SlideShare a Scribd company logo

IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 2 February 2023

ijlterorg
ijlterorg

We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research

1 of 545
Download to read offline
International Journal
of
Learning, Teaching
And
Educational Research
p-ISSN:
1694-2493
e-ISSN:
1694-2116
IJLTER.ORG
Vol.22 No.2
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
(IJLTER)
Vol. 22, No. 2 (February 2023)
Print version: 1694-2493
Online version: 1694-2116
IJLTER
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER)
Vol. 22, No. 2
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part
of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations,
broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks.
Society for Research and Knowledge Management
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been
established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the
fields of learning, teaching and educational research.
Aims and Objectives
The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators,
teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the
world to present the results of their research activities in the following
fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment;
multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education;
knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning;
virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education;
digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e-
tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom
management issues, educational case studies, etc.
Indexing and Abstracting
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in
Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned
a unique DOI number.
Foreword
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and Educational Research.
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to
publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions
may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to
problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational
organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website
http://www.ijlter.org.
We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board
and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue.
We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration.
The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the
world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers.
We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal
with this issue.
Editors of the February 2023 Issue
VOLUME 22 NUMBER 2 February 2023
Table of Contents
Sustaining the Integration of Technology Pedagogies in Higher Education after the COVID-19 Pandemic.............1
Sithulisiwe Bhebhe, Luzaan Schlebusch, Schlebusch Gawie
Incorporating Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL) into common practices for architects and
building engineers. A case study in Perú and Spain........................................................................................................ 20
Sara Gutiérrez-González, Claudia Elena Coello-Torres, Lourdes Alameda Cuenca-Romero, Verónica Calderon Carpintero,
Alba Rodrigo-Bravo
CLIL in the Online Micro-teaching: Factors Affecting Content and Language Achievement....................................37
I Komang Budiarta, Luh Putu Artini, Ni Nyoman Padmadewi, Putu Kerti Nitiasih
Parents’ Contributions to Vietnamese English as a Foreign Language Students’ Perceptions of Learner Autonomy
.................................................................................................................................................................................................54
Nhu Bich Ho, Tin Tan Dang, Cang Trung Nguyen
The Efficacy of Microteaching in a Teacher Education Programme during the Lockdown at a University in South
Africa ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 76
Nosihle Veronica Sithole
Conceptualising a Liquid Interculturality for Foreign Language Teaching: A Case Study of Higher Education
Teachers in China..................................................................................................................................................................92
Feier Lou
The Effectiveness of Opinion Gaps, Reasoning, and Information Tasks in Improving Speaking Skills ................. 113
Sri Mulyani, Vismaia S. Damaianti, Yeti Mulyati, Andoyo Sastromiharjo
The Role of Adaptive E-Learning Co-Design as Main Solution to Higher Education’s Marketing Performance .131
Mariana Simanjuntak, I Made Sukresna
The Impact of Online Learning Strategies on Students’ Academic Performance: A Systematic Literature Review
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 148
Ramiz Zekaj
Experience of Beauty: Valuing Emotional Engagement and Collaboration in Teacher-Child Storytelling Activities
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 165
Mengyun Xiao, Fadzilah Bte Amzah, Weihan Rong
University Campus Life and Activities Aligned with Students’ Preferences towards Designing Competency
Model Framework .............................................................................................................................................................. 188
Rumpa Roy, Hesham El Marsafawy
“Sometimes I Really Need the School Counselling Service”: Some Aspects of School Counsellor–Teacher
Collaboration....................................................................................................................................................................... 207
Barbara Šteh, Jasna Mažgon, Petra Gregorcic Mrvar
Experiencing Feedback Channels during Online Research Supervision: A Perspective by Preclinical Students..228
Nurfarahin Nasri, Nik Mohd Rahimi, Harwati Hashim, Nurfaradilla Mohamad Nasri
Fostering Growth Mindset Principles in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Through a Narrative Game ............. 244
Ana Raffali, Ratnawati Mohd Asraf
The Role of Entrepreneurship Education in Shaping Students' Emotional and Cognitive Competencies for
Entrepreneurship................................................................................................................................................................ 262
Naniek Krishnawati, Juntika Nurihsan, Dasim Budimansyah, Encep Syarief Nurdin
STEM Productive Learning of Lower Secondary School in Southern Zone, Malaysia.............................................. 281
Mohd Alfouzii Nasir, Rohaya Talib, Adibah Abdul Latif, Mohd Fadzil Abdul Hanid, Haiza Atmareni Harmeni
Contribution of Augmented Reality in Teaching and Learning, in the Midst of COVID-19: Systematic Review.302
Omar Chamorro-Atalaya, Guillermo Morales-Romero, Adrián Quispe-Andía, Shirley Quispe-Guía, Teresa Guía-
Altamirano, Elizabeth Auqui-Ramos, Guillermo Linares-Sánchez, Genaro Sandoval-Nizama, José Antonio Arévalo-Tuesta
Social Media and Academic Performance: A Survey Research of Senior Secondary School Students in Uyo,
Nigeria.................................................................................................................................................................................. 323
Marcellinus Peter Asanga, Uduak Udoh Essiet, Kingsley Eghonghon Ukhurebor, Adenrele Afolorunso, Patrick Hussaini
Teachers' Perceptions of the Barriers to Inclusive Education of Kindergarten Students with Disabilities in Saudi
Arabia................................................................................................................................................................................... 338
Ruwida Aalatawi
Mindful Educators: Compassion, Community, and Adaptability Are Key................................................................ 358
Molly Dunn, Kristine E. Larson
Teaching with Chunking in Synchronous Classes: The Influence on University Students’ Intrinsic Motivation .377
Edgar L. Martínez-Huamán, Carmen Quiza Añazco, Sergio Cuellar Quispe, Blanca N. Gutiérrez-Pérez
Web-Based Design of BIPA Placement Test Instrument for Foreign Speakers .......................................................... 392
Endry Boeriswati, Rahmi Yulia Ningsih, Wardani Rahayu
Future-Teacher Soft Skills Development in the Context of Ukraine’s Integration into the European Higher
Education Area.................................................................................................................................................................... 413
Kateryna Kolesnik, Nataliia Oliinyk, Nadiia Komarivska, Natalia Kazmirchuk, Viktoriia Imber
ICT Integration in Elementary School for Mathematics Subject................................................................................... 432
Analyn M. Gamit
Developing Psychometric Property on the Psychological Capital Scale for Vocational High Schools in Indonesia
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 466
Tri Wrahatnolo, Ekohariadi ., Yeni Anistyasari
The Effect of Socio-Cultural Factors on English Language Learning and the Impact on SSCE Results: The Case of
Private vs Public Secondary Schools in Kano, Nigeria ..................................................................................................483
Sani Yantandu Uba, Julius Irudayasamy, Carmel Antonette Hankins
Female Principals’ Leadership Roles and Their Impact on School Culture Regarding Gifted Students’ Classrooms
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 499
Sultan Al-Mughyirah, Fathi Abunaser, Eman Al-taher, Al-Bandari Al-Otaibi

Recommended

IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 5 May 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 5 May 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 5 May 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 5 May 2023ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 7 July 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 7 July 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 7 July 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 7 July 2022ijlterorg
 
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 09 September 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 09 September 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 09 September 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 09 September 2023ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 3 March 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 3 March 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 3 March 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 3 March 2023ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 6 June 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 6 June 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 6 June 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 6 June 2021ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 1 January 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 1 January 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 1 January 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 1 January 2022ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 12 December 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 12 December 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 12 December 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 12 December 2020ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 5 May 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 5 May 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 5 May 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 5 May 2022ijlterorg
 

More Related Content

Similar to IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 2 February 2023

IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 8 August 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 8 August 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 8 August 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 8 August 2020ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 6 June 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 6 June 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 6 June 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 6 June 2022ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 1 January 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 1 January 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 1 January 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 1 January 2023ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 10 October 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 10 October 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 10 October 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 10 October 2020ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 2 February 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 2 February 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 2 February 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 2 February 2021ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 3 March 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 3 March 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 3 March 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 3 March 2022ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020ijlterorg
 
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 07 July 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 07 July 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 07 July 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 07 July 2023ijlterorg
 
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 08 August 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 08 August 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 08 August 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 08 August 2023ijlterorg
 
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 11 November 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 11 November 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 11 November 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 11 November 2023ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 8 August 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 8 August 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 8 August 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 8 August 2022ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 4 April 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 4 April 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 4 April 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 4 April 2022ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 7 July 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 7 July 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 7 July 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 7 July 2021ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 3 March 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 3 March 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 3 March 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 3 March 2021ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 4 April 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 4 April 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 4 April 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 4 April 2021ijlterorg
 

Similar to IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 2 February 2023 (20)

IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 8 August 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 8 August 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 8 August 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 8 August 2020
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 6 June 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 6 June 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 6 June 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 6 June 2022
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 1 January 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 1 January 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 1 January 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 1 January 2023
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 10 October 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 10 October 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 10 October 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 10 October 2020
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 2 February 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 2 February 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 2 February 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 2 February 2021
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 3 March 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 3 March 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 3 March 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 3 March 2022
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020
 
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 07 July 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 07 July 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 07 July 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 07 July 2023
 
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 08 August 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 08 August 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 08 August 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 08 August 2023
 
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 11 November 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 11 November 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 11 November 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 11 November 2023
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 8 August 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 8 August 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 8 August 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 8 August 2022
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 4 April 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 4 April 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 4 April 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 4 April 2022
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 7 July 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 7 July 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 7 July 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 7 July 2021
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 3 March 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 3 March 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 3 March 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 3 March 2021
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 4 April 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 4 April 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 4 April 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 4 April 2021
 

More from ijlterorg

ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 12 December 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 12 December 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 12 December 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 12 December 2023ijlterorg
 
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023ijlterorg
 
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 06 June 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 06 June 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 06 June 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 06 June 2023ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 11 November 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 11 November 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 11 November 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 11 November 2022ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020ijlterorg
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020ijlterorg
 

More from ijlterorg (9)

ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 12 December 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 12 December 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 12 December 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 12 December 2023
 
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023
 
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 06 June 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 06 June 2023ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 06 June 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 06 June 2023
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 11 November 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 11 November 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 11 November 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 11 November 2022
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020
 
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020
 

Recently uploaded

skeletal system complete details with joints and its types
skeletal system complete details with joints and its typesskeletal system complete details with joints and its types
skeletal system complete details with joints and its typesMinaxi patil. CATALLYST
 
