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www.ensias.ma   www.um5s.ac.ma




           Alqualsadi research team
          on Enterprise Architecture
              ...
According to some prealable unformal
questionnaire – you want to know

 What is EA ? What are EA concepts ?
 What is EA fo...
Outline
1.   Enterprise Architecture

2.   Alqualsadi EA research team

3.   Karim Baïna’s current research interest

4.  ...
www.ensias.ma   www.um5s.ac.ma

                                   Enterprise
                                 Architecture
Motivation behind EA
        EA has been firstly thought to address two problems (in 1987) :
          System complexity :...
Kind of real problems EA is
supposed to answer to




                          Jeanne Ross 2005 ©
Peter Weil 2007 ©
Enterprise Architecture – definition 1
  for A. Goel et al., EA is a
     holistic expression (of the enterprise)
        ...
Enterprise Architecture – definition 1
            M. Lankhorst defines EA as
              a coherent whole of principles...
Enterprise Architecture – definition 3
           For Gartner Group, EA is the strategic planning process that
           ...
Enterprise Architecture

                                                      EA
                                        ...
EAF Concepts, Principles and
methodology
  EA dimensions
    Concepts :
       Enterprise views or perspectives : function...
EAF - Enterprise Architecture
Frameworks
      An EAF is proposal of a reference architecture
      or structure for Enter...
EA Timeline: genesis and
evolution
 age       date                        event
       0    1987   Zachman's first article...
EA methodologies and modelling
techniques – some examples
 EA methodologies
   TOGAF ADM (Architecture Development Method)...
Zachman Framework
  (used for its structured architecture artefacts taxonomy – Zachman grid)

                  DATA what ...
TOGAF (used mainly for its ADM method)
  For TOGAF, divides an architecture into 4
  categories :
TOGAF ADM (Architecture
Development Method)
TOGAF ADM (Architecture
Development Method)
FEA (use mainly because of its most complete framework)

   Complies with the Clinger-Cohen Act
   Provides a common metho...
Benchmark of 4 and main EAFs




Data is from Roger Sessions
Not the data-based synthesis diagram view
Focus Area for EA




Infosys 2007 ©
Adopted Industry Standard
Frameworks




                            Infosys 2007 ©
EA Tool used




Infosys 2007 ©
EA delivrables
EA and IT Governance
EA & Alignment –
EA
Alignement
life Cycle




                   Paul Harmon 2003 ©
EA modelling tools – Gartner
Quadrant
www.ensias.ma
                    Alqualsadi
                www.um5s.ac.ma



        Enterprise Architecture
           ...
Alqualsadi team - Research axes
   Entreprise Architectures, Quality of their
   Developement and Integration




Axe 1 : ...
Alqualsadi team - Research axes
      Entreprise Architectures, Quality of their
      Developement and Integration




Ax...
Alqualsadi statistics
 Age : 4 years
 Scientific Production
   3 books
   16 journal papers
   26 national conference pape...
Alqualsadi Team permanent members,
      and their main research axes
                 6 researcher-professors :
         ...
Alqualsadi Team non-permanent
members, and their main research axes
 6 researcher-professors :
    1 Prof.
       Mr. Hass...
Partnerships
National partners :
   EMI, Ecole Mohammedia des Ingénieurs
   Sciences Faculty of Rabat, Mohammed V – Agdal ...
Some journal publications of
Alqualsadi team :
2010
   M.Z. Ouertani, S. Baïna, L. Gzara and G.Morel. Traceability and man...
www.ensias.ma   www.um5s.ac.ma

                                 Karim Baïna’s
                                      resea...
Karim’s Baïna research within
    Alqualsadi 5 axes




Axe 1 : EA Gouvernance             Axe 2 : EA Integration         ...
Karim’s Baïna participation in
    design, management, and
    development of research
    prototypes, ENSIAS ©
WorkflowCh...
WorkflowMiner, ENSIAS-LORIA©
                             WfMS         Workflow Logs


                                   ...
WorkflowMiner, ENSIAS-LORIA ©
Papers Impact : ENSIAS R&D
prototyping,
published in DEXA’2005, CAiSE’2006,
and SOCA’2008 ar...
WorkflowChecker, ENSIAS ©
Papers Impact : ENSIAS R&D prototyping, published in ICEIS’2008 and then in CoopIS’2008 begins t...
WorkflowChecker /
WorkflowMiner, ENSIAS ©




 http://workflowminer.drivehq.com/workflowchecker.avi
 http://workflowminer....
WFESelector ENSIAS ©
  Papers Impact : ENSIAS R&D prototyping, and case study results, published in RCIS’2007 and then in
...
French BPM book,
on sale since May 2009


