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International Journal
of
Learning, Teaching
And
Educational Research
p-ISSN:
1694-2493
e-ISSN:
1694-2116
IJLTER.ORG
Vol.19 No.2
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
(IJLTER)
Vol. 19, No. 2 (February 2020)
Print version: 1694-2493
Online version: 1694-2116
IJLTER
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER)
Vol. 19, No. 2
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International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
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management issues, educational case studies, etc.
Indexing and Abstracting
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Foreword
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and Educational Research.
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to
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We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board
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We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration.
The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the
world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers.
We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal
with this issue.
Editors of the February 2020 Issue
VOLUME 19 NUMBER 2 February 2020
Table of Contents
Problem of Resistance to the Introduction of Distance Learning Models of Training in the Vocational Training of
Educators .................................................................................................................................................................................1
Svitlana Dovbenko, Ruslana G. Naida, Victor M. Beschastnyy, Halyna V. Bezverkhnia and Viktoriia V. Tsybulska
Vocational Students’ Perceptions toward the Traits of Effective Faculty Members: The Case of Albalqa Applied
University .............................................................................................................................................................................. 13
Maaly Mefleh Almzary, Muhammad Khaled Al-Alawneh, Ibtisam Mustafa Alomari, Inas Ahmad Albado and Khawla
Mahmoud Alawneh
Philosophy for Children (P4C) in Improving Critical Thinking in a Secondary Moral Education Class.................. 29
Hafizhah Zulkifli and Rosnani Hashim
Integration of Cloud Technologies in Teaching Foreign Languages in Higher Education Institutions.................... 46
Iryna L. Pokrovska, Tetiana M. Kolodko, Zamina K. Aliyeva, Iryna V. Tymoshchuk and Ruslan V. Vakariuk
Teachers and Students Code-Switching: The Inevitable Evil in EFL Classrooms........................................................ 60
Riyad F. Hussein, Hadeel A. Saed and Ahmad S. Haider
Validating a Model of Change Readiness among Malaysian School Teachers: A Structural Equation Modeling
Approach ............................................................................................................................................................................... 79
Banu Ramanan and Mua'azam Bin Mohamad
Technology Interest of Secondary School Students at Five Testing Points over one Complete School Year after
Participating at a Student-Centered Learning Program about Bionics.......................................................................... 94
Michaela Marth-Busch and Franz X. Bogner
Becoming Critical: In-service Teachers’ Perspectives on Multicultural Education.................................................... 112
Roland G. Pourdavood and Meng Yan
Consistency Verification between Qualitative Entries and Quantitative Ratings in the Teaching Evaluation Forms
of Filipino Pre-service Teachers ........................................................................................................................................ 136
William Jr D. Magday and Issra Pramoolsook
Promoting Personalized Learning Skills: The Impact of Collaborative Learning (A Case Study on the General
Directorate of Residency and Foreigners Affairs in Dubai) .......................................................................................... 163
Hamdy Ahmed Abdelaziz and Aisha Al-Ali
Motivation to Get a Second Higher Education: Psychological and Pedagogical Aspect .......................................... 188
Roksolana I. Sirko, Halyna V. Bezverkhnia, Olha Ya. Zaverukha, Svitlana V. Chupakhina and Nataliia R. Kyrsta
The Physical Space and the Development of Creativity in Peruvian Early Childhood Education: A Case Study in
Arequipa .............................................................................................................................................................................. 203
Karol Andrea Puma-Yagua, Teresa Ramos-Quispe, Sonia Esther Castro-Cuba-Sayco, Alicia García-Holgado, Antonio Silva
Sprock and Klinge Orlando Villalba-Condori
Factors Affecting Practical Knowledge Acquisition of Pre-service Computer Science Teachers During the
Practicum: A Multiple Regression Analysis.................................................................................................................... 214
Pu Song, Nor Aniza Ahmad, Mas Nida Md. Khambari and Ng Keng Yap
Computerized Visual Perception Games and its Effects on Learning Letters and Numbers among Jordanian
Kindergarten Children....................................................................................................................................................... 231
Ebtesam Qassim Rababah, Mais Nusair and Ayed Hamdan AlHersh
Same Mindset, Different Pedagogical Strategies: A Case Study Comparing Chinese and Finnish Teachers ........ 248
Junfeng Zhang, Elina Kuusisto and Kirsi Tirri
Gamification Acceptance for Learners with Different E-Skills..................................................................................... 263
Aliki Panagiotarou, Yannis C. Stamatiou, Christos J. Pierrakeas and Achilles Kameas
The Effect of Student Perception of Negative School Climate on Poor Academic Performance of Students in
Indonesia.............................................................................................................................................................................. 279
Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra, Agus Supriyanto, Budi Astuti, Yulia Ayriza and Sofwan Adiputra
Use of Multiple Representations in Understanding Addition: The Case of Pre-school Children............................ 292
Kamariah Abu Bakar, Suziyani Mohamed, Faridah Yunus and Aidah Abdul Karim
“Glocal” Transnational Higher Education: A Case Study of a Finnish-Vietnamese Collaboration......................... 305
Kirsi Hasanen
1
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 1-12, February 2020
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.2.1
Problem of Resistance to the Introduction of
Distance Learning Models of Training in the
Vocational Training of Educators
Svitlana Dovbenko
Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University
Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
Ruslana G. Naida
Rivne State University of the Humanities
Rivne, Ukraine
Victor M. Beschastnyy
Donetsk Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine
Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine
Halyna V. Bezverkhnia
Lutsk National Technical University
Lutsk, Ukraine
Viktoriia V. Tsybulska
Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University
Uman, Ukraine
Abstract. This study seeks to specify the factors preventing end-users
(learners) from doing the distance learning courses successfully and
university management from introducing this mode of study into
vocational training of educators in Ukraine. It employed a non-
experimental, descriptive study design performed through online and
offline surveys. The preliminary data were collected through a self-
completion Google Forms-based questionnaire (Course Satisfaction
Questionnaire) for the students used at the first stage of our research
followed by an interview questionnaire used with a focus group at the
subsequent one. The latter developed the evaluation scale and made all
necessary adjustments so that the validity of the study was ensured. The
Chi-Square method was used to determine whether there were any
correlations between internal and external factors of resistance. This
study proved that the issue of resistance to the introduction of distance-
learning models of training in the vocational training of educators is
mostly a personal perception factor. It raised the issue of training and
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
assisting lecturers in using distance education tools and shifting their
role from being a source of knowledge to being a facilitator of learning.