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleNew Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleCeline George
 
Persuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
Persuasive Speaking and Means of PersuasionPersuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
Persuasive Speaking and Means of PersuasionCorinne Weisgerber
 
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptxOdontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptxMennat Allah Alkaram
 
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...MohonDas
 
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...Rabiya Husain
 
Group_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptx
Group_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptxGroup_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptx
Group_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptxPooja Bhuva
 
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdfOverview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
A LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdf
A LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdfA LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdf
A LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdfDr.M.Geethavani
 
VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024
VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024
VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024avesmalik2
 
Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...
Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...
Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...Katherine Villaluna
 
spring_bee_bot_creations_erd primary.pdf
spring_bee_bot_creations_erd primary.pdfspring_bee_bot_creations_erd primary.pdf
spring_bee_bot_creations_erd primary.pdfKonstantina Koutsodimou
 
ICSE English Language Class X Handwritten Notes
ICSE English Language Class X Handwritten NotesICSE English Language Class X Handwritten Notes
ICSE English Language Class X Handwritten NotesGauri S
 
Personal Branding Exploration- Anny Love
Personal Branding Exploration- Anny LovePersonal Branding Exploration- Anny Love
Personal Branding Exploration- Anny Loveaslove5
 
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxPlant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptxMaryPotorti1
 
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...EduSkills OECD
 

Recently uploaded (20)

skeletal system complete details with joints and its types
skeletal system complete details with joints and its typesskeletal system complete details with joints and its types
skeletal system complete details with joints and its types
 
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleNew Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
 
Persuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
Persuasive Speaking and Means of PersuasionPersuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
Persuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
 
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptxOdontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
 
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
 
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
 
Group_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptx
Group_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptxGroup_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptx
Group_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptx
 
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
 
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdfOverview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
 
A LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdf
A LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdfA LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdf
A LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdf
 
VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024
VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024
VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024
 
Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...
Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...
Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...
 
spring_bee_bot_creations_erd primary.pdf
spring_bee_bot_creations_erd primary.pdfspring_bee_bot_creations_erd primary.pdf
spring_bee_bot_creations_erd primary.pdf
 
ICSE English Language Class X Handwritten Notes
ICSE English Language Class X Handwritten NotesICSE English Language Class X Handwritten Notes
ICSE English Language Class X Handwritten Notes
 
Lipids as Biopolymer
Lipids as Biopolymer Lipids as Biopolymer
Lipids as Biopolymer
 
Personal Branding Exploration- Anny Love
Personal Branding Exploration- Anny LovePersonal Branding Exploration- Anny Love
Personal Branding Exploration- Anny Love
 
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
 
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxPlant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
 