                         Business processes,
                         concepts, ...
History and Cultural
                   parenthesis




 King Rollon, King Roger II,         Al-idrissi, Dreses (latin)   ...
Kingdom of Morocco – History,
Religion, and Culture
 Multi Pot of rich cultural and genetic patrimonies
    Pre-islamic pe...
Kingdom of Morocco – current State,
Economy, Demography, Statistics
  1631 begining of the line of Alaouite Kingdom dynast...
Swedish - Moroccan Kingdoms
medieval historical key events
 429 Vandals migrations
   554-567 Wisigoths reach northen Moro...
Who was Alqualsadi ?
First name : Abou Al Hassan ibn Ali ibn Muhammad
Surname : al-Qalasadi a.k.a. : Al-Qalsadi, Al-Qalasa...
Who was Alqualsadi ?
         is the origin of, among others, visual symbolic
         representation of the square root (...
Example of Alqualsadi symbolic abreviations
in algebra Applications : Pythagorean
Algebric Proof
  Concrete Language      ...
Open discussion
Aknowledgments
                        Alqualsadi EA research team
                                  would like to thank
 ...
Enterprise Architecture
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Enterprise Architecture

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English Slides :
- EA Introdution
- Alqualsadi research team at ENSIAS (on Enterprise Architecture, Quality of their Development and Integartion)
Where : DSV, Stockholm Uni
When : April, 16th, 2010