Keywords: Online education; Vocational training of educators;
Resistance to distance learning; Higher educational institutions
1. Introduction
Resistance towards introduction of online education models of training in the
vocational training is a shaming case for higher educational institutions (HEIs)
in Ukraine (Zolotareva & Brezhneva-Ermolenko, 2015). Though its benefits have
been widely discussed and have become obvious for both learners and
educators, and the shift from face-to-face instruction to online teaching/training
has become trendy, the introduction of this mode of study in the educational
process of HEIs in Ukraine has still been put off. Furthermore, it seems of
even much greater concern that HEIs providing vocational training for
educators ‘are leading’ this negative trend.
1.1. Literature Review
The typical reasons for reluctance to on-line education found in the literature
were bias-based perceptions, negative experiences of both learners and teachers,
technical illiteracy or lack of technical skills to manage classroom and build the
community, gender-based specifics along with the gap between theory and
practice of the e-learning (Uzunboylu & Tuncay, 2010; Lee & Choi, 2011; Bacow
et al., 2012; Kintu & Simon, 2019; Mahlangu, 2018; Akmeşe, Demir & Dünder,
2016; Ravhudzulo, 2016; Lederman, 2019; Rost, 2019). While the number of
scientific investigations seeking to handle this problem is growing, this has still
been a gap to complete that are related to optimal (value-for-money) online
course and curriculum design, student-lecturer motivation and engagement.
Theoretical and Practical gaps
Up to now, the studies have examined the problem of resistance to introduction
of a distance education mode at HEIs from the students’ perspective (Rashid &
Rashid, 2011; Fojtik, 2018) but few studies addressed this issue from the
perspective of both education seeker and education provider. Additionally, this
study found a practical gap between research and educational policy-making for
accumulating and sharing best practices in using technology (Biesta, 2007;
Conole, 2010).
1.2. Theoretical Model
The theoretical framework used in this study is based on the data obtained from
two domains (theoretical and practical) through integration and inference (see it
visualized in Figure 1 below).
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Figure 1: The theoretical framework used in this study
1.3. Research purpose
The purpose of this study was to specify the factors preventing end-users
(learners) from doing the distance learning courses successfully and university
management from introducing this mode of study into vocational training of
educators.
1.4. Research Questions
Therefore, this study seeks to answer two questions:
1) what internal and external factors/reasons make students and university
management representatives resist the online learning;
2) what factors seem to be crucial.
2. Method
This study used methods which are common for quantitative and qualitative
types of research (Mehrad & Tahriri, 2019; Streefkerk, 2019). It employed a non-
experimental, descriptive study design performed through online and offline
surveys. It dealt nothing with assessment of academic performance of the
students when they did the distance course. This section provides the highlights
of a research model and procedure, a self-completion Google Forms-based
questionnaire (Course Satisfaction Questionnaire) for the students, an interview
(a semi-structured one) questionnaire for a sampled student group and
management representatives, and an overview of sampling and statistical tools.
This research is based on both students’ self-assessment and management
Theoretical
Domain:
Concepts, empirical
facts, models
Practice-related
Domain:
Concepts, empirical
facts, models
This study theoretical & practical subdomains:
Assumptions, concepts, definitions, empirical facts, models,
generalisations, facts
Integration Interference
Derivation and Translation
Theoretical and Research Gap
Research Design
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
representatives’ views of challenges occurring when a distance mode of studies
is introduced at the universities majoring in Pedagogics in Ukraine.
2.1. Research model
It took the members of the research team one semester (4 months) of the
academic year of 2019-2020 to complete this study which was a sequence of three
stages (see it visualised in Figure 2 below).
Figure 2: The timeline of the study
At the pre-survey stage, theory and best practices were examined to explore the
issues to have been addressed and gaps to complete. Concurrently, peer-
reviewed and public domain sources were studied to evaluate the situation with
distance courses in Ukraine and abroad. After obtaining the consent (approval)
of the Boards of Academics for Borys Hrinchenko Kyiv University, M.
Drahomanov National Pedagogical University, and Nizhyn Mykola Gogol State
University to perform this study, the questionnaires and the evaluation scale
were developed, data collection tools were selected, and sampling was
performed. Additionally, we, among the other things, examined the curriculums
of the chosen universities to get aware of the number and topics of the distance
courses, and we involve two experts ‒ Oksana Pozhydaeva (Ph.D. for the
Academy of Labour, Social Relations and Tourism) and Valentyna Bobrytska
(Doctor of Pedagogics for the Department of Educational Policies at M.
Drahomanov National Pedagogical University) to check face validity of the
questions in the questionnaires.
At the subsequent stage, Course Satisfaction Questionnaire (Google Forms-
based) was used to reduce the population of 176 and to sample the subjects for
the next stage of this study which was a semi-structured interview.
2.2. Distance Course Satisfaction Questionnaire
This was designed and administered to respond the first half of the research
question which was to define the aspects causing educators the resistance to
doing the distance learning courses. Additionally, it was used as a filter when
•Litrature review
•Emperical research on the
situation with distance
courses
•Obtaining consent
(approval) of the Board of
Academics
•Questionnaires design
•Data collection tools
selection
•The evaluation scale
development
•Sampling Pre-survey
stage
•Surveying
through a
questionnaire and
an interview
•Data collection
While-survey
stage
•Data processing
•Results interpretation
After-survey
stage
8 weeks 6 weeks
2 weeks
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
sampling was performed. The questionnaire comprised 11 questions. The
questions 4 to 7 used a 5-point Linkert scale (with ‘a’ meaning not at all helpful;
’b’ ‒ slightly helpful; ‘c’ ‒ somewhat helpful; ‘d’ ‒ very helpful; ‘e’ ‒ extremely
helpful) to respond them.