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
 
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
 

IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 2 February 2023

  • 1. International Journal of Learning, Teaching And Educational Research p-ISSN: 1694-2493 e-ISSN: 1694-2116 IJLTER.ORG Vol.22 No.2
  • 2. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 22, No. 2 (February 2023) Print version: 1694-2493 Online version: 1694-2116 IJLTER International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 22, No. 2 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks. Society for Research and Knowledge Management
  • 3. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of learning, teaching and educational research. Aims and Objectives The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators, teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the world to present the results of their research activities in the following fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment; multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education; knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning; virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education; digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e- tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom management issues, educational case studies, etc. Indexing and Abstracting The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned a unique DOI number.
  • 4. Foreword We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue. Editors of the February 2023 Issue
  • 5. VOLUME 22 NUMBER 2 February 2023 Table of Contents Sustaining the Integration of Technology Pedagogies in Higher Education after the COVID-19 Pandemic.............1 Sithulisiwe Bhebhe, Luzaan Schlebusch, Schlebusch Gawie Incorporating Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL) into common practices for architects and building engineers. A case study in Perú and Spain........................................................................................................ 20 Sara Gutiérrez-González, Claudia Elena Coello-Torres, Lourdes Alameda Cuenca-Romero, Verónica Calderon Carpintero, Alba Rodrigo-Bravo CLIL in the Online Micro-teaching: Factors Affecting Content and Language Achievement....................................37 I Komang Budiarta, Luh Putu Artini, Ni Nyoman Padmadewi, Putu Kerti Nitiasih Parents’ Contributions to Vietnamese English as a Foreign Language Students’ Perceptions of Learner Autonomy .................................................................................................................................................................................................54 Nhu Bich Ho, Tin Tan Dang, Cang Trung Nguyen The Efficacy of Microteaching in a Teacher Education Programme during the Lockdown at a University in South Africa ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 76 Nosihle Veronica Sithole Conceptualising a Liquid Interculturality for Foreign Language Teaching: A Case Study of Higher Education Teachers in China..................................................................................................................................................................92 Feier Lou The Effectiveness of Opinion Gaps, Reasoning, and Information Tasks in Improving Speaking Skills ................. 113 Sri Mulyani, Vismaia S. Damaianti, Yeti Mulyati, Andoyo Sastromiharjo The Role of Adaptive E-Learning Co-Design as Main Solution to Higher Education’s Marketing Performance .131 Mariana Simanjuntak, I Made Sukresna The Impact of Online Learning Strategies on Students’ Academic Performance: A Systematic Literature Review ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 148 Ramiz Zekaj Experience of Beauty: Valuing Emotional Engagement and Collaboration in Teacher-Child Storytelling Activities ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 165 Mengyun Xiao, Fadzilah Bte Amzah, Weihan Rong University Campus Life and Activities Aligned with Students’ Preferences towards Designing Competency Model Framework .............................................................................................................................................................. 188 Rumpa Roy, Hesham El Marsafawy “Sometimes I Really Need the School Counselling Service”: Some Aspects of School Counsellor–Teacher Collaboration....................................................................................................................................................................... 207 Barbara Šteh, Jasna Mažgon, Petra Gregorcic Mrvar
  • 6. Experiencing Feedback Channels during Online Research Supervision: A Perspective by Preclinical Students..228 Nurfarahin Nasri, Nik Mohd Rahimi, Harwati Hashim, Nurfaradilla Mohamad Nasri Fostering Growth Mindset Principles in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Through a Narrative Game ............. 244 Ana Raffali, Ratnawati Mohd Asraf The Role of Entrepreneurship Education in Shaping Students' Emotional and Cognitive Competencies for Entrepreneurship................................................................................................................................................................ 262 Naniek Krishnawati, Juntika Nurihsan, Dasim Budimansyah, Encep Syarief Nurdin STEM Productive Learning of Lower Secondary School in Southern Zone, Malaysia.............................................. 281 Mohd Alfouzii Nasir, Rohaya Talib, Adibah Abdul Latif, Mohd Fadzil Abdul Hanid, Haiza Atmareni Harmeni Contribution of Augmented Reality in Teaching and Learning, in the Midst of COVID-19: Systematic Review.302 Omar Chamorro-Atalaya, Guillermo Morales-Romero, Adrián Quispe-Andía, Shirley Quispe-Guía, Teresa Guía- Altamirano, Elizabeth Auqui-Ramos, Guillermo Linares-Sánchez, Genaro Sandoval-Nizama, José Antonio Arévalo-Tuesta Social Media and Academic Performance: A Survey Research of Senior Secondary School Students in Uyo, Nigeria.................................................................................................................................................................................. 323 Marcellinus Peter Asanga, Uduak Udoh Essiet, Kingsley Eghonghon Ukhurebor, Adenrele Afolorunso, Patrick Hussaini Teachers' Perceptions of the Barriers to Inclusive Education of Kindergarten Students with Disabilities in Saudi Arabia................................................................................................................................................................................... 338 Ruwida Aalatawi Mindful Educators: Compassion, Community, and Adaptability Are Key................................................................ 358 Molly Dunn, Kristine E. Larson Teaching with Chunking in Synchronous Classes: The Influence on University Students’ Intrinsic Motivation .377 Edgar L. Martínez-Huamán, Carmen Quiza Añazco, Sergio Cuellar Quispe, Blanca N. Gutiérrez-Pérez Web-Based Design of BIPA Placement Test Instrument for Foreign Speakers .......................................................... 392 Endry Boeriswati, Rahmi Yulia Ningsih, Wardani Rahayu Future-Teacher Soft Skills Development in the Context of Ukraine’s Integration into the European Higher Education Area.................................................................................................................................................................... 413 Kateryna Kolesnik, Nataliia Oliinyk, Nadiia Komarivska, Natalia Kazmirchuk, Viktoriia Imber ICT Integration in Elementary School for Mathematics Subject................................................................................... 432 Analyn M. Gamit Developing Psychometric Property on the Psychological Capital Scale for Vocational High Schools in Indonesia ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 466 Tri Wrahatnolo, Ekohariadi ., Yeni Anistyasari The Effect of Socio-Cultural Factors on English Language Learning and the Impact on SSCE Results: The Case of Private vs Public Secondary Schools in Kano, Nigeria ..................................................................................................483 Sani Yantandu Uba, Julius Irudayasamy, Carmel Antonette Hankins Female Principals’ Leadership Roles and Their Impact on School Culture Regarding Gifted Students’ Classrooms ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 499 Sultan Al-Mughyirah, Fathi Abunaser, Eman Al-taher, Al-Bandari Al-Otaibi
  • 7. 1 ©Authors This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 1-19, February 2023 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.2.1 Received Nov 15, 2022; Revised Jan 24, 2023; Accepted Feb 22, 2023 Sustaining the Integration of Technology Pedagogies in Higher Education after the COVID-19 Pandemic Sithulisiwe Bhebhe* University of Eswatini & Central University of Technology Schlebusch Luzaan and Schlebusch Gawie Central University of Technology Abstract. This study sought to determine the support provided to lecturers from selected universities in Southern Africa in sustaining the integration of technology pedagogies to train in-service teachers after the COVID-19 pandemic era. The study used a multiple case study design and a qualitative research approach as part of an interpretive research paradigm. The study was carried out at two Southern African universities that were conveniently chosen by the researchers as their places of work. A purposive sample of lecturers in the faculties of education that train in- service teachers was selected. Data were gathered through the analysis of documents considered relevant to the study from the studied universities. A focus group discussion was held with 12 lecturers, an open-ended questionnaire was completed by 9 lecturers and open-ended interviews with 6 HODs in the faculties of education were conducted. Data obtained from the participants and the documents examined were analysed using thematic analysis. The study's findings reveal that lecturers from both universities initially had limited knowledge as they were still transforming from face-to-face teaching pedagogies and needed to be knowledgeable about integrating technological pedagogies in training in- service teachers. Findings also show that the universities provided some internet connectivity for lecturers to use especially when they were on campus, but internet access was limited when they moved off campus premises. Institution A failed to give lecturers data for off campus usage, while institution B gave lecturers data for off campus usage, but load- shedding (regulated power outages) took a toll in the country where institution B is situated. The study concludes that lecturers received support from the universities where they work to enable appropriate technology pedagogy integration in the preparation of in-service teachers. * Corresponding author: Sithulisiwe Bhebhe; email: sithulisiwebhebhe@gmail.com/sbhebhe@uniswa.sz
  • 8. 2 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Keywords: COVID-19; supporting; lecturers; higher education; technology pedagogies; in-service teachers 1. Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic compelled people to undertake more activities from home, including learning. As a result, education systems created online learning policies that were also applied to in-service teacher training programmes at higher education institutions (Ali & Kaur, 2020; Karma et al., 2021). Notably, the COVID- 19 pandemic pushed education systems to reconsider the most effective teaching and learning pedagogies in light of the global health challenges experienced (Peters et al., 2022). The COVID-19 pandemic was a global problem that crippled economies everywhere also affecting the educational sector. Disruptions in the education system, which affected national growth, were brought about by the pandemic (Onoshakpokaiye, 2020). To lessen the negative impact of this pandemic, education systems moved toward e-learning globally. In particular, developing nations were faced with the challenge of switching from the conventional teaching style to online learning (Adeoye et al., 2020) and lecturers required support in the shift from face-to-face to online learning. This study explored the support given to lecturers by two selected universities in Southern Africa to integrate technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers. Integrating technology pedagogies in in-service teacher training was one strategy for higher education institutions in Southern Africa to continue teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic and for at least a few months post- pandemic (Mishra et al., 2020). Initially, most lecturers only used technology to design instructional materials or deliver lectures but did not effectively integrate technology into in-service teacher training processes (Gunuç & Babacan, 2018). Thus, it is important for higher education institutions to support lecturers to ensure that there is integration of technology pedagogies in in-service teacher training even after the COVID-19 pandemic era. The World Health Organization (WHO) set regulations of social distancing individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. This compelled higher education institutions to switch quickly to the use of technology in instructional delivery in the education system worldwide (Prokes & Housel, 2021). The use of technology- based pedagogies profoundly changed instruction in higher education institutions (Marcelo & Yot-Domínguez, 2019). Integrating technology in the teacher training process made it simpler to transition to a student-centred learning model where the lecturer no longer has entire control of the learning process, but students are leading in their own learning (Surtees et al., 2021). Learning management systems (LMSs) are currently a crucial part of the instructional process for higher education students (Turnbull et al., 2021). The transition from face-to-face to technology-based pedagogies required an unprecedented institutional resource commitment, which included buying synchronous web conferencing software like Zoom, lending hardware and software licences, and exponentially increasing the use of LMSs (Bass, 2022). Prokes and Housel (2021) emphasise the importance of integrating technology pedagogies in higher education instruction for flexibility in situations where
  • 9. 3 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter learning is disturbed by natural disasters, distressing societal occurrences, or societal changes. By integrating LMSs, synchronous technologies, and other tools into their teaching methods, lecturers can adapt the educational process to the fourth industrial revolution (Xing & Marwala, 2017). During the COVID-19 pandemic higher education institutions switched to the technology pedagogies to ensure that technology was integrated in in-service teacher training. University lecturers had to integrate technology pedagogies in in-service teacher training when millions of students in higher education were forced to attend their lessons from home due to the COVID-19 pandemic as there was closure of educational facilities around the world (Jena, 2020). This move emphasised the need to re-examine discussions about how technology and education interact, as well as the benefits of using digital resources to improve the education processes (Selvanathan et al., 2020). The findings of a study conducted in Malaysia by Henriques et al. (2021) reveal that when lecturers were forced to change their pedagogies and incorporate technology into their instruction because of the closure of institutions owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, higher education institutions had to purchase the appropriate technology tools for teaching and learning. A study conducted by Pete and Soko (2020) in three sub-Saharan African countries, Kenya, Ghana and South Africa, revealed that laptops and cell phones were more commonly used in the latter two countries while Kenya used desktop PCs more than laptops and cell phones. According to Mishra et al. (2020), e- learning platforms that support the use of video, such as Canvas LMS, Moodle, Mahara, and open EdX, as well as platforms that adhere to certain standards for content storage, processing, management, and publication, were made available to lecturers in universities. To use technology pedagogies in New Zealand higher education institutions during the COVID-19 epidemic, lecturers had to be trained to come up with original and creative solutions to integrating technology pedagogies in training teachers (Thomsen et al., 2021). In their study, Henriques et al. (2021) highlight the significance of training, as well as the difficulties and important considerations that come with the integration of technology pedagogies in higher education, as well as the opportunities provided by a post-pandemic educational reality. To maintain technology pedagogies even after the COVID-19 epidemic phase, training is thus one essential support that lecturers in higher education institutions need. After the COVID-19 pandemic, blended learning policies saw a resurgence and began to trickle back into the education system (Bordoloi et al., 2021). Policies assisted in ensuring inclusivity in the education process. In an Indonesian study of teachers' use of the internet during the Covid-19 pandemic, Tamah et al. (2020) found a need to plan for online learning that matches the needs of each student in order to avoid escalating inequality and social divides. As a result, higher education institutions may need to support lecturers for the sustainability of technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers after the COVID-19