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Enterprise Architecture

  1. 1. www.ensias.ma www.um5s.ac.ma Alqualsadi research team on Enterprise Architecture Prof/A. Karim Baïna baina@ensias.ma www.ensias.ma/ens/baina http://ma.linkedin.com/in/karimbaina April, 16th 2010
  2. 2. According to some prealable unformal questionnaire – you want to know What is EA ? What are EA concepts ? What is EA for ? Is it not yet another buzzword ? Is it not yet another marketing artefact to sale licences, books, trainnings, and consulting ? Is it really with an added value ? Within the modelling life cycle ? If yes how to position it ? How to compare EA with other modelling methods and frameworks ?
  3. 3. Outline 1. Enterprise Architecture 2. Alqualsadi EA research team 3. Karim Baïna’s current research interest 4. A historical/cultural parenthesis 5. Open discussion
  4. 4. www.ensias.ma www.um5s.ac.ma Enterprise Architecture
  5. 5. Motivation behind EA EA has been firstly thought to address two problems (in 1987) : System complexity : organisations were spending enormous budgets in IT Poor business alignement : organisations were finding it more difficult to keep IT systems alignes with business model Basically enterprise are looking for more agility, high profils, lower risk, more satisfied senior management, and More cost and less value problem recognised 23 years ago, but have today reached a crisis point. Roger Sessions, CTO of ObjectWatch©
  6. 6. Kind of real problems EA is supposed to answer to Jeanne Ross 2005 ©
  7. 7. Peter Weil 2007 ©
  8. 8. Enterprise Architecture – definition 1 for A. Goel et al., EA is a holistic expression (of the enterprise) in terms ofkey strategies usually evolving from different domains of(i) business architecture (business strategy, processes, services, structure, policies and governance), (ii) information architecture (ontologies, taxonomies, meta-data, master data, transaction data, information flows and other forms of data and information assets related to the enterprise), and (iii) technology architecture (infrastructure, security, applications, technology services and middleware), 2009. With regards to enterprise Functions, Data, Roles & Units, Expression Events, EA EA Ressources, Produits & services, etc. EA K. Baïna & S. Slimani 2010 ©
  9. 9. Enterprise Architecture – definition 1 M. Lankhorst defines EA as a coherent whole of principles, methods, & models that are used in the design & realization of an enterprise’s (i) organizational structure, (ii) business processes, (iii) information systems, and (iv) infrastructure, 2005. Method s Principl s Realisation K. Baïna & S. Slimani 2010 ©
  10. 10. Enterprise Architecture – definition 3 For Gartner Group, EA is the strategic planning process that translates(an enterprise's business vision & strategy) into effective enterprise change, 2010. EA EA EA as strategic planning process K. Baïna & S. Slimani 2010 ©
  11. 11. Enterprise Architecture EA EA Expression EA EA EA as strategic planning process Met hod s Prin cipls Realisation OSmodel BPmodel ISmodel Inframodel K. Baïna & S. Slimani 2010 ©
  12. 12. EAF Concepts, Principles and methodology EA dimensions Concepts : Enterprise views or perspectives : function (activity), information, resource, organisation unit, role, behaviour (business process), etc. modelling constructs (ie documents, and reports, aka artefacts) flows : Materials, Information and Control Principles Separating enterprise behaviours from functions Separating enterprise behaviours from resources Separating enterprise resources from roles & organisation units Structured methodology Models Tools
  13. 13. EAF - Enterprise Architecture Frameworks An EAF is proposal of a reference architecture or structure for Enterprise Architecture (like an Enterprise Architect toolkit) Main EAFs 1. Zachman Framework (Zachman Institute of Architecture) 2. TOGAF (The Open Group Architecture Framwork) 3. FEA (Federal Enterprise Architecture, US White House) Many other EAFs 1. US Government Frameworks (DoDAF (US Department of Defence), MoDAF (UK Ministry of Defence), TEAF (US Department of Commerce), CEAF (US White House), EA Cube (Scott Bernard), CIMOSA, GERAM (ISO 15704 2000), GRAI, PERA, RM-ODP (ISO/IEC 10746), etc.
  14. 14. EA Timeline: genesis and evolution age date event 0 1987 Zachman's first article 1993 Customer members demand archtecture standards… 1994 TAFIM Released 8 1995 TOGAF first published 1996 Clinger/Cohen Bill passed 1998 TAFIM Retired 1999 FEAF 1.2 Released 2001 TOGAF 7 - Technical edition 15 2002 FEA replaces FEAF 2002 TOGAF 8.0 "Enterprise" released 2003 TOGAF 8.1 (first certification program launched) 2005 Gartner/Meta merger 19 2006 FEA mostly complete 2006 TOGAF 8.1.1 22 2009 TOGAF 9.0 final draft approval 2010 now
  15. 15. EA methodologies and modelling techniques – some examples EA methodologies TOGAF ADM (Architecture Development Method) All US Government Frameworks include a methodology sepecific to their EAF (DODAF, FEAF, TEAF) Gartner/Meta Methodoly EAP EA Cube Method SEAM EA modeling techniques and notations Archi-Mate, UEML, SysML, BPMN, ERD and IDEF, etc. EA modeling tools ARIS Process, IDS Scheer MEGA Abacus, Avolution Enterprise Architect, Sparx System Architect, IBM Telelogic BizzDesigner, Bizzdesign Altova Enterprise, Altova
  16. 16. Zachman Framework (used for its structured architecture artefacts taxonomy – Zachman grid) DATA what FUNCT.how NETWK. where PEOPLE who TIME when MOTIV. why Scope contextual Planner view Business Model conceptual Owner view System Model logical Designer view Technology Model Physical Builder view Detailed Representations Out-Of-Context Sub-Constractor view Functionning enterprise User view
  17. 17. TOGAF (used mainly for its ADM method) For TOGAF, divides an architecture into 4 categories :
  18. 18. TOGAF ADM (Architecture Development Method)
  19. 19. TOGAF ADM (Architecture Development Method)
  20. 20. FEA (use mainly because of its most complete framework) Complies with the Clinger-Cohen Act Provides a common methodology for IT acquisition
  21. 21. Benchmark of 4 and main EAFs Data is from Roger Sessions Not the data-based synthesis diagram view
  22. 22. Focus Area for EA Infosys 2007 ©
  23. 23. Adopted Industry Standard Frameworks Infosys 2007 ©
  24. 24. EA Tool used Infosys 2007 ©
  25. 25. EA delivrables
  26. 26. EA and IT Governance
  27. 27. EA & Alignment – EA Alignement life Cycle Paul Harmon 2003 ©
  28. 28. EA modelling tools – Gartner Quadrant
  29. 29. www.ensias.ma Alqualsadi www.um5s.ac.ma Enterprise Architecture research team
  30. 30. Alqualsadi team - Research axes Entreprise Architectures, Quality of their Developement and Integration Axe 1 : EA Governance Axe 2 : EA Integration Axe 3 : EA Quality Enterprise Architecture Axe 5 : Applied Maths Methods for EA Axe 4 : EA Applied to ICT4D
  31. 31. Alqualsadi team - Research axes Entreprise Architectures, Quality of their Developement and Integration Axe 1 : EA Governance Axe 2 : EA Integration Axe 3 : EA Quality KPI/GKI/KFS models for IT Strategy, Portal/Process/Service/Component MDE/MDA, EA models formal Governance, Maturity & Alignment. User-centric syntactic/semantic/technical specification and validation. TOGAF/DoDAF,COBIT, CMMi. integration and interoperability. B methods, Graphs, PN, LTL/TTL, through SOA/BPM/MDM/ERP/Portals/3G. but also Six sigma, ITIL. Enterprise Architecture Axe 5 : Applied Maths Methods for EA Axe 4 : EA Applied to ICT4D statistics and quantitative method for EA quality, optimal e-Gov,e-health, and e-education. control for IT alignment, modelling for ITG, Citizen-centric approach for EA use.
  32. 32. Alqualsadi statistics Age : 4 years Scientific Production 3 books 16 journal papers 26 national conference papers 45 international conference papers 1 Habilitation (Docent/Docentu) 5 defended Phs Thesis 14 defended Master by research 32
  33. 33. Alqualsadi Team permanent members, and their main research axes 6 researcher-professors : 2 Profs. Mme Laïla Kjiri : EA Quality, Maths Methods, and Governance Mr. Bouchaïb Bounabat : EA in ICT4D (mainly in e-gov), and Governance 2 Prof/Assoc. Mr. Karim Baïna : EA Quality, Integration, Governance, and Maths Methods, (leader of Alqualsadi) Mr. Saïd Achachab : EA App. Maths Methods for EA, and Governance 2 Prof/Assist. Mme Mounia Fredj (*): EA Integration, and Quality Mr. Salah Baïna : EA Governance, Quality, and Maths Methods. To contact members : {<name>@ensias.ma, except for <sbaina>} 18 PhD in progress (14 females, and 5 males) 78% of females Many Masters by research (in progress) (*) (Nielsen Danish family line)
  34. 34. Alqualsadi Team non-permanent members, and their main research axes 6 researcher-professors : 1 Prof. Mr. Hassan Abdelwahed, Semlalia Sciences Faculty, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech : EA Integration, and ontologies based web 2.0 Portal Integration 1 Prof/Assoc. Mme Salma Mouline, Sciences Faculty of Rabat, Mohammed V – Agdal University, Rabat : EA Quality and Integration 1 Prof/Assist. Mr. Mohammed Berrada, ENSAF, USMBA, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fès : EA organisational perspective modelling and verification 1 Dr., and chairman of EA governance startup company Mr. Tawfik Es-squalli, NEOXIA MAROC, Casablanca (member of The Open Group) : EA Governance mode, and Quality of their development and integration
  35. 35. Partnerships National partners : EMI, Ecole Mohammedia des Ingénieurs Sciences Faculty of Rabat, Mohammed V – Agdal University, Rabat NEOXIA MAROC, Casablanca (member of The Open Group) International partners : France Prof. Claude Godart, ESSTIN, Nancy University, LORIA, Nancy Prof. Hervé Panetto , CRAN, Nancy Prof. Djamel Benslimane, LIRIS, Lyon Prof. Kamel Barkaoui, CNAM, Paris Prof. Assoc. Samir Tata, INT, Paris Prof. Jean-Pierre Giraudin, IMAG, Grenoble Sweden Prof. Paul Johannesson, Dr. Petia Wohed, DSV, Stockholm University, Stockholm Belgium Prof. Michael Petit, UNDP, Namur United Kingdom Prof. Zied Ouertani, University Of Cambridge, Cambridge
  36. 36. Some journal publications of Alqualsadi team : 2010 M.Z. Ouertani, S. Baïna, L. Gzara and G.Morel. Traceability and management of dispersed product knowledge during design and manufacturing 2010 Journal of Computer-Aided Design, Special Issue on Product Lifecycle and Knowledge Management. (JCAD’2010) 2009 S. Baïna, Panetto, Morel. New paradigms for a product oriented modelling: Case study for traceability 2009 Computers In Industry’2009 60 3 172-183 S. Baïna, H. Panetto, K. Benali. Product Oriented Modelling and Interoperability Issues 2008, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing (LNBIP’2009) 3 293-308 2008 W. Gaaloul, K. Baïna, and C. Godart. Log-based Mining Techniques Applied to Web Service Composition Reengineering 2008 (SOCA’2008), Service Oriented Computing and Applications Journal, Springer-Verlag 2 2-3 93-110 S. Achchab. Singular perturbation of single species model with time-delay 2008 International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics (IJMS’2008) 2 2 18-29 2007 H. Panetto, S. Baïna, G. Morel. Mapping the IEC 62264 models onto the Zachman framework for analysing products information traceability: a case study 2007 Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing (JIM’2007). M. Berrada, B. Bounabat. Modelling and Simulation of Multi-Agent Reactive Decisional Systems using Business Process Management Concepts, March 2007. International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS’2007) 2006 K. Baïna, K. Benali et C. Godart. DISCOBOLE: A service Architecture for Interconnecting Workflow Processes. 2006 Computers In Industry’2006, Journal - Special issue on Collaborative Environments for Concurrent Engineering. 2005 A. Aarooud, B. Bounabat. Modelling the Handover function of Global System for Mobile Communication 2005 The International Journal of Modelling and Simulation (IJMS’2005)- ACTA Press B. Achchab et S. Achchab. Some Remarks about the Hierarchical A Posteriorie Error Estimate 2005 Journal of Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations (JNMPDE’2005) 20 6 114-135
  37. 37. www.ensias.ma www.um5s.ac.ma Karim Baïna’s research
  38. 38. Karim’s Baïna research within Alqualsadi 5 axes Axe 1 : EA Gouvernance Axe 2 : EA Integration Axe 3 : EA Quality IT Balanced scorecards applied BPM, SOA/Semantic SOA, Process model pre&post to BPI, BAM/SAM & IT Alignment Service ontology evolution, execution validation & Mobile social netwoks reconfiguration Enterprise Architecture Axe 5 : Applied Maths Methods for EA Axe 4 : EA Applied to ICT4D Graph reduction algorithms for business process Service ontology change structural conflict detection management for life sciences
  39. 39. Karim’s Baïna participation in design, management, and development of research prototypes, ENSIAS © WorkflowChecker WorkflowMiner WFMS portfolio management WorkflowSelector BPM PDCA loop
  40. 40. WorkflowMiner, ENSIAS-LORIA© WfMS Workflow Logs 3. W ork flo w Min Workflow in action ing Enterprise 1. Process W A0 A1 A2 A3 or 2. Workflow Execution kf Mined Workflow Model lo w ign -Des D re es ork flow ig 4. W n A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 Designed Workflow Model
  41. 41. WorkflowMiner, ENSIAS-LORIA © Papers Impact : ENSIAS R&D prototyping, published in DEXA’2005, CAiSE’2006, and SOCA’2008 are referenced beside key reference BPM papers in the domain. - since 2004, more than 30 ENSIAS engineers have worked on WorkflowMiner - more than 1000 person days of work during three years Walid Gaaloul, Karim Baïna, and Claude Godart. "Workflow Mining : discovery of workflow patterns by execution log analysis" in French "Fouille de workflow, Découverte de patrons de workflows par l’analyse des traces d’exécution", Revue Technique et Sciences Informatiques(TSI’2010) French reference journal, Hermès-Lavoisier. Walid Gaaloul, Karim Baïna, and Claude Godart. Log-based Mining Techniques Applied to Web Service Composition Reengineering. Service Oriented Computing and Applications Journal (SOCA'08), 2(2-3):93-110, July 2008. Springer-Verlag K. Baïna, W. Gaaloul, R. El Khattabi et A. Mouhou. WorkflowMiner : a New Workflow Patterns and Performance Analysis tool. (CAiSE’06) Forum, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, June 5-9, 2006. W. Gaaloul, K. Baïna et C. Godart. Towards Mining StructuralWorkflow Patterns. (DEXA’05), volume 3588, pages 24–33, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 22-26 2005. Springer-Verlag.
  42. 42. WorkflowChecker, ENSIAS © Papers Impact : ENSIAS R&D prototyping, published in ICEIS’2008 and then in CoopIS’2008 begins to be referenced within some BPM research work with two well known universities, and journal papers. The papers bring an improvement of first graph reduction algorithms for structural verification of processes, and this improvement is referenced beside key reference papers in the domain. Step by step graph reduction based business process structural verification algorithm within WorkflowChecker -since 2007, more than 15 ENSIAS engineers have worked on developing WorkflowChecker during three years - more than 600 person days of design & development work Fodé Touré, Karim Baïna, and Walid Gaaloul. Toward a hybrid algorithm for workflow graph structural verification. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'08), Barcelona, Spain, June 12-16, 2008. Fodé Touré, Karim Baïna, and Khalid Benali. An efficient algorithm for workflow graph structural verification. In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Cooperative Information Systems (CoopIS'08) Monterrey, Mexico, Nov 12 - 14, 2008, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer- Verlag.
  43. 43. WorkflowChecker / WorkflowMiner, ENSIAS © http://workflowminer.drivehq.com/workflowchecker.avi http://workflowminer.drivehq.com/workflowminer.avi
  44. 44. WFESelector ENSIAS © Papers Impact : ENSIAS R&D prototyping, and case study results, published in RCIS’2007 and then in ICEIS’2007 could influence and drive a huge BPM research community (many researchers in many well known universities, and many international conference & journal papers) : (i) to be more attracted by BPM open source benchmarking within a such large open source community, and (ii) to focus later on (instead of being lost within a such fertile production) only on the top 3 WFE : jBPM, OpenWFE & Enhydra Shark with newer visions, and interests both profitable for BPM open source community and BPM research. Screen shot of one execution WFESelector applied on studied open source workflow engines evaluation case study TOP 3 TOP 8 TOP 6 K. Baïna © ICEIS’2007 - study has been achieved in June 2006, and than validated in 2007 newer open source versions - the WFESelector tool has been built on April 2007. -35 criteria synthetised into 2 dimensions - more than 100 ENSIAS engineers worked on more than 40 open source tools during two years -more than 3000 person days of design, evaluation, and development work Karim Baïna, Fatima-Zahra Azayite, Nabil Belakbir, Hicham Srir, and K. Benali, Workflow Engines Comparison Model. Proceedings of the 1st Research Challenges in Information Science (RCIS’2007), April 23- 26, Ouarzazate, Morocco. Karim Baïna "WFEselector - a tool for comparing and selecting workflow engines". In Jorge Cardoso, José Cordeiro, and Joaquim Filipe, editors, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS‘2007) (1), Volume DISI, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, June 12-16, 2007, pages 330-337.
  45. 45. French BPM book, on sale since May 2009 Business processes, concepts, models, and systems
  46. 46. History and Cultural parenthesis King Rollon, King Roger II, Al-idrissi, Dreses (latin) Al-kalsadi (aka alqualsadi) 860 – 930 1095 – 1154 1110 – 1165 1412 – 1486 King of Vikings King of Sicily Geographer, Mathematician Descendant of King Rollon Sponsor of Al-idrissi and Botanist
  47. 47. Kingdom of Morocco – History, Religion, and Culture Multi Pot of rich cultural and genetic patrimonies Pre-islamic period : Africans, Berbers, Phoenicians, Romans, Carthaginians, Vandals, Byzantines, Wisigoths Islamic period : Arabs (7 islamic kingdom dynasties), Andalus Recon-quest period : Castilians (Portuguese, Spanish) French period : Marsh, 30th 1912, French Protectorate (Tangier was international: Spain/England/ France/Morocco) 3 religions : Judaism (since pre-islamic period among locals and ancient migrants), Islam, Catholic religion (european citizens or residents) Roman church was active in pre-islamic period (Saint Augustan was a romanised berber !!) Many berbers, and romanised berbers, pre-islamic kingdom dynasties, and tribes 7 islamic (arabs and berbers) kingdom dynasties : Idrissids, Almoravids, Almohads, Marinids, Wattasids, Saadis, Alaouites The origin of Morocco country name is coming from Berber name Marrakech
