designer: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Begin with activity Create curiosity, mystery, intrigue Create a challenge for the learner Put learners at “mock” risk Give learners meaningful choices
  60. 60. Covert Takeaway Challenge
  61. 61. Copy of Slides and Notes available at Contact Karl at:
  62. 62. Covert Takeaways • • • • Learning should be engaging. Stories provide a context for learning. It is ok for a learner to struggle. Simply adding points, badges and  leaderboards does not make learning  effective.