  • 10. 4 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter pandemic. Thus, this study explored the kind of support selected higher education institutions in Southern Africa put in place to sustain technology integration after the COVID-19 pandemic era. 2. Statement of the problem and objectives of the study Many obstacles still prevent lecturers in Southern African universities from integrating technology pedagogies in the training of in-service teachers appropriately (Ziphorah, 2014). Universities in Southern Africa were forced to abruptly switch from face-to-face instruction to online learning during the COVID-19 outbreak, and it is anticipated that universities will continue to integrate technology pedagogies in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic (Maphosa, 2021). According to Donnelly and Boniface (2013), lecturers need three to six years of consistent practice to integrate technology fully in the classroom. Lecturers had limited time to learn how to integrate technology into the classroom, to learn how to utilise technology, to develop instructional activities and to apply them in the classroom (Vrasidas & Glass, 2007). In this light, this study aimed to explore how universities in Southern Africa support lecturers in sustaining the integration of technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers after the COVID-19 pandemic era to promote pedagogy sustainability. As such the objectives of the study were to: ● Determine what support is given by the selected universities in Southern Africa to lecturers to integrate technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers; ● Identify the challenges lecturers have in sustaining the integration of technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers after the COVID-19 pandemic era; ● Suggest what the universities in Southern Africa may do to sustain the integration of technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers after the COVID-19 pandemic era. 3. Literature review This section reviewed literature related to this study. Literature was reviewed under the subheadings of technology integration in higher education and theoretical framework. 3.1 Technology integration in higher education Finding efficient means of supporting university lecturers in the process of integrating technology into their classrooms is crucial as access to technology becomes more common in higher education institutions (Ali, 2020). The COVID- 19 pandemic created a shift in the global higher education community to online instruction and learning that requires a specific level of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), particularly when it comes to planning and structuring improved learning experiences and developing unique learning environments with the aid of digital technology (Mishra et al., 2020). This meant that lecturers of different ages and backgrounds suddenly had to prepare and deliver their classes from home, frequently while most of them were without the required technical support (Hodges et al., 2020). Additionally, a major obstacle for university lecturers was their lack of the PCK required for online instruction (Ali,
  • 11. 5 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 2020). There is a need to consider the best ways to support lecturers’ integration of technology into their lectures as higher education institutions extend access to and encourage the integration of technology pedagogies in in-service teacher training post-pandemic (Goh & Sigala, 2020). The results of a study by Lai and Widmar (2021) in the United States of America (USA) demonstrate that lecturers teaching in rural-based institutions face challenges with the internet since they frequently have slower internet speeds and less reliable internet services. While many countries provide technology support for educational institutions, there is a need for higher educational institutions to support lecturers to gain technology knowledge in order for them to integrate technology appropriately in in-service teacher training (Green, 2017). According to another study by Dysart and Weckerle (2015) in the USA, while institutions offer centralised support for lecturers to use technology, there are not many opportunities for centralised professional development that simultaneously work to increase lecturers' technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) in higher education institutions because it is assumed that since lecturers are able to use technology, they already know how to incorporate technology into their lessons. Through centralised assistance for creating TPACK, Dysart and Weckerle (2015) devised a model for ongoing professional growth that enables lecturers to use technology effectively in their teaching strategies. A study conducted by Almaiah et al. (2020) with 31 lecturers from six universities from Jordan and Saudi Arabia revealed concerns about lecturers' abilities to use technology pedagogies in higher education as they lack important information related to pedagogy and content. A study conducted in Canada by Ali (2020) points out that lecturer readiness, confidence, and motivation play important roles in integrating technologies in higher education. Ali (2020) also suggested that lecturers should employ technology and technological gadgets to improve learning, but did not specify how this may be sustained. Akram et al. (2021) found that lecturers in Pakistan have a favourable attitude toward the use of virtual learning environments. The challenges lecturers encounter that prevent them from providing successful teaching and learning include their limited experience applying technology-based pedagogies and their need for a suitable ICT infrastructure to manage the associated technical challenges. The results of a study by Adeoye et al. (2020) reveals that in the Nigerian education sector the integration of technology pedagogies in higher education is challenged by the institutions' different levels of preparedness, a lack of infrastructure, a lack of resources, and problematic policies. Similarly, a study conducted by Ifinedo et al. (2020) reveals that in Nigeria three constructs have a direct impact on technology integration: perceived technological knowledge, instructors' knowledge, and perceived knowledge for integrating technology. In Tanzania, a study conducted by Mtebe and Raphael (2018) reveals that lecturers had a moderate level of trust in all TPACK components while using technology. In the same study, it was found that lecturers had high levels of confidence in their content knowledge, pedagogical expertise, and PCK but not with integrating the knowledge components. Thus, there is a need to ensure a suitable ICT
  • 12. 6 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter infrastructure for lecturers to use, appropriate resources and knowledge on how to integrate technology, content and pedagogies as well as support for the integration of technology in in-service teacher training through well-structured policies in higher education institutions. In South Africa, Zhuwao (2017) points out that ICT strategy and the drive for an outcome-based education (OBE) model of instruction can both be realised with the adequate use and awareness of technologies and technology pedagogies. Khoza (2021) points out that higher education institutions in South Africa were compelled by the COVID-19 pandemic to transition to a digitalised curriculum (DC). The DC is a strategy for or of education driven by digital technology. Universities were forced to relocate to a DC in order to finish the 2020 academic year due to the WHO restrictions that advocated social distancing which led to closure of the campuses. Khoza (2021) indicated that there was migration to technology integration in higher education institutions by using WhatsApp, Facebook, Skype, and Zoom video conferencing technology (ZVCT). The migration started by fostering societal identity while maintaining professional identity by utilising Moodle. 3.2 TPACK theoretical framework The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) theory guided this study as it outlines the types of knowledge necessary for a systemic integration of technology into in-service teacher training (Mishra, 2019). The emphasis in modern teacher education is on general pedagogical teaching methodologies, as opposed to the traditional focus on subject matter knowledge or content that lecturers have (Howard & Milner, 2021). Fernandez (2014) emphasised the value of teachers' methodological and topic knowledge in the late 1980s in order to provide a new viewpoint on teaching and learning. The relationship between lecturers' pedagogical and content knowledge for instructing in-service teachers in a university context is reflected by Fernandez’s (2014) perspective on PCK. Effective teaching relies on well-integrated knowledge from several knowledge domains, despite the fact that it was anticipated that PCK would have the biggest influence on lecturers' activities in in-service teacher training (Gasteiger et al., 2020). Technological knowledge is another area of knowledge that has lately emerged and has to be addressed (Botha et al., 2014). Figure 1 shows the TPACK diagram.
  • 13. 7 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Figure 1: TPACK framework (Adapted from Koehler & Mishra, 2009, p. 63) Although it was expected that lecturers in higher education had picked up technological and pedagogical skills along the way, this may not always be the case. Before entering the field, lecturers were not necessarily exposed to formal training in these areas (Oleson & Hora, 2014). The four separate domains formed by the intersection of the three knowledge domains that make up the TPACK framework are shown in Figure 1: technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), technological content knowledge (TCK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and finally technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) are required by lecturers in higher education. Each of these domains denotes a knowledge base needed by lecturers to integrate technology successfully into in-service teacher training (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). Using TPACK as the theory guiding this study offered a useful strategy to ensure the integration of technology pedagogies in in-service teacher training, as TPACK reflects the space of the three categories of knowledge, technology, content, and pedagogy, in teaching (Cui & Zhang, 2021). TPACK can direct lecturers to employ particular technological tools, hardware, and software applications to aid in the learning of content by differentiating between the three categories of knowledge (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). The necessity for teachers to combine their understanding of material, pedagogy, and technology is also made more apparent by TPACK (Jiawei & Zuhao, 2021). Therefore, TPACK is commonly considered as a powerful analytical tool for integration of technology pedagogies in in-service teacher training. 4. Research methodology The study used a multiple case study design (Halkias & Neubert, 2020) and a qualitative research approach as part of an interpretive research paradigm (Scotland, 2012). The study was carried out at two Southern African universities
  • 14. 8 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter that were conveniently chosen by the researchers as their places of work (Mudavanhu, 2017). A purposive sample of lecturers in the faculties of education that train in-service teachers was taken (Tapala et al., 2021). Data were gathered through the analysis of documents considered relevant to the study from the studied universities. A focus group discussion was held with 12 lecturers, an open-ended questionnaire was completed by 9 lecturers and open-ended interviews with 6 HODs in the faculties of education were conducted, making a total of 27 participants (Arving et al., 2014). The open-ended interviews with HODs were done via the internet. This allowed participants to provide information while remaining in the privacy of their offices. A well-designed questionnaire includes question items that are relevant to the study's research topics and may include lists, brief replies, or long narratives. To give information needed to answer the research questions, all purposely sampled lecturers were emailed open-ended questionnaires to complete. However, generating data from an open-ended questionnaire in this study was a challenge as the term “in-service teachers” was commonly used in one of the institutions. The researchers then advocated for a focus group discussion with the participants who responded well to the call. This was effective as the information needed from the participants was obtained. In this study, the lecturers who had not managed to answer the questionnaire were invited to a focus group discussion that consisted of lecturers from both higher education institutions under study. Six participants fully attended the focus group discussion from institution A, while out of the 6 participants from institution B one left a few minutes before the end of the discussion to attend a lecture but after significantly contributing to the discussion. Focus group discussions also assisted triangulation of data collection methods, such as virtual interviews, questionnaire and document analysis used in the study. Nyumba et al. (2018) state that focus group interviews generate data for a study in order for the researcher to better understand the subject. In this study, focus group interviews confirmed the information obtained from document analysis and questionnaires completed by lecturers. Document analysis was utilised in this study, together with open-ended interviews and open-ended questionnaires, to collect data from the study participants on how they integrate technology pedagogies in teacher education. We double-checked the authorship of the documents to ensure that they were genuine and trustworthy. We were able to determine the state of the documents by checking their legitimacy. Documents were also checked for credibility. The credibility of the materials examined in this study was reviewed to ensure that they were free of errors or distortions. This was accomplished by comparing the dates of the documents to the activities they detailed. For example, it was confirmed that the author was present at the events described. Data generated from the participants and the documents examined were analysed using the thematic analysis.