  48. 48. Kingdom of Morocco – current State, Economy, Demography, Statistics 1631 begining of the line of Alaouite Kingdom dynasty Moroccan Nov 16th, 1956 independence Mohammed VI King of Morocco since 1999 (23th, of alaouite dynasty) ~31M inhabitants 2010 GDP 5.10, GDP real real growth rate %23 More than 11.000.000 internet user (35%), More than 650.000 inhouse internet connection (>12%) 50 multinational company have been recently attracted by moroccan offshoring initiatives 700 subsidiaries of french companies employing 100 000 active person 10 000 engineers national Program (current yearly graduated engineers × 2.5) 30 000 entreprises creation till 2013 ( « Emergence & envol », Digital Morocco 2009-2013 Plans) Morocco advanced status toward EU Tangier Med (Mediterranean Mega-Port)
  49. 49. Swedish - Moroccan Kingdoms medieval historical key events 429 Vandals migrations 554-567 Wisigoths reach northen Morocco (* western Goths (Tervinges) were separated from Ostrogoths (eastern Goths) since 257) 710 beginning of Islamic conquest of christian Wisigoths kingdom 711 Wisigoth coalition with Arabs againt their Wisigoth king Rodrig 718 - 1492 Normand/Castillans/Aragons reconquest of christian Wisigoths kingdom 844, first Al-Ghazal Cordovan embassy mission to Danish/Irish Vikings to stop helping Castillans 1154, Roger II, Norman king of Sicily (descendant of Rollon, king of the Viking) ordered and sponsored Al-idrissi 1110-1165 Geographer for writing first European and Western Geography Atlas (“Kitab nuzhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq al-afaq”) litterarly (“The Book of the Pleasing Excursion of One who is Eager to Explore the Horizons”) aka (“Kitâb Rudjâr” ) (The Book of Roger) Tabula Rogeriana and since this time swedish-moroccan scientific cooperation is being continuing;-)
  50. 50. Who was Alqualsadi ? First name : Abou Al Hassan ibn Ali ibn Muhammad Surname : al-Qalasadi a.k.a. : Al-Qalsadi, Al-Qalasadi, Al-Kalsadi birth : on 1412, Bastah, (north of Granada) AlAndalous (current Andalusia) death : on 1486, Béja, Ifriqiya (current Tunisia) expertise : Arithmetics, Algebra, Astronomy contribution Transforming language (numbers values, operations, & relations) to meta-language (symbolic arithmetic variables with symbolic operations and relations in arabic alphabet lexicon) Abreviation of Variable Names to Symbols (long equations algorithms become shorter & easier) unknown X is born : ‫ ش‬is the abbreviation of shay that will be translated in italian later as « causa » and then will be abreviated to X Abstraction and symbolisation of arithmetic operations examples 3 9 means √ 9 = 3 Lexical meta-language 36 ‫ 6 م ل‬means 62 = 36 27 ‫ 3 ك ل‬means 33 = 27 becomes = latin alphabet 126 ‫ 6 م و 3 ك ف 2 ل‬means (62 + 33) × 2 = 126 ‫ ش ج ش‬means (√x) 2 = x application to formalisation and resolution of algorithms of algebric (polynomial, diophantine) equations some of his arithmetic vulgarisation books « Raising the veil of the science of the letters’ dust » (kashf alasrar aan ilmi hurufi alghubar)(alghubar means « dust » and here stands for written arithmetic with numerals. « Clarification of the science of arithmetic »(al-tabsira fi‘ilm al-hisab) well known for his pedagogical approach no prerequisites assumption is done (to be able to target beginner level), clear and direct style, avoiding complex demonstrations, exposing only practical methods, style clair et direct, a huge number of exercises, many illustrations of arithmetic algorithm rules
  51. 51. Who was Alqualsadi ? is the origin of, among others, visual symbolic representation of the square root (‫ )ج ذ ر‬Alqualsadi abreviated to (‫ )ج‬so it gives : 9 9 9 becomes becomes Please notice visual similarities ! see. Solomon Gandz, On the Origin of the Term "Root", The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Feb., 1928), Mathematical Association of America
  52. 52. Example of Alqualsadi symbolic abreviations in algebra Applications : Pythagorean Algebric Proof Concrete Language Abstract Meta-Language (A+B)2 = A2 + 2*(A*B) + B2 Algebric proof of the Pythagorean theorem, by symbolic quadratic equations Geometric proof of the Pythagorean theorem, (A+B)2 = C2 + 2*(A*B) by Pythagoras A2 + 2*(A*B) + B2 = C2 + 2*(A*B) Thus: A2 + B2 = C2 q.e.d.
  53. 53. Open discussion
  54. 54. Aknowledgments Alqualsadi EA research team would like to thank all MENA project sponsors and actors and to thank you for your presence, attention, and questions www.ensias.ma www.um5s.ac.ma

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