1. Which device did you use to access the course?
a) desktop computer; b) laptop; c) smart phone; d) iPhone.
2. Which type of internet connection did you use to get access to the course?
a) Wired connection; b) wireless connection; c) Mobile (3G or 4G) internet.
3. Was the course obligatory or elective or optional? Please, choose one.
a) obligatory; b) elective; c) optional.
4. To what extend did the course meet your expectations? It was
a) not at all helpful; b) slightly helpful; c) somewhat helpful; d) very helpful; e) extremely
helpful.
5. To what extend were you satisfied or dissatisfied with the content of the
course?
a) very dissatisfied; b) dissatisfied; c) unsure; d) satisfied; e) very satisfied.
6. To what extend were you satisfied or dissatisfied with the format of the
course?
a) very dissatisfied; b) dissatisfied; c) unsure; d) satisfied; e) very satisfied.
7. To what extend were you satisfied or dissatisfied with the teaching methods?
a) very dissatisfied; b) dissatisfied; c) unsure; d) satisfied; e) very satisfied.
8. How many distance courses have you done so far including this course?
a) 1-3; b) 4-6; c) 7 and more.
9. What is your average grade (ECTS) in your studies?
a) 90-100; b) 80-90; c) 70-80; d) 60-70.
10. What confused or caused you the greatest trouble while doing the course?
11. Are you male or female?
2.3. Semi-structured Interview Questionnaire
This was designed and conducted with the sampled group students and
university management representatives to respond the second half of the
research question which was to examine the reasons why both students and
management representatives are resistant to introducing the distant mode of
study into vocational training of educators.
Questions for the sampled students:
1. What are your reasons to feel resistant to the distance learning?
2. What failures or troubles do you associate it with?
3. Who or what should be blamed for your failures or troubles above?
4. Do you link your future job as an educator with the delivery of online courses?
Questions for the sampled management representatives:
1. What seem to be the reasons to postpone introduction the distance learning in your
institution? And why do students dislike this mode of study?
2. What failures or troubles do you associate distance learning with?
3. Who or what should be blamed for your failures or troubles above?
4. Do you link the students’ future job as educators with the delivery of online courses?
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2.4. Sample
The third-year-students seeking a Bachelor Degree in Education at Borys
Hrinchenko Kyiv University, National Pedagogical University named after M.
Drahomanov, and Nizhyn Mykola Gogol State University, directors of
curriculum and instruction departments and heads for the departments of
Methods of Teaching for the above universities were the general population for
this study. Upon completion of the Moodle-based 30-hour (1 credit, ECTS)
course in “Methods of Teaching/Training”, 176 students (64 males and 112
females) were suggested to complete the Course Satisfaction Questionnaire
(Google Forms-based) asking, among the other things, whether they were (and
would be) ready to do the other distance course in any other subject. 83 students
(56 females and 27 males) who answered this question negatively to questions 4
to 7 of the above Questionnaire were chosen to be the subjects to this study. 3
directors of curriculum and instruction departments and 9 heads for the
departments of Methods of Teaching were also involved purposefully. The total
sample size was 95 people ( ) and it was an adequate number to meet the
purpose of this research.
2.5. Instruments
The preliminary data were collected through a self-completion Google Forms-
based questionnaire (Course Satisfaction Questionnaire) for the students used at
the first stage of our research followed by an interview questionnaire used with
a focus group at the subsequent one. The in-built Google Forms statistical tools
were used to roughly process the answers of the student population. The
interview responses were both recorded and written down to be analysed and
interpreted by the experts in educational technology and educational
psychology. The evaluation scale developed by the latter was used and all
necessary adjustments were made to it so that the validity of the study was
ensured. The Chi-Square method was used to determine whether there were any
correlations between internal and external factors of resistance.
3. Results
The interview responses of the sampled group students and university
management representatives for questions 4 to 7 from the Distance Course
Satisfaction Questionnaire were to explore the perception of distance learning
made by interviewees. Those were the core question intended to discover the
perception or attitudes of the respondents to the distance learning.
Question 4. To what extend did the course meet your expectations? Just 3%
reported that they found the distance course extremely helpful and 8 % found it
very helpful while 43% of the surveyed stated the course was somewhat helpful,
38% evaluated the course as slightly helpful and 8% of the respondents found it
not at all helpful.
Question 5. To what extend were you satisfied or dissatisfied with the content
of the course? 59% of people experienced significant dissatisfaction about
distance course content, 35% were just dissatisfied, while 5% were unsure or
satisfied and the rest (only 1%) of the participants very satisfied.
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Question 6. To what extend were you satisfied or dissatisfied with the format of
the course? 52 % of the respondents were very dissatisfied, 43% of the surveyed were
unsure and 5% of the sampled people expressed satisfaction about the format.
Question 7. To what extend were you satisfied or dissatisfied with the teaching
methods? The majority (73%) of the surveyed were dissatisfied, 20% of people
were unsure while 7% evaluated the teaching methods positively (satisfied).
After the semi-structured interview had been conducted, the factors/reasons for
resistance were categorised into two broad types like internal (or human factors)
(personal attitude-related (PA), skills-related (S) and awareness-related (A)) and
external (objective reasons) (marketing policy-related (MP), technology-related
challenges (TC)).
Tables 1 and 2 below provide an account of the interview answers. The figures
in the table suggest that personal attitude-related responses of both students and
university management representatives dominated all the interview through.
The second significant trigger for resistance to distance learning were those
related to technology challenges. The next ones were skills and awareness
followed by marketing policy-related ones. While there was some contradiction
in the respondents’ answers concerning who was supposed to be responsible for
failures and troubles (Question 4) – both denied their responsibility, students as
well as university management representatives reported that computer skills,
bad infrastructure and anxieties were quite important triggers to make their
mind up to be resistant to distance learning mode.
