Gamification - ASTD RTA


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  • So... Let’s get started.
  • Name, title, twitter So, one way that I could describe myself is that on a WOW scale, my career attributes (not character attributes), are... Level 76 Game Designer Level 43 Project Manager Level 36 Instructional Designer Does anybody know what I mean when I say a WOW scale? In WOW, the maximum character level is an 85. It started out at 60, and as in real life, what defines the elite players keeps increasing. Here’s my “Career” Avatar!
  • Let’s first discuss games, and what a game is. Then answer may not be as straightforward as you think.
  • This is a very complete definition of a game, but I think it goes a bit too far, because it excludes a lot of activities that most people consider games. For example, trivia games, Angry Birds, Tetris, etc.
  • So, let’s take a look at more inclusive definitions. I find it interesting that by some of these definitions, there’s a lot of eLearning that I’ve seen that could possibly qualify as a game, or at the very least, perhaps you can see why gamification is such a good fit for eLearning.
  • These are the elements of these definitions that I think are most important to consider when applying them to eLearning.
  • I also want to mention this, mostly because when people think of games, they have an expectation that they’ll be fun. What I find interesting about this, is that game designers recognize that the basis of fun, is learning.
  • So, I think it’s only natural that as an extension of learning being fun, that we discuss how we can use games as a learning tool. I also want to point out this product (Ammo Storage Compatibility), that as part of this game, we built in performance support tools that are not only used in the game, but can be easily accessed in the field for reference.
  • For the purpose of this presentation, and because we’re discussing eLearning, I am mostly referring to tools that are used in building video games.
  • *”Has anybody here ever used a game in their eLearning material? Let’s see a raise of hands.” (If hands are raised…) *”Of those that have their hands raised, did you see a measurable educational benefit to using games in your eLearning material?”
  • If you do decide to make a full-blown learning-game, you should be aware that you’ll need to make some changes to your development process. Most notably, you should use a game designer on your team, or at the very least, an instructional designer that knows A LOT about video games.
  • So, how do we do this? How do we engage learners? I believe the answer boils down to the exact same reason why video games are so popular… engaging e-learning and engaging video games reward the brain.
  • So, let’s first talk about Rewards. What is a reward?
  • In order for rewards to have meaning they must induce emotion from the learner. Now, this obviously does not mean that anything that evokes emotion in a game or in eLearning material is rewarding, even if it is positive. So, let’s break this down a little further to find out exactly must be encompassed in a reward to induce engagement.
  • Something that people will have AMBITION and DRIVE to obtain.
  • There needs to be PLEASURE or ENJOYMENT in attaining it, if it will be truly rewarding to somebody.
  • So, is it even possible to want something, but not like it? Or, like something, but not want it? I think the answer to this can be intensely personal and depend on a person’s circumstances. How about a job? A person may want their job, but not really like it. Or, perhaps they may want additional job training, but not like the training material. In these instances, a person won’t find their job or training material rewarding. How about liking something, but not wanting it? This one’s a little more difficult.
  • I hope you can see by this example, that rewards are personal and circumstantial.
  • Build Personas
  • Gamification-a combination of game design techniques, Aesthetics, Game thinking, and MOST importantly, Game Mechanics
  • This table shows some of the game mechanics that we use in gaming, and along the top here, you can see some of the ways that these mechanics reward the brain. Banana BREAD Analogy
  • If you’re going to reward a learner, let them know it. Set very specific goals and objectives for the learner. Set a broad goal for the user, and break it into several narrow, precise objectives. This may seem obvious, but break large concepts into smaller and smaller tasks.
  • If you’re going to reward a learner, let them know it. Set very specific goals and objectives for the learner. Set a broad goal for the user, and break it into several narrow, precise objectives. This may seem obvious, but break large concepts into smaller and smaller tasks.
  • So, if we were to map out how this might look, this is how your eLearning could look. Cognitive Load BUT... this isn’t how the goal structure of most games would be illustrated.
  • Most games use what’s called a hub system to accommodate non-linear flow.
  • In this illustration, each of the lines represents a choice that a user has in navigating a game, or your eLearning. For the purpose of this illustration, I left in all of the lines, or choices, but in application, any of these lines could be removed, as long as each node is connected in some way. Also, any of these lines could have direction, so the user can only move through each choice in one direction.