  • 15. 9 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 5. Results of the study The results in this study on the support given to lecturers for technology integration in training in-service teachers were presented under the themes: support through training of lecturers, supporting lecturers through technological tools, support through policies and support through data provision and connectivity. 5.1 Support through training of lecturers post COVID-19 Technology requires training and support to be successfully utilised. The participants were asked if the institutions had supported the lecturers with technology use in the training of in-service teachers. In institution B a document from the Centre for e-Learning and Educational Technology (2022) states that its aim is: “To provide and manage e-learning and educational technology initiatives for academic staff and students to support teaching and learning”. This is affirmed by the HOD from institution B who stated: “The University does provide some kind of training with technology to use these online platforms for instance, to make sure that lecturers integrate technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers.” On the same note Lecturer 2 from institution A revealed: “The university has made efforts to train lecturers to integrate technology pedagogies and we have support staff who assist us for instance with regards to the Moodle platform, there is ongoing training that the university offers through the Centre for Excellence in Learning and Teaching.” Lecturer 1 from institution B also indicated: “Our faculty has technologists who are trained in IT and continue to support staff with the use of technology, learning management system and tools used in integrating technology pedagogies in training in- service teachers.” Similarly, Lecturer number 3 in a focus group discussion mentioned: “We also have technicians and administrators who assist with the various technologies that can be used when one wants to integrate technology in their teaching.” Similarly, Lecturer 4 from institution A stated: “As lecturers we are currently being trained in online pedagogies using the university internet connectivity and getting knowledge on data projection equipment”. Again Lecturer 1 from institution B in the open-ended questionnaire pointed out: “The University has supported us by providing ongoing training on technology integration to staff … we really appreciate what the university is doing.” HOD2 from institution A stated: “What I do is to encourage the lecturers in the department to attend workshops on integrating technology into teaching and learning.” Similarly, the document from the Centre for e-Learning and Educational Technology in institution B states: “[The Centre] trains and supports lecturers in the development and implementation of blended and online learning.” HOD3 from institution A stated: “The lecturers make sure they attend the workshops that the institution of Distance Education and the Centre for Excellence for Teaching and Learning organise for training lecturers in integrating technology pedagogies.” Lecturer 5 from institution A also revealed:“The University has an opportunity through the Institution of distance learning to organise facilitators from different parts of the world to give workshops where lecturers are trained on how they can integrate technologies in their teaching.” In a focus group discussion Lecturer 3 from
  • 16. 10 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter institution B pointed out: “During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was this drastic shift, I had to get some training from the institution, into using the Learning Management System (LMS) to teach.” HOD4 from institution A also said: “Now some lecturers also in the department have been trained to use LMSs and can integrate technology into their teaching. We ask some of those lecturers to assist those that are still struggling in integrating technology in their teaching.” The data generated from the research participants reveal that lecturers from both studied institutions are receiving training in integrating technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers. Apart from peers assisting each other, support comes from the different sources in the universities, while universities also get external support from facilitators organised by the responsible departments in that university. The participants also revealed that the universities have technical staff who assist lecturers with technology knowledge that they use in the quest to integrate technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers. 5.2 Supporting lecturers through technological tools The participants were asked about the technological tools support they were received in their universities. The document on Web Services Support in institution B revealed: “The unit enables staff to perform their duties by ensuring that staff and students have access to the information they require at all times via their desktop computers” (ICT Services, 2022). This was confirmed by the HOD from institution B who mentioned: “Every lecturer has a desktop in our institution and internet for them to access information, prepare for lectures and provide feedback to the students.” HOD5 from institution A stated: “We have desktops which are connected to the university internet. We also have a small laboratory with desktops which are accessible to in-service teachers and these desktops were donated to the department by the Ministry of Education.” Lecturer 2 from institution A in a focus group discussion confirmed sentiments from HOD5 that in institution A: “We did get a donation of computers from the Ministry of Education. I think we got about ten (10) computers from the Ministry of Education, to help us in that area.” Similarly, Lecturer 4 from institution A said: “We buy our own laptops.” Lecturer number 2 from institution A also said: “If any lecturer needs a desktop, a budget is made to buy them a desktop computer, but the university process of buying is long. The university has never bought us laptops but has bought us projectors that we share as departments.” On the same note HOD3 from institution A commented: “The only thing that we have in our offices is just computers- desktops which were provided by the university…the only thing that I have in this office is just this desktop and nothing else without even a connection to Wi-Fi. That is how difficult it has been. So practising or trying out some of the suggestions that we get from the workshops that we attend is highly impossible.” Similarly, HOD1 from institution A indicated: “We agree with the university in principle, that they have to provide us with all the necessary technology like webcams for instance, in order to teach on Moodle and also the computers as well as laptops that we need to do this and many other gadgets but unfortunately the university has been very slow, but they always promised that they are working on it.” On the same note HOD3 from institution A mentioned: “We have not done enough as an institution. The level of acceptance is very flat. It is like the institution was caught unaware. This is why the institution is always meandering between face to face and online lesson delivery.
  • 17. 11 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Consequently, members of staff don't see the need and the pressure to fully committee themselves on using technological pedagogies.” HOD2 from institution A concurred saying: “The University has never supported us with technological tools. We only have desktops and we also have a TV. Just one TV and it is used by the faculty, but as a department we sometimes get to use it more especially when our students are presenting peer teaching, but then we also have a few projectors.” Similarly, HOD4 from institution A mentioned: “The University has only provided some lecturers with desktops while some are using outdated desktops that are not user friendly as a technological tool used in training in-service teachers.” Contrary to the view by HOD4 from institution A, Lecturer 5 from institution B said: “The University has provided us with desktop computers to ensure that lecturers’ access information at all times. We also are supported in online tools, like similarity check software and online survey software.” Participants in this study revealed that lecturers from both universities received support from the universities through desktops. While participants from institution A mentioned that the university has never provided them with laptops to work away from the institution, participants from institution B mentioned that they also are supported in online tools, like similarity check software (Turnitin) and online survey software (QuestionPro) as a way to enhance the integration of technology pedagogies in in-service teacher training. 5.3 Support through policies The participants were also asked about policies in the universities that guided the integration of technology in the training of in-service teachers. The participants revealed that there are policies that recommend the use of technology in instructing in-service teachers. HOD1 from institution A noted: “Currently, after the COVID-19 pandemic the university has advocated for a blended learning policy and they are nurturing the policy through training staff currently.” Lecturer 1 from institution B also mentioned that during COVID-19 the institution delivered classes through e-learning but currently there is blended learning. This view is confirmed by the document from the Center for e-Learning and Educational Technology (2022:1) in institution B which points out that the centre is mandated to: “train- and support- lecturers in the development and implementation of blended and online learning.” Similarly, the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (2022:1) in institution A has started to pursue “the goal of shifting the university to remote delivery.” On the contrary HOD3 from institution A stated: “Currently, we have a policy that the institution is using blended learning. I think we need to have sound policies that govern the integration of technological pedagogies in the instructional process. We also need a strategy of how to implement and that would include getting the tools ready. We need to have a committee that will look into how the policies set are implemented. We need to have proper guidance on how to integrate technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers.” On support through policies, the participants in this study revealed that both institutions were now using blended learning as the policy after the COVID-19 pandemic. Institution A is aiming at shifting the university to online learning in training in-service teachers, while institution B is aiming at using blended learning and online learning in training in-service teachers. However, participants
  • 18. 12 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter in institution A still view the policy as not really clear as to how the integration of technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers should be done. 5.4 Support through data provision, connectivity and challenges experienced The researchers asked the participants how the universities supported the lecturers’ connectivity to the internet. The ICT services (2022, p.1) in institution B are mandated to: “Provide effective network availability and connectivity to ensure optimal functionality and productivity of employees.” This was confirmed by Lecturer 2 in institution A who stated: “Our university provides us with data to use even when we are off campus.” On the contrary Lecturer 4 from institution A described a challenge: “We buy our data. Sometimes we use our own internet, Wi-Fi gadgets, just to pick up the university internet when it's weak.” Similar to the view by Lecturer 4 from institution A, HOD2 from institution A complained: “Some of these computers that we have are not connected to the internet.” Lecturer 3 from institution A elaborated: “Most of our offices in this university use the plug-in internet, but some old desktops are not compatible with the plug-in internet and are not connected. Lecturer 1 from institution A pointed out another challenge: “There are also very few spots in the university that have WIFI but most of the areas do not have Wi-Fi. Mine for example is not connected to the internet.” On the same note HOD1 from institution A said: “The university has never provided data to lecturers nor the in-service teachers under training to ensure that there is teaching and learning online. They just tell us that we can teach from home because the students are on Class Boycott or most importantly COVID-19 or whatever, but no laptops nor data provided. They just assume we have our own gadgets and our own data and they expect us to use our own data." Lecturer 1 from institution B described the problem: “Connectivity is a challenge because of insufficient internet due to load shedding that has been implemented in our country. So as much as we want to be effective, but now, the integration of technology is distracted by unavailability of electricity in some instances.” Participants in this study revealed several problems experienced in their institutions regarding the integration of technology pedagogies. The participants revealed that problems with internet connectivity and data provision. In institution A, the institution cannot afford to have a wider internet broadband to cover all campus areas for lecturers and students and lecturers rely on the plug- in internet. Some lecturers have desktops that are not even connected to the plug- in internet. Institution A also cannot provide lecturers with data to use off campus, while institution B has it all but suffers from electricity power cuts. 5.5 Suggestions on how to sustain the integration of technology Participants in this study were asked to suggest what could be done to sustain the integration of technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers in their institutions. HOD3 from institution A stated: “The university should purchase the correct gadgets smart for integrating technology in teacher education”. HOD2 from institution A concurred with HOD 3 from the same institution and stated: “I would like to see the university providing the lecturers with the gadgets that they need. So that the technology may be appropriately integrated in training in-service teachers.”
  • 19. 13 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Lecturer 4 from institution A pointed out: “The university should purchase laptops for example, for individual lecturers, so that each lecturer has their own projector and webcams, microphones, speakers, cameras for lectures.” Similarly, Lecturer 1 from institution A pointed out: “The university should provide data or Wi Fi so that lecturers may be in a position to effectively make use of technology when they're teaching in and outside campus.” HOD4 from institution A stated: “I would want to see all teachers being catered for in the in-service training. Currently, our in-service department is science oriented. So that leaves out subjects." HOD3 from institution A stated: “The university should continuously facilitate the training of lecturers so that they are better able to use these technologies and train trainee teachers in how to actually use those technologies in the schools. Also, I think that a course for technology integration in teaching training may be advocated for as a bridging course between undergraduate and postgraduate teacher training in universities.” On the same note Lecturer 2 from institution A suggested: “All subjects currently offered in the education system need to be explored on how to integrate technology in their teaching." Participants in institution A recommended that the university purchase smart devices such as projectors, webcams, microphones, speakers, and cameras to incorporate technology in teacher education. The participants also suggested that the university furnish the lecturers with the devices they require for integrating technology pedagogies in training trainee teachers. The participants also suggested that the university should supply data or Wi-Fi so that lecturers use the technology to its full potential both within and outside of the university. Participants also agreed that universities ought to provide ongoing training in all disciplines for all trainee teachers in order to keep the entire education system up to date with the integration of technology. 6. Discussion of findings The findings of this study were discussed against the literature reviewed. The results of the study reveal that in both the studied universities there was a shift from the traditional face-to-face teaching as COVID-19 heightened to the use of technology in training in-service teachers. This finding is in line with the views from Adeoye et al. (2020) as well as Almaiah et al. (2020) who reveal that the entire education system shifted to e-learning to mitigate the effects of this pandemic. In the TPACK theory there are four knowledge bases: technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), technological content knowledge (TCK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and finally technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) that lecturers must possess in order to successfully integrate technology pedagogies into in-service teacher training (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). The results of this study also showed that lecturers from both of the institutions under study are receiving training in integrating technology pedagogies in in-service teacher training. This finding is in line with the views from Thomsen et al. (2021) who point out that to integrate technology pedagogies in teaching and learning, lecturers have to be trained to develop innovative and imaginative solutions to the teaching process. Training lecturers in integrating technology pedagogies in in-service teacher training highlights the three categories of knowledge, technology, content, and pedagogy in teaching as represented in TPACK. TPACK
  • 20. 14 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter highlights the need for lecturers in higher education institutions to combine their expertise in subject matter, pedagogy, and technology. The study also reveals that there are some lecturers who despite the training they go through remain struggling with integrating technologies in their teaching such that they end up asking their peers to assist in integrating technology pedagogies in training teachers in the universities under study. This view is reflected by Koehler et al. (2014) who reveal that in training lecturers for effective technology integration, higher education institutions concentrate on professionally developing lecturers to independently apply TPK to their subject areas. Therefore, providing technical knowledge to lecturers in higher education institutions is not enough (Schlager & Fusco, 2003) as the issue is in having the four domains of knowledge in the TPACK complementing each other in successful integration of technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers in the studied higher education institutions in Southern Africa. The TPACK theory advocates for ensuring the three knowledge circles meet in the integration of technology pedagogies in teaching. This study's findings reveal that universities have technical staff who provide lecturers with technical knowledge, which they use in their efforts to integrate technology pedagogies into the training of in-service teachers. This finding is in contrast to the assertions made by Dysart and Weckerle (2015) that instructional technologists with limited subject-matter expertise frequently oversee the training of lecturers in institutions. Similarly, Koehler et al. (2014) argue that in higher education institutions the training that lecturers go through is meant for them to gain technology knowledge (TK). Thus, having lecturers equipped with technology knowledge by the university technical staff, without the knowledge of how to integrate content knowledge and technology knowledge is contrary to the expectations of the TPACK theory of knowledge integration in practice. In the TPACK theory TK is twined with pedagogy knowledge, thus there is TPK. In the studied universities lecturers receive support from the universities through desktops as digital devices to use to integrate technology into in-service teacher training. This finding is contrary to findings from a study by Pete and Soko (2020) that revealed that two of the three studied nations in Sub Saharan countries mainly used laptops and smartphones while one used mainly desktop computers and minimal laptops and smartphones; moreover, this is not congruent with the TPACK theory. Notably, the provision of digital tools in the form of desktops, smartphones and laptops which is technological knowledge should be coupled with pedagogical knowledge in the integration of technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers in the studied higher education institutions. Content knowledge is a component of the TPACK theory. This study revealed that participants from institution B are supported in online tools, like similarity check software (Turnitin) and online survey software (QuestionPro) to enhance the integration of technology pedagogies in in-service teacher training. This is in line with Mishra et al. (2020) who argue that lecturers in a university may be supported through the provision of open sources or e-learning platforms which
  • 21. 15 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter support the use of video like canvas LMS, Moodle, Mahara and open Edx and platforms that meet certain requirements in higher education institutions. The support given through provision of software and online survey software is in line with the requirements of the TPACK theory as the software is meant to check on the knowledge. 7. Conclusions The problem identified in this study was that there are still obstacles that restrain the integration of technology pedagogies in the training of in-service teachers in Southern African universities. The findings in this study revealed that lecturers receive support from the universities where they work to enable appropriate technology pedagogy integration in the training of in-service teachers even after the COVID-19 pandemic. Lecturers were supported through training, provision of technological tools, policy formulation and support through data provision and connectivity. The study concludes that although the higher education institutions provided support of the lecturers in the integration of technology in in-service teacher training, some lecturers face difficulties using the latest tech tools and restricted broadband internet services. The study also concluded that the support given to lecturers is university wide support where some components of knowledge domains from the TPACK theory are not twinned to assist in integrating technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers. 8. Recommendations Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that the higher education institutions studied in Southern Africa should provide lecturers with ongoing training on the use of technology tools, software updates and new features of the sophisticated but requisite digital LMS used to train in-service teachers. This study also recommends that higher education institutions provide enough internet coverage in the institutions and provide electricity generators to provide electricity during power cuts. Furthermore, the support given to the lecturers should consider the use of all the knowledge domains that would assist in the integration of technology pedagogies in training in-service teachers. Likewise, the universities under study should decentralise the support to subject areas so that lecturers are equipped with knowledge on how to integrate technology pedagogies in their own subject. 9. References Adeoye, I. A., Adanikin, A. F., & Adanikin, A. (2020). COVID-19 and E-learning: Nigeria Tertiary Education System Experience. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341574880 Akram, H., Aslam, S., Saleem, A., & Parveen, K. (2021). The challenges of online teaching in COVID19 pandemic: A case study of public universities in Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 20(1), 263-282. https://doi.org/10.28945/4784 Alhojailan, M. I. (2012). Thematic analysis: A critical review of its process and evaluation. West East Journal of Social Sciences, 1(1), 39-47. https://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/sites/default/files/ta_thematic_analysis_dr_moham med_alhojailan.pdf
  • 22. 16 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Ali, W. (2020). Online and remote learning in higher education institutions: A necessity in light of COVID-19 pandemic. Higher Education Studies, 10(3), 16-25. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1259642 Ali, W., & Kaur, M. (2020). Mediating educational challenges amidst Covid-19 pandemic. Asia Pac. J. Contemp. Educ. Commun. Technol, 6(2), 40-57. https://apiar.org.au/wp- content/uploads/2020/08/4_APJCECT_V6_I2_2020_pp.40-57.pdf Almaiah, M. A., Al-Khasawneh, A., & Althunibat, A. (2020). Exploring the critical challenges and factors influencing the E-learning system usage during COVID-19 pandemic. Education And Information Technologies, 25(6), 5261-5280. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10639-020-10219-y Arving, C., Wadensten, B., & Johansson, B. (2014). Registered nurses' thoughts on blended learning in a postgraduate course in cancer care—content analyses of web surveys and a focus group interview. Journal of Cancer Education, 29(2),278-283. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24338502/ Bass, S. A. (2022). Administratively Adrift: Overcoming Institutional Barriers for College Student Success. Cambridge University Press. https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/administratively- adrift/C9D727C8CB5CA27A3D35A17DFD1BE9FF Bordoloi, R., Das, P., & Das, K. (2021). Perception towards online/blended learning at the time of Covid-19 pandemic: Academic Analytics in the Indian context. Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, 16(1), 1-11. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/AAOUJ-09-2020- 0079/full/html Botha, A., Kourie, D., & Snyman, R. (2014). Coping with continuous change in the business environment: Knowledge management and knowledge management technology. Elsevier. https://www.elsevier.com/books/coping-with-continuous-change-in- the-business-environment/botha/978-1-84334-355-4 Centre for e-Learning and Educational Technology. (2022). E-learning and educational technology. https://www.cut.ac.za/e-learning-and-educational-technology-elet Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning. (2022). UNESWA Online Training. https://learn.uneswa.ac.sz/course/view.php?id=31155 Dysart, S. A., & Weckerle, C. (2015). Professional development in higher education: A model for meaningful technology integration. Journal of Information Technology Education. Innovations in Practice, 14(1), 255-265. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/174792/ Fernandez, C. (2014). Knowledge base for teaching and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): Some useful models and implications for teachers’ training. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 60(1), 79-100. https://oaji.net/articles/2015/457- 1421876658.pdf Gasteiger, H., Bruns, J., Benz, C., Brunner, E., & Sprenger, P. (2020). Mathematical pedagogical content knowledge of early childhood teachers: A standardized situation-related measurement approach. ZDM, 52(2), 193-205. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1251723 Goh, E., & Sigala, M. (2020). Integrating Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) into classroom instruction: teaching tips for hospitality educators from a diffusion of innovation approach. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 20(2), 156-165. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15313220.2020.1740636 Green, W. L. (2017). Educator Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Student Achievement [Doctoral dissertation, University of West Georgia].
  • 23. 17 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter https://www.proquest.com/openview/d2671c00065fd6411f875776416ca1ec/1? pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750 Gunuç, S., & Babacan, N. (2018). Technology integration in English language teaching and learning. Positioning English for Specific Purposes in an English Language Teaching Context, 1. https://www.scirp.org/(S(lz5mqp453edsnp55rrgjct55))/reference/ReferencesP apers.aspx?ReferenceID=2631171 Halkias, D., & Neubert, M. (2020). Extension of theory in leadership and management studies using the multiple case study design. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341792866_Extension_of_Theory_in _Leadership_and_Management_Studies_Using_the_Multiple- Case_Study_Design Henriques, S., Correia, J. D., & Dias-Trindade, S. (2021). Portuguese primary and secondary education in times of covid-19 pandemic: An exploratory study on teacher training and challenges. Education Sciences, 11(9), 542-553. https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7102/11/9/542 Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. Educause Review, 27 March. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency- remote-teaching-and-online-learning. Howard, T. C., & Milner, H. R. (2021). Teacher preparation for urban schools. In Handbook of urban education, 195-211. Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9780203094280- 25/teacher-preparation-urban-schools-tyrone-howard-richard-milner-iv ICT Services. (2022). Web Services and Support. https://www.cut.ac.za/ict-and- computer-services. Ifinedo, E., Rikala, J., & Hämäläinen, T. (2020). Factors affecting Nigerian teacher educators’ technology integration: Considering characteristics, knowledge constructs, ICT practices and beliefs. Computers & education, 146, 103760. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103760 Jena, P. K. (2020). Impact of Covid-19 on higher education in India. International Journal of Advanced Education and Research (IJAER), 5. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/jg8fr/download. Karma, I., Darma, I. K., & Santiana, I. (2021). Blended Learning is an Educational Innovation and Solution during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International research journal of engineering, IT & scientific research. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/348793004_Blended_Learning_is_a n_Educational_Innovation_and_Solution_During_the_COVID-19_Pandemic Khoza, S. B. (2021). Exploring the Migration to a Digitalised Curriculum at UKZN. Education Sciences, 11(11), 682. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1321206.pdf Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., Kereluik, K., Shin, T. S., & Graham, C. R. (2014). The technological pedagogical content knowledge framework. In The Handbook of research on educational communications and technology, pp. 101-111. Springer, New York, NY. https://asu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/the-technological- pedagogical-content-knowledge-framework Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)? Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 9(1), 60-70. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241616400_What_Is_Technological _Pedagogical_Content_Knowledge
  • 24. 18 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Lai, J., & Widmar, N. O. (2021). Revisiting the digital divide in the COVID‐19 era. Applied economic perspectives and policy, 43(1), 458-464. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675734/ Maphosa, V. (2021). Factors influencing student’s perceptions towards e-learning adoption during COVID-19 pandemic: A developing country context. European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 2(2), e02109. https://www.ejimed.com/article/factors-influencing-students-perceptions- towards-e-learning-adoption-during-covid-19-pandemic-a-11000 Marcelo, C., & Yot-Domínguez, C. (2019). From chalk to keyboard in higher education classrooms: Changes and coherence when integrating technological knowledge into pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 43(7), 975-988. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0309877X.2018.1429584 Mishra, L., Araújo, I., Faria, P. M., & Lima, J. E. (2020). A comparison under the RASE model of open-source e-learning platforms supporting video-streaming. In Proceedings of the European Conference on e-Learning, ECEL, pp. 31-38. Mishra, L., Gupta, T., & Shree, A. (2020). Online teaching-learning in higher education during lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1, 100012. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666374020300121 Mishra, P. (2019). Considering contextual knowledge: The TPACK diagram gets an upgrade. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 35(2), 76-78. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666374020300121 Mtebe, J. S., & Raphael, C. (2018). Eliciting in-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge for 21st-century skills in Tanzania. Journal of learning for development, 5(3), 263-279. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1197522.pdf Mudavanhu, Y. (2017). Quality of literature review and discussion of findings in selected papers on integration of ICT in teaching, role of mentors, and teaching science through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Educational Research and Reviews, 12(4), 189-201. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315937590 Nyumba, T., Wilson, K., Derrick, C. J., & Mukherjee, N. (2018). The use of focus group discussion methodology: Insights from two decades of application in conservation. Methods in Ecology and evolution, 9(1), 20-32. Oleson, A., & Hora, M. T. (2014). Teaching the way they were taught? Revisiting the sources of teaching knowledge and the role of prior experience in shaping faculty teaching practices. Higher education, 68(1), 29-45. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258162674_Teaching_the_way_they _were_taught_Revisiting_the_sources_of_teaching_knowledge_and_the_role_of _prior_experience_in_shaping_faculty_teaching_practices Onoshakpokaiye, O. (2020). Relationship between students’ self–efficacy and their achievement in senior secondary school Mathematics, Delta Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. International Journal of Education and Research, 5(8), 33-42. Pete, J., & Soko, J. (2020). Preparedness for online learning in the context of Covid-19 in selected Sub-Saharan African countries. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(2), 37-47. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1285320.pdf Peters, M. A., Rizvi, F., McCulloch, G., Gibbs, P., Gorur, R., Hong, M., & Misiaszek, L. (2022). Reimagining the new pedagogical possibilities for universities post-Covid- 19: An EPAT Collective Project. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 54(6), 717-760. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00131857.2020.1777655
  • 25. 19 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Prokes, C., & Housel, J. (2021). Community college student perceptions of remote learning shifts due to COVID-19. TechTrends, 65(4), 576-588. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11528-021-00587-8 Schlager, M. S., & Fusco, J. (2003). Teacher professional development, technology, and communities of practice: Are we putting the cart before the horse? The Information Society, 19(3), 203-220. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01972240309464 Scotland, J. (2012). Exploring the philosophical underpinnings of research: Relating ontology and epistemology to the methodology and methods of the scientific, interpretive, and critical research paradigms. English language teaching, 5(9), 9-16. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1080001.pdf Selvanathan, M., Hussin, N. A. M., & Azazi, N. A. N. (2020). Students learning experiences during COVID-19: Work from home period in Malaysian Higher Learning Institutions. Teaching Public Administration, 0144739420977900. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0144739420977900 Surtees, N., Ismail, R., Rarere-Briggs, B., & Stark, R. (2021). Sailigatomai ma malamalama’agafa’a-Pasifika—Seeking Pasifika Knowledge to Support Student Learning: Reflections on Cultural Values Following an Educational Journey to Samoa. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 56(2), 269-283. https://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/handle/10092/102121 Tamah, S. M., Triwidayati, K. R., & Utami, T. S. D. (2020). Secondary school language teachers’ online learning engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 19, 803-832. https://www.jite.org/documents/Vol19/JITE-Rv19p803-832Lie6617.pdf Tapala, T. T., Van Niekerk, M. P., & Mentz, K. (2021). Curriculum leadership barriers experienced by heads of department: a look at South African secondary schools. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 24(6), 771-788. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13603124.2020.1740796 Thomsen, P. S., Tuiburelevu, L., Keil, M., Leenen-Young, M., Sisifa, S. P., Müller, K., & Naepi, S. (2021). Practising Pacific pedagogies during New Zealand's level four lockdown: Pacific early career academics and COVID-19. Waikato Journal of Education, 26, 149-161. https://wje.org.nz/index.php/WJE/article/view/754 Turnbull, D., Chugh, R., & Luck, J. (2021). Issues in learning management systems implementation: A comparison of research perspectives between Australia and China. Education and Information Technologies, 26(4), 3789-3810. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/348883895_Issues_in_learning_man agement_systems_implementation_A_comparison_of_research_perspectives_be tween_Australia_and_China Vrasidas, C., & Glass, G. V. (2007). Teacher professional development and ICT: Strategies and models. Teachers College Record, 109(14), 87-102. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/016146810710901405?icid=int.sj- abstract.similar-articles.3 Xing, B., & Marwala, T. (2017). Implications of the fourth industrial age on higher education. https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.09643 Zhuwao, S. (2017). Workforce diversity and its effects on employee performance in Higher Education Institution in South Africa: a case study of University of Venda [Doctoral dissertation]. Ziphorah, R. M. (2014). Information and communication technology integration: Where to start, infrastructure or capacity building? Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 116, 3649-3658. https://cyberleninka.org/article/n/391215
  • 26. 20 ©Authors This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 20-36, February 2023 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.2.2 Received Nov 19, 2022; Revised Jan 31, 2023; Accepted Feb 22, 2023 Incorporating Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL) into Common Practices for Architects and Building Engineers Sara Gutiérrez-González University of Burgos, Spain Claudia Elena Coello-Torres University of Piura, Perú Lourdes Alameda Cuenca-Romero , Verónica Calderón Carpintero and Alba Rodrigo Bravo University of Burgos, Spain Abstract. Higher education institutions and educators must provide their students with the opportunity to have global, intercultural, and collaborative experiences that will enable them to solve specific problems in different socio-cultural contexts. Industry 4.0 provides a very suitable context in which to carry out these experiences from home, thus contributing to the wider goals of environmental sustainability and global availability. This work analyzes students’ experiences and engagement when involved in collaborative online international learning (COIL), aimed at establishing how pluricultural competence can be digitally developed in the field of architecture at university level. The experiment was carried out as part of the assessments for first year undergraduate students enrolled in a bachelor’s degree in architecture in Piura, Peru and postgraduate students enrolled in a master’s degree in inspection, rehabilitation, and energy efficiency in Burgos, Spain. Results show that the experience motivated participants, with 48% responding that they were very satisfied, 38% extremely satisfied, and 14% moderately satisfied. The study’s findings confirm that pluricultural competence among students can be enhanced by using virtual cooperation. The learning experience offered participants the chance to boost their confidence and communication skills and to take part in a new learning environment as well as to exchange knowledge with international peers, thereby preparing them to form part of a global environment. Keywords: architecture; cultural backgrounds; energetic efficiency; inclusive education; online international learning
  • 27. 21 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 1. Introduction The Covid-19 pandemic forced the international academic community to explore new ways of teaching and learning, including virtual and online education (Harris et al., 2021). This has created an opportunity to rethink education pathways and integrate e-learning, favoring new intercultural experiences (Cotoman et al., 2022; Medina-Guillen et al., 2021). Globalization as a process for creating a global economy that is more integrated and interdependent is one of the factors that will reduce barriers worldwide (Agnew & Kahn, 2014). Global education and technology contribute towards students’ experiential learning – if it is well applied and well used (Nava-Aguirre et al., 2019). At educational level, higher education is on a global horizon, in which the different actors involved must work collaboratively to achieve comprehensive academic enrichment (Adefila et al., 2021). Many universities can integrate new collaboration with international universities and cooperate in different programs. They hereby take advantage of technology in students’ motivation and engagement and communication encouragement in the learning process (Mestre-Segarra & Ruiz-Garrido, 2022) as well as improve the employability of their students in the job market (Chandrasekaran et al., 2021). Collaborative online international learning (COIL) is an innovative pedagogical methodology providing students with the opportunity to interact with international peers (Rubin & Guth, 2015). COIL projects typically involve two or more instructors from different countries and students from different language and cultural backgrounds, jointly carrying out an activity to communicate and collaborate online (Ingram et al., 2021; Pouromid, 2019). The initial objective of this type of initiative (knowledge exchange between students from different educational systems) is increased by the greater possibilities of educational internationalization that it provides for the students involved. To facilitate and promote student involvement in COIL learning activities, the use of e-resources, such as surveys, forums, etc., is essential. In this way, a second learning process materializes – that of using the different electronic tools (Cole, 2009; Harandi, 2015). The curriculum vitae of students who take part in this type of international activities is enriched, now including increased opportunities in the search for employment (Munoz-Escalona et al., 2022). Built into the context of internationalization of higher education, COIL can prove very useful in promoting intercultural competence as well as other perspectives in the architectural and building engineering sector in other fields. Several COIL experiences are carried out in the field of higher education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees. The work of Munoz-Escalona et al. (2022) in this field is particularly noteworthy. The work analyzes a COIL activity for second and third year students of mechanical engineering and industrial design degrees, with the aim of promoting aspects such as global manufacturing and reverse engineering. In a study carried out by Appiah-Kubi and Annan (2020), technological engineering students participated in an eight- week COIL program with materials engineering students from different language and geographical regions, establishing a standard pattern group to compare results between the standard methodology and the COIL methodology. For their
  • 28. 22 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter part, researchers from the Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico and the University of San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador implemented the COIL methodology in the subjects of microbiology and biotechnology. They carried out a biotechnological challenge, in which students put into practice the theoretical knowledge acquired, their negotiation skills, teamwork, and leadership in a multicultural and international environment (Álvarez-Barreto et al., 2022). In the field of architecture, research has been conducted on the integration of construction technology in architectural design through different virtual, intercultural, and cooperative learning environments in an architectural project. The research findings suggest that many students consider the conventional design studio to be disconnected from reality and that learning with practical application helps to provide a deeper understanding of construction processes (Kostopoulos, 2022). In all of the above experiments, the international development of an effective learning system was noted. This was seen to provide students with an overseas study experience without them having to leave home, thereby enabling them to internationalize their curriculum vitae as a tool to promote intercultural competences and international perspectives while enhancing their abilities to grow as responsible global citizens. This paper analyzes the experience through a COIL activity as part of the assessment for undergraduate students of architecture in Piura, Peru and master’s students in inspection, rehabilitation, and energy efficiency in Burgos, Spain in the courses of Introduction to Architecture, and Energy Efficiency, respectively. The selected topic was an assignment on “Energy Efficiency in Buildings”, where students analyzed technical aspects in buildings in the two countries: climatology, architectural design, materials, and energy performance. Specifically, this research addressed the following questions: • Research Question 1: What impact does the COIL method have on preparing architecture and building engineering students to be part of a global environment at the higher education level? • Research Question 2: How did the Spanish and Peruvian students perceive the online communication experience and relate it to the development of pluricultural competence and motivation? • Research Question 3: What are the benefits of COIL in degrees in the field of architecture? 2. Methodology 2.1 Methodological Approach The aim of creating an international learning experience was to provide students from different universities and countries with cultural competence and to offer a global perspective in the field of architecture and sustainable building engineering. The COIL approach was used as a key element to meet the study objectives (Engeness, 2021). This interactive social learning reduces potential barriers to learning, including institutional affiliations, sociocultural background, and individual learning limitations (Polyakova & Galstyan-Sargsyan, 2021). The learning objectives of the COIL experience were to: 1. Facilitate an understanding and appreciation of cultural differences between Peru and Spain. 2. Build intercultural communication skills via interviewing.