Table 1: The students’ interview answers consolidated ( )
#Question
Students
%
of
respondents
(
1 a) does not suit my personality (PA)
b) is not effective (PA; A)
c) robotic education (PA)
d) challenges me technologically (TC; S)
e) causes anxiety of failure (PA)
f) demotivates me (PA)
27
27
7
18
15
6
2
2 a) lack of computer skills (S)
b) out-of-dated computer infrastructure (TC)
c) general distancing (PA)
d) robotic education (PA)
e) causes me anxious (PA)
43
37
4
6
10
1
3 a) myself (PA)
b) students and lecturers (PA)
c) lecturers (PA)
d) institution (PA)
11
3
39
53
1
4 a) no (PA)
b) unsure (PA)
c) yes (PA)
19
56
25
2
Note abbreviations: PA ‒ personal attitude; S – skills; A – awareness; MP ‒ marketing
policy; TC ‒ technology challenges.
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Table 2: The students’ interview answers consolidated ( )
#Question
Representatives
%
of
respondents
(
1 a) does not suit everyone (A)
b) less effective than the traditional mode (PA; A)
c) robotic education (PA)
d) challenges lecturers technologically (TC; S)
e) challenges a lecturer’s reputation (PA; MP)
f) challenges the reputation of an institution (MP)
g) causes lecturers the feeling of losing power over the
students (PA)
h) destroys the traditional academic roles – lecture-student (A;
PA)
i) financial reasons (MP)
9
9
9
19
18
17
5
11
3
2
2 a) lack of computer skills (S)
b) out-of-dated computer infrastructure (TC; MP)
c) general distancing (PA)
d) robotic education (PA)
e) causes anxieties (PA)
49
34
2
3
12
1
3 a) students
b) students and lecturers (PA)
c) lecturers (PA)
d) institution (PA)
57
9
9
25
1
4 a) no (PA)
b) unsure (PA)
c) yes (PA)
2
24
74
2
Note abbreviations: PA ‒ personal attitude; S – skills; A – awareness; MP ‒ marketing
policy; TC ‒ technology challenges.
Relative importance of the types of factors has been presented below (see Table 3
below).
Table 3: Relative importance of the types of factors
Type of
Factor
Regression analysis Dominance
analysis (%)
PA .27 .00 .07 39.5 .98
S 0.15 .026 .02 12.5 .71
A 0.11 .017 .02 14.5 .77
MP -0.3 .606 .00 8.2 .65
TC .01 .895 .00 25.3 .94
100
Note abbreviations: PA ‒ personal attitude; S – skills; A – awareness; MP ‒ marketing
policy; TC ‒ technology challenges; p < .01. Total = .18
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Internal factors prevail over external factors and personal attitude factors
dominated the list compared to marketing factor which seemed the least
important among the interviewees.
Moreover, the processed data made us certain that the problem of resistance was
not sporadic. As can be seen from the above Table 3, the Chi-squared
of correlations between internal and external factors of resistance showed that
this study result should be considered suggestive.
Furthermore, three times more students than representatives confessed that their
reluctance to distance learning is a result of lack of confidence that this mode of
study was effective. Additionally, the majority of students were not certain
whether their future job as an educator would be linked with the delivery of
online courses. Finally, the university management representatives implied that
the issue of resistance to the introduction of distance-learning models of training
in the vocational training of educators is related to the image creating
(marketing) policy of the tertiary educational institution.
4. Discussion
It was found that the issue of resistance to the introduction of distance-learning
models of training in the vocational training of educators is fuelled by human
factors and objective reasons. Both students and representatives surveyed
articulated lack of personal confidence and technological background to be able
to design high standard online courses which might indirectly influence
lecturers’ and institution’s public image.
Additionally, the students were found to experience the atmosphere of boredom
and disinterest while doing the distance course. The link between marketing
policy and distance learning mode emerged unexpectedly. The university
management representatives confessed that they could not allow public access
to the distance learning courses because of low quality of their design
(professors do not receive any training in online course pedagogics and design),
plagiarism issue (very often the content is just ripped off) and over-theoreticity
(causes increased anxiety of failure, demotivates).
Some students stated that their reluctance is based on their prior experience in
doing the online courses at university in which they suffered from the language
used to explain concepts - it was too much complicated for them, the teaching
techniques lecturers used to accommodate the learners in the course – a limited
number of them, and over-criticizing their mistakes when lecturers provided
feedback. Professors claimed that it was more common for students to cheat
when studying distantly that when attending a course personally.
This study contributed to investigation of the problem of resistance to the
introduction of distance-learning models of training in the vocational training of
educators, specifically: perception of and resistance to online education
(Schwartz, 2010; Ghandforoush, 2013; Mitchell, Parlamis & Claiborne, 2015;
Arinto, 2016; Lucas, 2016), anxiety and resistance to distance learning
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
(Uzunboylu & Tuncay, 2010; Parlakkılıç, 2014; Bousbahi & Alrazgan, 2015), and
on-line instruction vs. traditional teaching (Sheeja, 2011; Khorsandi et al., 2012;
McNair-Crews, 2015; Hurlbut, 2018).
5. Conclusion & Recommendations
This study proved that the issue of resistance to the introduction of distance-
learning models of training in the vocational training of educators is mostly a
personal perception factor. Due to the great proportion of personal perception, it
is difficult to assess and evaluate the online course design and its quality as the
course which is viewed by some as “good” can be just bookish comprising
several types of activities like reading and self-checking (self-testing).
It raised the issue of training and assisting lecturers in using distance education
tools and shifting their role from being a source of knowledge to being a
facilitator of learning. Institutions in Ukraine should address the issues of
computer infrastructure and upgrading it.
The lecturers should help the students to surmount their anxieties, inspire them
to succeed, and deal individually with their personal perception problems.
So, are recommendations:
 It should be prerequisite for the educators to take the courses like the
computer skills upgrade course, the course in methodology for the
development of online learning course for the students.
 The lecturer’s computer literacy testing should be a part of the
employment procedure.
 An institutional department set up to provide expertise to ensure the
quality of the online courses is a newly must-have.
6. Implications & Limitations
This study implied that the current situation in the educational system
demotivates both educators and students to self-develop leading to resistance.
Both educators’ and students’ perceptions of distance learning mode are more
associated with trouble than with benefits.
