Instructional Design Today: What We Really Need to Know as Practitioners, Researchers, and Designers


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What is the best way to design instruction for today's technology tools, for standup instruction, and for workday e-learning? What do practitioners need to know right now to develop effective instruction? What does research and practice tell us about effective instruction? This session will show you how instructional strategies can be applied to a variety of technologies to produce effective, efficient instruction that changes behavior and influences learners. Discover how the instructional design process can be modified to fit today's fast-paced need for quick, effective instruction. Follow an abbreviated instructional design process -Apply the keys to creating instruction that changes behavior -Match the right content to the right instructional strategies

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  • Teaching young doctors how to distinguish heart sounds. After hearing a recording of different heart sounds about 500 times, young doctors reliably discriminate among different sounds made by various heart problems. Before listening to the recordings, the young doctors correctly identified only 50 percent of the heart sounds; after they test they could identify 80 percent of the sounds correctly.
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  • Instructional Design Today: What We Really Need to Know as Practitioners, Researchers, and Designers

    1. 1. Instructional Design Today: What We Really Need to Know as Practitioners, Researchers, and Designers Karl Kapp, Ed.D., CFPIM, CIRM Professor, Instructional Technology Assistant Director, Institute for Interactive Technologies Bloomsburg University, Bloomsburg, PA Performance Interactivity E-Learning ISD
    2. 2. Agenda Follow an Abbreviated ID Process. Apply the Keys to Instruction that Changes Behavior. Match the Right Content to the Right Instructional Strategies . 1 2 3
    3. 3. Keep Up with Latest Thinking on the Topic: Google “Kapp Notes”
    4. 4. Book Signing Immediately After this Session in the Book Store!!!
    5. 5. Designing Performance-Based Instruction Facts Concepts Rules - Elaborating - Organizing - Association - Examples - Non-Examples - Attribute Classification - If-Then - Cause/Effect - Concept Application Procedures Principles Problem-Solving - Whole to Part Review - Learn Parts - Assemble Procedure <ul><li>- Teach Model </li></ul><ul><li>- Behavior Checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>- Multiple Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>- Professional Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic Application </li></ul>
    6. 6. Facts <ul><li>Designing for Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaboration-links new information with relevant prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superordinate-context of new fact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate-compare/contrast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional Detail </li></ul></ul></ul>Jargon Acronyms Memorization
    7. 7. Facts <ul><li>Designing for Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing—Placing facts into a logical grouping (chunking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diagrams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mnemonics </li></ul></ul></ul>Roy G. Biv Jargon Acronyms Memorization
    8. 8. Facts <ul><li>Designing for Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association—Linking a fact to an image or another term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diagrams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labeling Exercises </li></ul></ul></ul>Jargon Acronyms Memorization
    9. 10. Teaching with Games <ul><li>Employee in Manufacturing Plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. Yep, people tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.
    11. 12. Concepts <ul><li>Designing for Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept is a class of items that share common features and is known by a common name. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example, Non-Example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attribute Classification </li></ul></ul></ul>Categories Abstract Concrete
    12. 13. Tangible Representation of a Concept
    13. 14. Conceptual Orienteering
    14. 15. Conceptual Orienteering Triggers Episodic Memory
    15. 16. Rules <ul><li>Designing for Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule is a statement that expresses a relationship between concepts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If-Then </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause/Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concept Application </li></ul></ul></ul>Moisture causes out of tolerance If hot, then avoid.
    16. 20. Procedures <ul><li>Designing for Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure is a sequence of steps the learner performs to accomplish a task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whole to Part Review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn Parts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assemble Procedure </li></ul></ul></ul>SOPs Software Processes Step-by-Step
    17. 22. Step Three: Lower Machine
    18. 23. SOP Instructions <ul><li>Following your planogram, assemble the columns of cubes on the floor by locking each cube in place </li></ul><ul><li>After each column is completed place the top plate on the top of each column </li></ul><ul><li>Continue until you have all the columns built </li></ul>Visual SOP
    19. 24. Think radio talk-show, not lecture
    20. 25. © Karl M. Kapp 2007
    21. 26. Create Youtube Moments.
    22. 27. Principles <ul><li>Designing for Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle is a non-sequential guideline that must be adapted to a specific situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach Model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Checklist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul>Soft Skills Trouble Shooting Leadership
    23. 30. Problem-Solving <ul><li>Designing for Problem-Solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem is previously un-encountered situation that requires the application of previously learned concepts, rules, procedures, principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach Model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Checklist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul>Upset Customer Ethics Broken Equipment
    24. 31. Consider using the “En Media Res” technique
    25. 32. Problem-Based Learning
    26. 33. <ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>Teach Problem-Solving with </li></ul><ul><li>- Multiple Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>- Professional Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>-Realistic Application </li></ul><ul><li>First-Person “Thinkers” </li></ul>
    27. 34. Create a learning documentary of how to do a job, how decisions are made, how dots are connected.
    28. 35. Universal Rules <ul><li>Distributed Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate Use of Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Job Specific Performance </li></ul>
    29. 36. Say Dadda
    30. 38. What are you thinking? What are your choices? Where else does this apply? What are the underlying concepts? What mistakes need to be avoided? Metacognition
    31. 39. Job Specific Performance
    32. 40. Job Specific Performance <ul><li>Link the specific task to the learning objective to the performance criteria. </li></ul>KNOWLEDGE SUMMIT 2009 Task Analysis Instructional Objective Evaluation Item Label names of bones The user will be able to label 12 major bones on a diagram of a skeleton Label 12 major bones diagram of a skeleton.
    33. 41. Leveraging Social Media <ul><li>Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
    34. 42. Asks the question: “What’s Happening?”
    35. 43. Nothing? Eating lunch. Wasting time.
    36. 44. Nothing? Eating lunch. Wasting time. Change the question.
    37. 45. How do I…? What are you thinking? Where can I find…?. Who knows…?
    38. 46. Real-time access to other employees Quick question Broadcasting Thoughts and Opinions Sending learners reminders Answering one question leads to more questions Reach outside of the four walls of a training classroom Focused Discussions
    39. 47. Clarification of Terms Tips and Techniques Frequently Asked Questions Posting/Collection of of Valuable Resources Listing of Experts Link to the others Advice from veteran employees
    40. 48. Conclusion <ul><li>Apply instructional strategies to match content to delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Use universal techniques like distributed practice and questioning techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Include instructional strategies for new media. </li></ul>
    41. 49. Race You There! Book Signing Immediately After this Session in the Book Store!!!
    42. 50. Questions/More Information <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samples and Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning in 3D </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gadgets, Games and Gizmos for Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul>