What is Stress? <ul><li>Psychological state associated with physiological and hormonal changes caused by conflict, trauma,...
Stressors <ul><li>Traumatic events outside the usual range of human experience </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrollable events </l...
<ul><li>Finals exams are a good example: </li></ul><ul><li>They challenge the limits of our intellectual capabilities. </l...
Everyday Hassles <ul><li>They can make you feel sick, and unable to sleep or concentrate properly. </li></ul><ul><li>These...
Stress Responses STRESS Behavioural Sleep disturbance Use of alcohol/drugs Absenteeism Aggression Emotional Depression/anx...
Early Warning Signs of Exhaustion Stage <ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>GI disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>Skin rashes ...
Stress & Health Related Behaviours EXAM  PERIOD = STRESS SMOKE  MORE POOR  DIET MORE  ALCOHOL LESS SLEEP LESS  EXERCISE
Personality & Stress <ul><li>Type A </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive, achievement-oriented, sense of time urgency, difficulty...
Examples of Type A Behaviours <ul><li>Thinking of, or doing, two things at once </li></ul><ul><li>Hurrying the speech of o...
The Life Events Scale for Stress <ul><li>Life Event  Value   </li></ul><ul><li>Death of spouse   100 </li></ul><ul><li>Div...
The Life Events Scale (continued) <ul><li>Life Event   Value </li></ul><ul><li>Begin/end school   26 </li></ul><ul><li>Cha...
Behavioural Stress Management <ul><li>Progressive relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Yoga </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul...
Personal Coping Strategies <ul><li>Trust in time </li></ul><ul><li>Do not isolate yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Think positiv...
Stress can be a positive thing <ul><li>Stress is likely to be detrimental to health only if it is unresolved & long-lastin...
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What Is Stress

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What Is Stress

  1. 1. What is Stress? <ul><li>Psychological state associated with physiological and hormonal changes caused by conflict, trauma, or other disruptive influences (stressors). </li></ul>
  2. 2. Stressors <ul><li>Traumatic events outside the usual range of human experience </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrollable events </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable events </li></ul><ul><li>Events that challenge the limits of our capabilities & self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Internal conflicts </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Finals exams are a good example: </li></ul><ul><li>They challenge the limits of our intellectual capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>They carry the possibility of failure </li></ul>Highly Challenging Events
  4. 4. Everyday Hassles <ul><li>They can make you feel sick, and unable to sleep or concentrate properly. </li></ul><ul><li>These can accumulate and create an overall feeling of stress that we can’t blame on one thing. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stress Responses STRESS Behavioural Sleep disturbance Use of alcohol/drugs Absenteeism Aggression Emotional Depression/anxiety Irritability Crying Suicide Loss of humour Cognitive Lack of concentration Negative thoughts Worrying Poor Memory Biochemical Increased metabolic rate Altered hormone levels (adrenaline, cortisol, ACTH) Altered endorphin levels Physiological Higher blood pressure Rapid shallow breathing Increased heart rate Dilation of pupils Muscle tension Dry mouth
  6. 6. Early Warning Signs of Exhaustion Stage <ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>GI disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>Skin rashes & hives </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue and Dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Aggravation of: arthritis, colitis, asthma, ulcers, diabetes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stress & Health Related Behaviours EXAM PERIOD = STRESS SMOKE MORE POOR DIET MORE ALCOHOL LESS SLEEP LESS EXERCISE
  8. 8. Personality & Stress <ul><li>Type A </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive, achievement-oriented, sense of time urgency, difficulty relaxing, impatient, angry, hostile, outwardly confident but full of self-doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Type B </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxed, easy-going, unpressured </li></ul>
  9. 9. Examples of Type A Behaviours <ul><li>Thinking of, or doing, two things at once </li></ul><ul><li>Hurrying the speech of others </li></ul><ul><li>Unduly irritated by queues </li></ul><ul><li>If you want something done you have to do it yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent knee jigging or rapid finger tapping </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent use of obscenities </li></ul><ul><li>Playing every game to win, even with children </li></ul><ul><li>Impatience when watching someone else do something you think you could do better or faster </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid blinking or tic-like eyebrow lifting </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Life Events Scale for Stress <ul><li>Life Event Value </li></ul><ul><li>Death of spouse 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce 73 </li></ul><ul><li>Death of close relative 63 </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Fired from job 47 </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Sex difficulties 39 </li></ul><ul><li>Change in finances 38 </li></ul><ul><li>Death of close friend 37 </li></ul><ul><li>Son/daughter leaving home 29 </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble with in-laws 29 </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Life Events Scale (continued) <ul><li>Life Event Value </li></ul><ul><li>Begin/end school 26 </li></ul><ul><li>Change in living conditions 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Revision of personal habits 24 </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble with boss 23 </li></ul><ul><li>Change in residence 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Change in school 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Change in recreation 19 </li></ul><ul><li>Change in sleeping habits 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Change in eating habits 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Holiday 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Christmas 12 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Behavioural Stress Management <ul><li>Progressive relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Yoga </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Biofeedback </li></ul>
  13. 13. Personal Coping Strategies <ul><li>Trust in time </li></ul><ul><li>Do not isolate yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Think positively </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a sense of humour </li></ul><ul><li>Think of yourself as relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise and Get a pet </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stress can be a positive thing <ul><li>Stress is likely to be detrimental to health only if it is unresolved & long-lasting </li></ul>

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