  • When it comes to the rules of a game, there are the rules of the game that define how the game is intended to be played, AND the rules of the game that define how the game is allowed to be played.
  • This diagram shows optimal flow through an interactive product. What this illustrates, is that as challenge and skill rises, to stay in this flow channel between anxiety and boredom, it’s best to vary the amount of challenge throughout your product, to give your user a chance to practice their skills.
  • When you break goals up into multiple objectives, allow learners to complete these objectives in parallel. As long as you carefully manage the number of simultaneous goals and objectives that you are asking the user to complete, learners will be more engaged if they can choose the order in which they complete tasks. I’d suggest keeping this to less than five parallel objectives - seven at the most. As you increase the number of simultaneous objectives, you can create extraneous cognitive load on the learner, and this can actually become a distraction. Another word of caution, from a development standpoint, developing a non-linear, or branching, E-Learning products, is much more difficult. But, when learners are given choices, these types of products are much more engaging.
  • This suggestion is used to great affect in games to enhance engagement. If it would seem natural to put a timer on the goals and objectives in your E-Learning material so they need to be completed in a timely manner, I encourage you to do so. A word of warning however, there is some 508 compliance issues with this. If a timer is used, the user must be alerted, and given sufficient time to indicate if more time is required. The main point here is that by giving the learner a sense of urgency, you will stimulate their brain by increasing dopamine, which subsequently creates a “learning window” that we’ll talk about later.
  • If learners get confused, it makes them feel stupid. Make people feel clever and smart. Rapid, frequent clear feedback - linking consequences to actions Provide explanatory feedback for correct and incorrect answers—Feedback Principle
  • -Ruth Clark-Provide explanatory feedback for correct and incorrect answers—Feedback Principle
  • e.g. on a leaderboard, don’t tell people they were 98th of 100. Tell them “Congratulation, you made it to the leaderboard!”
  • 100 small rewards are better than one big reward
  • Fixed Interval – E.g. the sunflowers produce sun pick-ups every 24 seconds in PvZ. Variable Interval – the marigolds in PvZ produce a coin, either gold or silver, on average every 24 seconds, at variable time periods. Fixed Ratio - in PvZ every fifth level is a bonus level that unlocks a mini-game upon completion. Variable Ratio - Slot machine that gives one of nine reward types each time it’s used
  • Is jeopardy really jeopardy without double jeopardy or final jeopardy?
  • Simply put, when a user is doing poorly, the system will adjust to an easier difficulty level. And, when a user is doing well, it increases the difficulty level.
  • mention green goose
  • Firstly - Evidence. A behavior must be measured, captured, and data stored.
  • Secondly - Relevance. The information must be relayed to the individual, not in the raw-data form in which it was captured but in a context that makes it emotionally relevant.
  • Thirdly - Consequence. The information must illuminate one or more paths ahead.
  • Fourthly - Action. There must be a clear moment when the individual can recalibrate a behavior, make a choice, and act.
  • Then that action is measured, and the feedback loop can run once more, every action stimulating new behaviors that inch the individual closer to their goals.
  • If you’re going to reward a learner, let them know it. Set very specific goals and objectives for the learner. Set a broad goal for the user, and break it into several narrow, precise objectives. This may seem obvious, but break large concepts into smaller and smaller tasks.
  • If you’re going to reward a learner, let them know it. Set very specific goals and objectives for the learner. Set a broad goal for the user, and break it into several narrow, precise objectives. This may seem obvious, but break large concepts into smaller and smaller tasks.
  • “ Studies show that the addition of a virtual character (an Avatar) to Web-based courses impacts knowledge retention, course completion, and recall of content. By interacting with a character in a virtual world, students become more engaged in the subject matter, helping them learn more effectively.”
  • Phantasmagoria 1995 Resident Evil 5 2009
  • Questions.
  • Gamification - ASTD RTA

    1. 1. QuickTime™ and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture. GamificationCan you speak the language? Rick Raymer Twitter: @trickyraymer
    2. 2. Rick RaymerSenior Emerging Technologies Learning Architect
    3. 3. What’s In a Name?• Game• Game-Based Learning• Gamification
    4. 4. Games
    5. 5. What is a game? The answer may not be so simple.An interactive, goal-oriented activity, with activeagents to play against, in which players (includingactive agents) can interfere with each other.1.A piece of entertainment is a plaything if it is interactive. Movies and books are cited asexamples of non-interactive entertainment.•If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy. (Note:(a) a toy can become agame element if the player makes up rules, and (b) The Sims and SimCity are toys, not games.) If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge.•If a challenge has no "active agent against whom you compete," it is a puzzle; if there isone, it is a conflict. (Note: this is a subjective test. Video games with noticeablyalgorithmic artificial intelligence can be played as puzzles; these include the patterns used to evade ghosts in Pac-Man.)•Finally, if the player can only outperform the opponent, but not atta ck them to interferewith their performance, the conflict is a competition. (Competitions include racing andfigure skating.) However, if attacks are allowed, then the conflict qualifies as a game.-Chris Crawford founder of the Game Developer Conference
    6. 6. What is a game? The answer may not be so simple.“A form of to rules sport, esp. a competitive one playedaccording play or and decided by skill, strength, or luck.”-Google Dictionary“A game is a problem-solving activity, approached with aplayful attitude.”-The Art of Game Design by Schell“A system in which players engage in an artificial conflict,defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome.”-Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals by Salen and Zimmerman“A system in which players engage in an abstractresults in adefined by rules, interactivity, and feedback, that reaction.” challenge,quantifiable outcome often eliciting an emotional-A Theory of Fun by Koster
    7. 7. What is a game?The answer may not be so simple.System - A set of interconnected elements.Players - A person interacting with game content or otherplayersChallenge - Something that is demanding; a test of one’sabilityRules - The principles and regulation governing conduct,action, or procedureFeedback - A reaction or response to a particular process oractivityQuantifiable Outcome - Having a concrete “win” state
    8. 8. FunRaph Koster, in his book “A Theory of Funfor Game Design” defines fun as, “Thepositive feedback given by the brain for cognitive learning.”
    9. 9. game-based
    10. 10. Video Games Are Ubiquitous! Women age 18+72% The average game player age is: represent a greater portion of game players 37 of Americanhouseholds play (37%) than boys age 17 video games or younger (13%) 2011 Entertainment Software Association
    11. 11. When should videogames be included in eLearning?
    12. 12. Clark & Mayer: E-Learning and the Science of Instruction• When the goals, rules, activities, feedback, and consequences of the game or simulation can be aligned to the desired learning outcomes• When structure and guidance to help learners is provided to reach instructional goals• However, open-ended games and simulations that require unguided exploration should be avoided
    13. 13. SUMMARYOnly use games if they directly support your education goals. Make learning essential to the game.Make learning essential to the game.Make learning essential to the game.
    14. 14. Game-Based Learning Development Process• Specific roles, documentation, and deliverables that arerequired in developing game-based learning• These are different than what are found in traditionaleLearning OR game development
    15. 15. What is Gamification? The use of game mechanics, game design techniques,aesthetics, and game-thinking to non-game applications.
    16. 16. In the context of learning: Gamification is meant to engage learners, motivateaction, promote learning, and solve problems.
    17. 17. ENGAGEMENT Occupying the attention or theefforts of a person
    18. 18. ENGAGEMENTOccurs whenthe BRAIN is REWARDED
    19. 19. Rewards must evokeEMOTION from the learner!
    20. 20. WANTING
    21. 21. LIKING
    23. 23. Dr. Kent Berridge• University of Michigan Neuroscientist• Researches the causes of addiction• Has found wanting and liking to occur in two different part of the brain
    24. 24. Games are notengaging because they’re games,but when they are designed to be rewarding!
    25. 25. Know Your Audience
    26. 26. Game Mechanics The construct of rules that encourage users to explore and learn the properties of their possibility space through the use offeedback mechanisms.
    27. 27. Wait. Isn’t Gamification justleaderboards and badges?!?!