There are three apparent limitations to this study which are as follows: first, time
limit that might be an argument to dispute the validity of its significance, second,
the major of students which is Education, third, the number of institutions and
management representatives involved.
7. Acknowledgments
We are cordially grateful to all contributors to this research so that we were able
to smoothly run and complete it.
References
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Arinto, P. (2016). Issues and Challenges in Open and Distance e-Learning: Perspectives
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Learning, 17(2). Retrieved from
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International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 13-28, February 2020
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.2.2
Vocational Students’ Perceptions toward the
Traits of Effective Faculty Members:
The Case of Albalqa Applied University
Maaly Mefleh Almzary
Albalqa Applied University
Muhammad Khaled Al-Alawneh
Yarmouk University, Faculty of Education
Department of Curriculum and Instruction
Ibtisam Mustafa Alomari, Inas Ahmad Albado and
Khawla Mahmoud Alawneh
Albalqa Applied University
Abstract. This study sought to identify what traits describe effective
faculty members as perceived by students at Balqa' Applied University
(BAU). Descriptive analytical research was utilized to achieve the aims
of the study. The researchers developed a questionnaire that consisted of
62 items divided into four-domains: Knowledge, teaching skills, social
skills, and personal traits. The questionnaire was distributed to the
students of the university (N=910) (600 male, 310 female) in the Second
Semester 2018/2019. However, 300 usable questionnaires were
answered by students with a rate of return thirty-three percent. The
study instrumentation was checked for validity and reliability by a
number of faculty members from several universities in Jordan.
The results showed that students’ perceptions toward the traits of
effective faculty members were different from one domain to another.
Personality traits were the most important traits of effective faculty
members, followed by social and emotional skills, and the dimension of
knowledge was ranked as less important. Based on the results,
researchers concluded with suggestions and recommendations such as
encouraging faculty members to develop their effectiveness in the four
domains and to conduct continuous training to the faculty members in
modern teaching and learning strategies.
Keywords: Faculty Members; Vocational Education; Students’
Perceptions, effectiveness, Traits
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1. Introduction
The success of the educational process depends on many factors, such as
building, high-quality equipment, instructional strategies, and good
administration to count a few. However, the most important factor in the whole
teaching and learning process is the instructor, who leads the student to achieve
the educational outcomes. Moreover, the instructor is a role model to the
students in terms of respectable behavior, creative thinking, and worthy values
(Moustafa, 2009). Besides, the instructor plays a prominent role in determining
the quality of education and its outcomes. He can prepare the mental excitement
of his students and create constructive human relations by giving students the
freedom to express themselves, with a great deal of democracy. A successful
teacher builds relationships with his students based on mutual respect and
appreciation (Al-Jarrah & Al-Shraifeen, 2010).
Khodair et. al. (2012) referred to the effective instructor as the most important
factor among other factors in the educational process. Therefore, the effective
instructor’s cognitive and emotional characteristics play a prominent role in the
effectiveness of this process as constituting one of the important educational
inputs that affect, in one way or the other, the educational outcomes at different
cognitive, psychological, performance, and emotional levels. The effective
faculty member is the one who can perform his role effectively and efficiently.
He is dedicated to find more suitable educational opportunities for his students
and constantly seeks to be more effective in his teaching at all levels.
The current study is intended to identify the importance of the faculty members’
effectiveness as perceived by vocational education students at AL-Balqa Applied
University. This perception is probably believed to be vital because the students
are the most qualified candidates who can assess the traits and characteristics of
their teachers. Also, they are the most influenced ones by their teachers’ traits
and characteristics as well. Teachers can enhance their student’s motivation to
learn and improve their achievement.
The task of improving education and learning is a priority for many different
countries, both developed and developing because this process effectively
contributes to the achievement of their goals and future hopes. Faculty is one of
the most important factors that help to achieve the desired educational reforms,
which lead to the social-reform in all aspects. The role of the faculty member in
any educational system depends on a set of interrelated factors that form the
frame of reference for the concept of the educational process, and irrespective of
the different concepts in the role of the faculty member, it remains a decisive
factor in the success or failure of the educational process. This role is not a
mechanical process that is limited to transferring knowledge to learners but
rather is an effective tool in developing the mental, social and physical learners’
abilities and developing their personalities in general.
In view of the latest development and increasing importance of university
education and in light of rapid changes, society is required to provide faculty
members who are highly qualified and trained. Stakeholders should pay
attention to the faculty members as an important factor in the success of the
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educational process and as a tool for achieving the educational goals and
outcomes. Given the distinguished role of the faculty member in the education
system in the community, choosing, preparing, training, sustaining, and
retaining are some of the aspects that need to be taken into consideration when
we talk about teachers and faculty members (Ramadan and Hamza, 2011).
Academic effectiveness can be described as a skilled faculty member who leads
by goals. The effectiveness of a faculty member refers to the results and student
achievement, or the progress made by students towards the specific educational
goals. Effectiveness can also be defined as precisely as knowledge, skills, and
attitudes that are believed to be necessary for a faculty member (Moustafa, 2009).
Identifying the desired characteristics of an effective faculty member is not an
easy task. The term "effective" can be interpreted differently from one person to
another, depending on the measure used to judge effectiveness. Early studies
described effective teachers as those who obtain high grades and assessments
from those responsible for their evaluation. These studies examined the
relationship between these high ratings and the characteristics and traits of the
faculty. At a later stage, effective teachers were identified through their ability to
help students achieve the maximum from their education (Khodair et al, 2012).
Effective teaching requires also the provision of an effective learning skill for the
faculty member through which we can judge the effectiveness or ineffectiveness
of learning. The skill takes different images according to the general conditions
in which it occurs, and it is the treatment of these different images that highlight
the importance of the skill of the faculty member during the teaching process
(Yahya, 2013, 28).
The creation of an environment conducive to learning depends on the talents
and self-efficacy of the faculty member. A faculty member who has a sense of
high self-efficacy helps low-achieving students, develops their self-confidence,
and praises their achievements. It is not enough for a faculty member to have the
necessary skills to perform his duties. He should have faith and confidence in
his ability to conduct the behavior required under difficult circumstances. If
individuals do not believe that their actions achieve the desired outcome, they
will have little incentive to work (Hasounah, 2009).
2. Literature Review
According to Samples and Martinazzi (2002), over the years, the role of the
faculty member has changed from controller, authorizer, and the container of the
knowledge to coach, trainer, mentor, and facilitator. In parallel, the traits of the
professors have changed as well. All teachers, even those with limited
experience, can gain characteristics and traits that make them effective in the
classroom. Kourieos and Evripidou (2014) pointed out that an effective teacher
is no longer considered the one who has an authoritarian role in the teaching
and learning process, but the one who believes in diversity and individual
differences, abilities, and interests and who designs learning environment
accordingly.
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Previous research approved the role of training in improving faculty members’
performance and traits. For example, Sarhan (2017) conducted a study to
identify training needs for faculty members at the University of Al-Balqa
Applied University in the fields of educational technology. The researchers
found that all training requirements would contribute to the efforts of improving
faculty members’ traits and characteristics which assist in improving the quality
of teaching and learning.
Köpsén (2014) conducted a research on how vocational students describe their
vocational teachers’ identities. The study followed the qualitative methodoloty
by interviewing 22 vocational teachers. The results suggested that the identity of
vocational teachers includes orienting students to be effective in members of
social practices. Moreover, all domains of the study scored a high level of
performance. However, domain 5five, which is "Assessment of students’
learning” came at the middle level. There were statistically significant
differences due to the variable of the college for the advantage of students from
Sciences Colleges. Also, There were no statistically significant differences due to
the variable "gender". There were statistically significant differences due to the
variable "academic level" for the advantage of second-year students, the fourth-
year students, and the third-year students respectively.
Al-Sa’aydeh (2012) aimed at identifying the teaching skills that should be
possessed by the faculty members Al-Balqa Applied University from the
perspective of the students. The skills were divided into four areas, namely,
planning, implementation, evaluation, and communication. The study sample
consisted of 368 male and female students who were selected by the class sample
method. The results of the study showed that the teaching skills of the faculty
members at the University of Balqa Applied from the point of view of the
students were medium, and there were differences in the results due to the
variable of gender, on behalf of males, and differences due to the variable college
for the benefit of scientific colleges.
Isa & Al-Naqah (2009) aimed to determine the professional competencies of
faculty members in the Faculty of Education at the Islamic University in Gaza, as
perceived by students according to the quality standards. The study sample
consisted of 426 male and female students, who answered the paragraphs of the
questionnaire. The questionnaire which consisted of 61 items on quality
standards. The results of the study showed that the personality and public
relations came first, while the scientific and professional ability were ranked
second. The results of the study did not show differences attributed to gender
variables and specialization of the student.
Abu- Humaidan and Sawaqed (2008) aimed at identifying the characteristics
that must be available in the faculty member from the perspective of students at
Mu’tah University. The sample of the study consisted of 700 male and female
students. The researchers used the questionnaire to collect data. The sample was
divided into three areas: the personal factor, educational efficiency, and the
relationship with the students. The results showed that there were no differences
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in the ranking of the three fields of study according to their importance to the
students. The results also showed no differences ascribed to gender, college or
level of study.
Moghtadaie and Taji (2016) conducted a study that aimed at finding the
relationship between the study’s dimensions of talent management and
improving the faculty members’ performance at university. The population of
this study was all public universities in Iran. Data were collected in two
methods: interviewing with experts and distributing questionnaires to the
sample. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis and Analytical
Network Process (ANP) by SPSS and Super Decisions software. The results
showed that the "Talents development" dimension came in the first position.
However, the two dimensions "attracting the talent" and "talents maintenance",
were ranked in second and third positions, respectively. The study revealed that
the most relevant dimension of talent management in improving the
performance of faculty members was "educational services". Thus, before
considering the work processes and relying on modern technology, the role of
"in-service training courses", "continuous learning" and "technical skills training"
are crucial in improving the performance of faculty members.
Al-Hattami, Muammar, and Elmahdi (2013) conducted a study in Saudi Arabia
to investigate the needs and the competencies that are required by faculty
members at the Saudi universities to enable them to achieve the standards stated
by the National Center for Academic Accreditation and Assessment (NCAAA).
For achieving the aim of the study, a questionnaire and semi-structured
interviews were utilized to collect the data. The sample of the study consisted of
(882) participants: (students, faculty members, chairmen and college boards,
colleges deans, and deanships deans) from Saudi universities in the eastern
province. The results showed a great need and importance of providing training
programs to enhance and elevate faculty members’ professional abilities in
teaching. Many participants emphasized that in-service training should be
mandated to ensure quality teaching.
Ansari and Malik (2013) aimed to identify the most important features of the
teacher suitable for teaching in contemporary educational environments. The
sample included (82) teachers. The researchers used a questionnaire in collecting
the study data. The results showed that the most prominent feature of an
effective 21st-century teacher is to be a transformational teacher with five basic
characteristics, namely, personal knowledge, personal qualifications,
instructional effectiveness, the ability to communicate and lifelong learning.
Gao and Liu (2013) aimed at identifying the characteristics of the effective
teacher from the perspective of both Chinese and American teachers. The sample
of the comparative study included (80) American teachers and (75) Chinese
teachers. The researchers used the questionnaire to collect data. The results
showed that there were (12) important features in the two groups of teachers as
follows: Adaptability, Enthusiasm, Fairness, High Expectations, Sense of
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Humor, Patience, Responsibility, Agreeableness, Caring, Friendliness, Honesty,
Respectfulness.
Walker’s (2008) longitudinal study aimed at identifying the attitudes of teachers
towards the characteristics of an effective teacher in the American society. The
study sample included (300) teachers whose attitudes towards these
characteristics were measured over ten years. The results showed that the most
consistent features in teachers’ attitudes toward the effective teacher included:
Preparedness, positive, high expectations, creativeness, fairness, personal touch,
developing students’ sense of belonging, compassion, sense of humor,
respectfulness, forging, and admitting mistakes.
Ginsberg (2007) sought to identify the characteristics shared by the faculty
members who are effective classroom communicators. The researcher employed
qualitative method through conducting interviews and observing the faculty
members. Two-public-comprehensive universities were chosen to collect the
data. Faculty members with good communication skills, particularly, immediacy
and clarity, were all found to carry humanistic views of their students and to be
reflective about their communication and their teaching on the one hand. On the
other hand, faculty members who demonstrated poor communication skills
were neither reflective nor humanistic instructors. To improve faculty member
effectiveness, the researcher recommended that universities must consider
underlying views and thought processes rather than teaching communication
skills techniques in isolation.
The perceptions toward educators and those related to teaching vocational
education courses vary. A number of studies showed that traits of teachers and
instructors have an impact on students’ learning and achievement. However,
based on the experience of the researchers as vocational instructors and faculty
members, they noticed that students’ learning and achievement at Al-Balqa
Applied University what are those traits that would define students’ perceptions
toward faculty member. Moreover, due to the nature of vocational courses in
terms of the strategy of teaching (theoretical and practical), it seems that
teaching those courses could have an impact on the students because of to the
close interaction between the learners and the instructors. Studying
characteristics of the effective faculty member requires further and in-depth
investigation. This is due the nature pf the important role it plays in overcoming
teaching difficulties. As a result, the present study came to answer the following
questions:
1. What are vocational education students’ perceptions of the traits of
effective faculty members?
2. Are there any differences in the mean scores of students’ perceptions
toward the traits of effective faculty members due to their genders?
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3. Methodology
Al- Balqa Applied University (BAU) is a public university which was established
in 1997. The university is located in Al-Balqa Province in Jordan. It offers
Bachelor and Community College degrees in applied education. The number of
students exceeded 45,000 students distriuted into 10, 000 ate bachelor’s degree
program and 11, 000 at the community college degree. The university was
shaped after merging and affiliating about 40 community colleges under one
umbrella. Today, the university branches are distributed over all Jordan
governorates. The main focus of the university is on applied technical studies.
The sample of the study consisted of all the students who enrolled in vocational
courses. The number of students who were reached and responded to the survey
was (N=910) or ( 300 male and 610 female) in the year 2018/2019. However, 300
usable questionnaires were answered with a rate of return thirty-three percent.
The researchers used the analytical descriptive method in answering the study
questions and achieving its aims. Descriptive research shed light on current
problems through data collection.
The study instrument consisted of (62) items divided into four dimensions:
knowledge- items (1-15), teaching skills- items (16-41), social and emotional
communication skills- items (42-52), and the dimension of personal
characteristics- items (53-62). Students were asked to answer the questionnaire
items on a five-point Likert scale based on the degree of importance: very high
(5), high (4), medium(3), low(2), and very low(1). Internal consistency was
calculated, and its value was (0.84), while the reliability was (0.82), which is
acceptable for the current study.
4. Results and Discussion
Results of question 1: What is vocational education students’ perceptions of
the traits of effective faculty members?
To answer this question, the means and the standard deviations of the sample
responses were calculated on the four dimensions of the study. The results are
presented below.
4.1 Results related to the first dimension: knowledge
The means and standards deviations were calculated to find out the students’
perceptions toward the traits of the faculty members in terms of the knowledge
domain as shown in tble (1).
Table 1: Means and standard deviations of participants’ responses
on the knowledge domain
Rank
Means
Standard deviation
Item
1
4.53
0.81
1
2
4.30
0.83
2
3
4.16
0.83
3
4
4.06
0.82
4
5
4.00
1.08
9
6
3.93
1.01
1
1
7
3.90
1.06
6
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8
3.90
0.994
8
9
3.90
1.09
10
11
3.90
1.06
5
11
3.86
0.937
7
12
3.83
0.949
13
13
3.80
1.03
12
14
3.73
1.01
15
15
3.60
1.06
14
3996
.23
Whole dimension
Table (1) shows that the means of the responses related to the dimension of
knowledge ranged between (3,60- 4.53) with a high level of importance. The
table also shows that item (1), which states that a faculty member must have
"appropriate knowledge of the scientific concepts associated with vocational
education", was ranked first in terms of importance according to the responses
of the students participating in the study sample, with a mean of (4.5333), and a
standard deviation of (0.81). The item which states that the faculty member "has
sufficient knowledge about the formal aspects of vocational work", came second,
with a mean of 4.3000 and a standard deviation of 83666. Item (14), was ranked
last in terms of importance within the knowledge dimension, with a mean of
(3.6000) and a standard deviation of (1.06). The mean for the knowledge
dimension as a whole was (3.96).
4.2 Results related to the second dimension: Teaching skills
The means and standards deviations were calculated to retrieve the students’
perceptions toward the traits of the faculty members in terms of the teaching
skills domain as table (2) shows.
Table 2: Means and standard deviations of participants’ responses
on the teaching skills domain
Standard
deviations
Means
Rank
Item
0.68
4.46
1
36
1.03
4.20
2
35
0.66
4.20
3
41
1.09
4.20
4
26
0.77
4.13
5
38
0.95
4.10
6
27
0.95
4.10
7
16
0.98
4.06
8
17
0.99
4.03
9
41
0.96
4.03
11
37
1.03
4.03
11
33
1.03
4.03
12
21
0.99
4.03
13
21
0.92
4.03
14
34
1.17
4.00
15
22
1.14
4.00
16
23
1.03
3.96
17
28
1.18
3.96
18
24
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0.92
3.96
19
18
0.96
3.96
21
32
1.01
3.93
21
31
0.94
3.93
22
19
0.88
3.90
23
29
0.93
3.86
24
39
1.04
3.86
25
31
1.07
3.86
26
25
0.13
4.03
Whole Dimension
Table (2) shows that the means of the dimension of teaching skills ranged
between (3.8667 - 4.4667) with a high level of importance. The table also shows
that item (36), which states that the faculty member should "inform students of
the expected learning outcomes before starting teaching", ranked first in terms of
importance according to the responses of the students participating in the study
sample, with a mean of (4.4667), and a standard deviation of (0.68145). It was
followed by item (35), as the second most important item, which states that the
faculty member "analyzes the content of the curriculum in a comprehensive and
detailed way before teaching.", with a mean of 4.2000, and a standard deviation
of (1.0305, ), item (25) was ranked last in terms of importance within the
teaching skills dimension, with a mean of (3.8667) and a standard deviation of
(1.07425). The mean for the knowledge dimension as a whole was (4.0346).