  • 29. 23 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 3. Acquire digital communication competences by connecting students from one country with a different culture. 4. Develop cultural sensitivity so as to better understand individuals from another culture and thereby attain cultural competence. 5. Learn about architectural techniques and to understand energy efficiency in different countries that have a sharp contrast in terms of their climatology. 2.2 Project Participants In this work, two lecturers from Spain and Peru met to create and design a COIL experience in the fields of architecture and energy efficiency. Emphasis was placed on the student collaborative process aimed at creating shared experiences as well as understanding of architectural and construction aspects in very differing locations. A total of 43 students from the two institutions participated during the spring of 2021. Of these participants, 40 were undergraduate students from the University of Piura, Peru and 3 were graduate students from the University of Burgos, Spain (Table 1). Table 1: Number of undergraduate and postgraduate students involved in the study Participants (n) Module Piura (Peru) Burgos (Spain) Introduction to Architecture (Degree) 40 Energy Efficiency (Master’s degree) 3 The lecturers developed a collaborative project where students would use technology to communicate and exchange cultural and experiential aspects while they process and move through the learning material together. 2.3 COIL Program Implementation The experience was carried out in three different stages: icebreaker, comparison and analysis, and collaboration (Meza Morón, 2018). Each stage lasted two weeks, with the whole program lasting a total of six weeks (Figure 1). Figure 1: Program planning 2.3.1 Project tools and contents Due to the time difference between the two participating countries (seven hours), and since it was not possible for all participants to work at the same time, an asynchronous mode of communication was chosen. The IT tools employed to carry out the experience were the Miro: The Visual Collaboration Platform for ICEBREAKER -Personal.Hobbies -Academic. Similarities and Differences -Compilation of the information for the Association COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS -Strand of the Module -Objectives -Learning outcomes COLLABORATION -Syllabus or classroom workplan WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 WEEK 4 WEEK 5 WEEK 6
  • 30. 24 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Every Team online collaborative platform (Tucker et al., 2021) and the Zoom video call platform due to its efficacy, convenience, and immediate feedback. During the first stage (icebreaker), the Miro online collaborative platform was used as a working tool. In addition to the Miro platform used in the first stage, an online virtual classroom form was used at each university for the second and third stages (comparison and analysis; collaboration). Students at the University of Piura (Peru) used the Udep virtual platform and students at the University of Burgos (Spain) used the UBU virtual platform, of which the content management system (CMS) is Moodle. The topic selected for the activity was an assignment on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, where students had to analyze and discuss four different aspects of this topic in buildings located in the two different countries. The four aspects were: i) climatology, ii) architectural design, iii) materials, and iv) thermal energy performance. Students of the Energy Efficiency module at the University of Burgos (Spain) focused specifically on analyzing the energy performance of buildings at the two locations. Conversely, students of the University of Piura (Peru) had to recognize in these two buildings the concepts learned in the Introduction to Architecture course, finding similarities and convergences. The actions to be carried out were established through periodic coordination. The aim was to gain student development in the collaborative construction of knowledge concerning the analysis of architectural and energy-related aspects that responded to the specific context of each city – Burgos, in Spain and Piura, in Peru. Each task responded to the academic level of the group in question and was carried out asynchronously, ending with a presentation in which the results were presented via video call. A challenge arose when implementing the COIL program in the two courses, due to the considerable difference in age and level of knowledge of the two student groups. 2.3.2 Limitation of the COIL program implementation From the beginning of the project, certain limitations had to be considered in its implementation. The first was the age difference between the two student groups. The course in Energy Efficiency at the University of Burgos is taken in the first year of the master’s degree, while the course in Introduction to Architecture is taken in the first year of the bachelor’s degree. The second limitation was the significant difference between the number of students in Piura and Burgos (40:3). The third limitation was the day on which the course is taught (which is different at the two institutions). 2.3.3 Workplan and goals of the different stages of the program Data collection methods: The data collection method is shown in the workplan through the definition of the learning outcomes in the different stages of the project. The workplan and goals of the different stages of the program (see Table 2) were coordinated by the lecturers of the two courses. All the activities were available to students through Moodle. This offered a log-in history with user tracking and provided students with feedback on the process at all times.
  • 31. 25 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Once the experience was completed, a simple, voluntary, and anonymous survey was carried out, which required all students to answer five questions. In four of the questions, the Likert scale was used, consisting of five response options, of which two are negative, one intermediate, and two positive. Table 2: Workplan and goals of the program Stage Week Task/activity Learning outcomes 1. Icebreaker 1 Students introduce themselves and get to know each other - Understanding the structure of working groups - Handling and working on the platform 2 Students answer questions of a more academic and professional nature from their peers - Boosting trust between students - Recognizing similarities and differences between the two student profiles 2. Comparison and analysis 3 Sharing of local knowledge or realities on the chosen topic - Understanding the convergences and parallels with respect to the architectural aspects of each location, putting into practice the concepts reviewed in class: context, technique, and architectural typologies 4 Analysis of the information obtained in week 3 - Summarizing the information needed to develop the final product, following a pre-established presentation format 3. Collaboration 5 Joint product development and final delivery - Presenting a final document in which students reflect on the relationship between the concepts learnt, applied to the architectural aspects of each locality - Answering questions on the video made by students of the other university 6 Sharing intercultural experience - Sharing the results of the experience – collected in the form – between the two institutions The first stage – icebreaker – was aimed at integrating the groups of students and their interaction. The objective was to build trust between the students so as to recognize similarities and differences between the different profiles present. To achieve this, the students – guided by their lecturers and motivated by the type of work to be done – put forward their proposal in a dynamic of communication and association that represents a real socio-communicative experience. Each student answered specific questions indicating what they do in their free time, why they chose this profession, where they would like to work in the future, which university class they belong to, and what expectations they have concerning this intercultural experience. This stage also served as an introduction to mastering and using the Miro platform. This digital platform served as a flexible space for
  • 32. 26 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter shared information, and allowed feedback from students by their being able to access it in real time or asynchronously (Figure 2). Figure 2: Screenshot of the first stage (icebreaker) on the Miro platform The second stage – comparison and analysis – corresponding to the third and fourth weeks, involved understanding and sharing the convergences and parallels with respect to the architectural aspects of each locality. Students from Piura put into practice the concepts reviewed in class, such as context, technique, and architectural typologies, while students from Burgos sought to learn about the construction techniques and energy solutions used in Piura (Figure 3). Figure 3: Screenshot of the second stage (comparison and analysis) on the Miro platform The specific goals of this second stage were for students to learn about and differentiate the climatology of the Piura area from that of Burgos, and to analyze the most common architectural typologies in the area and the materials used in the building of envelopes. To do this, students from the two countries answered specific questions to help them gather information. After information was collected, the information obtained in week 3 was analyzed in order to summarize the information needed to develop the final product, following a pre-established presentation format.
  • 33. 27 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter The third and last stage of the experience was the collaboration stage. The architectural and energy inferences of the study carried out were jointly drawn up. These inferences were expressed in a final document in which the students reflected on the relationship between the concepts learnt, applied to the architectural aspects of each locality. These were presented orally in a virtual meeting via Zoom (Figure 4). Figure 4: Screenshot of the third phase (collaboration) on the Zoom platform Evaluation: Evaluation of the learning outcomes was carried out through the findings obtained in the third stage by appraising a final document which reflects on the relationship between the concepts learnt and applied to the architectural aspects of each locality. Additional appraisal was conducted by interpreting the responses to the questionnaires addressing student satisfaction. 3. Results 3.1 Results from the Findings Obtained in the Third Stage For the students taking the Introduction to Architecture course, a former student of the University of Piura Program in Architecture oversaw the preparation of the exposition. In the presentation, each of the concepts learned during the semester was shown, and which focus on providing students with learning tools of analytical and project value. For this, the most representative works of each concept applied to the analysis of an architectural work, were shared. The topics dealt with included order and architectural system, scale and proportion, geometry, and structure, among other topics. However, the topic in
  • 34. 28 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter which the students carried out the most in-depth analysis was construction techniques. Local constructions were taken as reference architecture, prominent among which were the vernacular and typical construction technique of the town of Piura, which, due to its geographical location, is subject to a desert climate, high temperatures, and rainy season. One of the constructions analyzed was the San Lucas de Colán Church, the oldest preserved church in all of the Americas, and which is in an area where the desert and ocean converge. It consists of some Solomonic columns that were at first made up of two towers covered with thatch. The gabled roof is supported by a uniform framework of sticks in the form of trusses. The low ceiling is woven from totora reeds and tied with wild cane. On the outside, it is covered with mud cake, which is a mixture of clay, earth, rice straw, guano, and water. The structure of the building is made with limestone quarry, a common material in the area where the building is located. The students concluded that with local techniques it is possible to achieve architecture that transcends time and which responds to the area’s climatic conditions. Another construction analyzed was the Casa Hacienda Sojo, located in the province of Sullana, Peru. The building is built with materials such as wood and plaster. Reed, adobe, and marble are also used throughout its construction. Quincha is used as a construction system – a typical construction technique of the area. Quincha is a traditional technique used to execute partition walls. It consists of a structure formed by a framework of wood or reed, with a filling of earth mixed with vegetable fibers. This technique responds to the high temperatures that are characteristic of the Piura desert and provides thermal comfort, which is essential in the area. The technique used to construct schools in the urban area of the city of Piura was also analyzed. Schools built in the traditional way were chosen, with a construction system of concrete columns and beams, brick partitions, and tarrajeadas (plastering with cement mortar). The block configuration is of the pavilion type with large longitudinal windows that allow cross-ventilation, and which are strategically located so that the sun does not hit directly. On the roofs, clay tiles are installed in the direction of the rainfall that allow the rain to run off in the rainy seasons. What the students learnt was how, through the configuration of the building blocks, the direction of the wind can be used to ventilate the rooms and to illuminate them without high radiation impacting the interior. A sustainable-housing module was also studied. This is a project proposed by students from the University of Piura. The project very accurately reflects the coexistence and harmony of technical, handmade, and traditional self-construction techniques in Piura together with modern construction techniques. Materials typical of the area are used, such as thatch, cane, mats, eucalyptus wood, mud, and ruminant manure for impermeability, and above all, the local people themselves participate in constructing the housing. It was important for the students to highlight how the local construction technique can be used as a response to the city’s climate problems, such as the Fenómeno del
  • 35. 29 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Niño Costero, a climate phenomenon produced by the anomalous heating of the sea due to the weakening of the cold air currents that run from south to north along the coasts of the South Pacific. Other constructions analyzed were the typical beach houses that abound in the coastal zone of Peru, and in which wood, brick, and other light materials are used for the freshness they generate inside. In addition, straw is used for the roof, which gives it an aesthetic that matches the area where it is located. These constructions are raised on large wooden structures, which safeguard the houses against rising tides. All of these local references that were seen – in addition to the national and international references studied in the course – helped the students to enhance their capacity for analysis and response to local reality. In their position as future architects, they must respond to the needs, problems, and conditions that exist in their environment. The project results were reflected in the drawings by students that showed the themes analyzed in the chosen architectural works. The work carried out by the students at the University of Burgos consisted of comparing the energy efficiency of a building system located in Piura and the same system located in Burgos. They worked with the LIDER/CALENER Unified Tool Software (HULC) of the Spanish Government Ministry for Ecological Transition and Demographic Challenge. For this, two buildings were modelled, one for Piura and one for Burgos, defining the materials that made up the different construction elements of the thermal enclosure, indicating the installation system (see Figure 5). The buildings modelled consisted of a single-family, two-story house with four bedrooms, a kitchen, and a bathroom. Figure 5: University of Burgos students’ building model using HULC software To obtain information about the materials of the Piura building, the students at the University of Burgos posed a series of questions and doubts to the students of the University of Piura, through Miro. The Piura lecturer acted as moderator to ensure that the technical aspects were properly detailed. The climate typologies of each building were then identified. Given that the program is for national use in Spain, a climatology was sought which resembled Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands, which corresponds to a climate zone α3. One key aspect of the