    28. 28. Set Goals and Objectives
    29. 29. Set Goals and Objectives
    30. 30. GOAL STRUCTURE Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Goal 1 Objective 4 Objective 5
    31. 31. GOAL STRUCTURE Goal 1 Goal 2 Goal 3 Topic 1 Goal 4 Goal 5
    32. 32. GOAL STRUCTURE Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Module 1 Topic 4 Topic 5
    33. 33. GOAL STRUCTURE Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Course 1 Module 4 Module 5
    35. 35. HUB SYSTEMS
    36. 36. HUB SYSTEMS
    37. 37. HUB SYSTEMS
    38. 38. OPTIMAL FLOW
    39. 39. FLOW of GAMES
    40. 40. FLOW of LEARNING
    41. 41. Set Goals and Objectives - Give the Learner Choices
    42. 42. Set Goals and Objectives - Give the Learner Choices - Create Time Sensitive Objectives
    43. 43. Frequent Feedback
    44. 44. Frequent FeedbackAs a designer, one of yourmost important jobs is to MAKE YOUR LEARNERS FEEL CLEVER.
    45. 45. Frequent Feedback -Create JUICY Feedback!
    46. 46. Before we continue... Let’s take amoment to discuss the Tin Can API.
    47. 47. Learning Statements
    48. 48. Reporting Assessment Systems Services Semantic Statistical Analysis Services
    49. 49. Measure Progress
    50. 50. Measure Progress - Visual Representation of Experience
    51. 51. Reward Effort
    52. 52. Reward Effort- Incremental Rewards
    53. 53. Reward Effort- Incremental Rewards- Reward Schedules
    54. 54. Reward SchedulesThree Main Components:• Prerequisite – Why did I get this reward?• Response – How is the reward presented?• Reinforcer – What is the appropriate reward? (momentary or persistent)Two Types of Reward Schedules:• Interval – Based on time.‣Fixed – Low engagement immediately after the reward, thatincreases as the next reward approaches.‣Variable – Random within a window of time.• Ratio – Based on completing actions.‣Fixed – Given after a set number of actions, which caninclude after every action.‣Variable – Random within a window of actions.
    55. 55. Reward Effort- Incremental Rewards- Reward Schedules- Probability and Danger
    56. 56. Reward Effort- Incremental Rewards- Reward Schedules- Probability and Danger- Adaptive Systems
    57. 57. - Adaptive Systems- Negative Feedback Loop
    58. 58. Elements of Chance QuickTime™ and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    59. 59. Surprise and Delight
    60. 60. Moments of Intense Attention
    61. 61. Peer Motivation
    62. 62. Let’s take a break to play some games! Pay attention to game mechanics and what makes them engaging
    63. 63. What were your observations aboutgame mechanics and engagement?
    64. 64. Game Design Techniques Text Inspect, Iterate & Adapt
    65. 65. Suggestions forSpecific Project Phases
    66. 66. Pre-Concept Phase
    67. 67. Think Outside the Box
    68. 68. Think Outside the Box -Know the Box
    69. 69. Expand Your Horizons
    70. 70. Expand Your Horizons Alternate Reality Adaptive Learning /Wearables Systems
    71. 71. Play Games
    72. 72. Brainstorm- Individually & In Groups
    73. 73. Brainstorm -Never dismiss ideas as too silly -Concentrate on generating ideas and not concepts (that comes later)
    74. 74. The Well Is Deep
    75. 75. Concept Phase
    76. 76. Use a Story to Frame Your Mechanics
    77. 77. Stay True to the Brand
    78. 78. Have a Hook
    79. 79. Improved Presentations
    80. 80. Use CGI or Illustrations
    81. 81. Use Peripherals That Mimic Manual Dexterity Skills- Develop for a Game Console
    82. 82. Test Assumptions
    83. 83. Paper Test
    84. 84. Paper Test
    85. 85. Test Early & Often
    86. 86. Summary• Increase engagement by rewarding learners(wanting+liking=rewarding) • Know your audience and brand• Provide juicy feedback and show progress on clearly stated goals and objectives • Reward effort, not just successes• Gain attention with surprise and delight • Build systems that allow peer interaction• Improve your presentations with better art and technology • Use an iterative development method • Test assumptions early and often
    87. 87. RICK RAYMERSenior Emerging Technologies Learning Architect (919)599-1426