4.3 Results related to the third dimension: Social and emotional
communication skills.
The means and standard deviations were calculated to retrieve the students’
perceptions toward the traits of the faculty members in terms of the
communication skills domain as table (3) shows.
Table 3: Means and standard deviations of participants’ responses on the
communication skills domain
Standard deviation
Means
Rank
Item
0.71
4.33
1
49
0.73
4.26
2
51
0.78
4.26
3
51
0.81
4.23
4
52
0.96
4.20
5
43
1.01
4.16
6
42
1.04
4.13
7
44
1.03
4.03
8
48
0.98
3.93
9
45
1.01
3.93
11
47
1.10
3.86
11
46
0.15
4.12
Whole Dimension
Table (3) shows that the means of the items related to the social and emotional
communication skills of the faculty member ranged from (3.86 to 4.33) with a
high level of importance. The table also shows that item (49), which states that a
faculty member should "discuss with his students the subjects and issues of
interest to them.", Ranked first in terms of importance according to the responses
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
of the students participating in the study sample, with a mean of (4.33), And a
standard deviation of (0.71). It was followed by the second most important item
(51), which states that the faculty member "uses nonverbal behaviors to attract
the attention and interest of students", with a mean of (4.26), and a standard
deviation of (0.73), while item (46) was ranked last in terms of importance within
the dimension, with a mean of (3.86) and a standard deviation (1.10). The total
mean of the dimension of social and emotional communication skills as a whole
was (4,12).
4.4 Results related to the fourth dimension: Personal characteristics
The means and standard deviations were calculated to retrieve the students’
perceptions toward the traits of the faculty members in terms of the personal
characteristics domain as table (4) shows.
Table 4: Means and standard deviations of participants’ responses
on the personal characteristics domain
Standard deviations
Means
Rank
Item
0.88
4.33
1
55
0.91
4.30
2
53
1.05
4.28
3
59
1.11
4.26
4
61
1.11
4.23
5
61
1.09
4.20
6
62
0.83
4.16
7
54
0.86
4.13
8
56
1.10
4.08
9
58
1.09
4.03
11
57
0.95
4.20
Whole Dimension
Table (4) shows that the means of the personal characteristics of the faculty
member ranged between (4.03- 4.33) with a high level of importance. The table
also shows that item (55), which states that the faculty member should be
"flexible and non-rigid.", was ranked first in terms of importance according to
the responses of students participating in the study sample, with a mean of (4.3)
and a standard deviation of (0.88). It was followed by the item number (53),
which states that the faculty member should be "serious in his work and
enthusiastic about his profession.” with a mean of 4.30 and a standard deviation
of (0.91), while item (57), was ranked last in terms of importance within the
dimension, with a mean of (4.03) and a standard deviation (1.09). The total mean
of the dimension of personal and effective characteristics as a whole was (4.20).
4.5 Comparison of the results of the four dimensions
In order to have a wide view of the students’ perceptions toward faculty
members’, the researchers have calculated the means and the standards
deviations for each domain. Table (5) shows the results and the ranking of each
domain:
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Table 5: Comparison means and standard deviations of the
participants’ responses on the four domains
Standard deviation
Mean
Rank
Dimension
0.23
3.96
4
First: knowledge
0.13
4.03
3
Second: teaching skills
0.15
4.12
2
Third: social and emotional skills
0.95
4.20
1
Fourth: personal characteristics
Table (5) shows that the personal characteristics domain has ranked at the top of
other domains with a mean score of (4.20) and a standard deviation (0.95),
followed by social and emotional skills (4912), teaching skills (4.03). Knowledge
domain was ranked as the last of other domains with a mean of (3.96), and a
standard deviation of (.23089).
Results from research question 2: Are there any differences in the mean scores
of students’ perceptions toward the traits of effective faculty members due to
their genders (male, female)?
To answer this question, the means and standard deviations of the sample
responses were calculated on the four study dimensions, as table (5) shows:
Table 6: Comparison of the means and the standard deviations of the participants’
responses on the knowledge domain due to their gender
Item Mean Standard deviation Gender
1 4.66 0.81 Male
4.40 0.82 female
2 4.46 0.83 Male
4.13 0.83 female
3 4.26 0.88 Male
4.06 0.79 female
4 4.20 0.94 Male
3.93 0.70 female
5 3.86 1.06 Male
3.95 1.09 female
6 3.73 0.96 Male
4.07 1.16 female
7 3.74 0.88 Male
4.00 1.00 female
8 3.80 0.94 Male
4.00 1.06 female
9 4.00 1.19 Male
3.99 1.00 female
10 4.06 1.03 Male
3.73 1.16 female
11 3.93 1.16 Male
3.95 0.88 female
12 3.86 1.06 Male
3.73 1.03 female
13 3.533 0.91 Male
4.13 0.91 female
14 3.33 1.04 Male
4.04 1.06 female
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15 3.40 1.05 Male
4.06 0.88 female
Whole dimension 3.93 0.37 Male
4.00 0.16 female
Table (6) shows the differences between male and female students’ estimates of
the importance of the items in the first domain related to the knowledge of the
faculty member. The mean of the male students’ estimations was higher than the
mean of female students’ estimations in items (1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 12 ), while the
female students’ estimates were higher than those of male students in items (5, 6,
7, 8, 13 ,14, 15), whereas the estimates of male and female were equal
concernening the importance of the items (9 and 11). The means for the male and
female students of the dimension as a whole showed a high estimate of the
importance of the dimension in females (mean = 4.00), compared to males
(mean= 3.92).
Moreover, the researchers have compared the mean score of the male and female
participants’ responses to the teaching skills domain. Table (7) shows the results.
Table 7: Comparison the means and the standard deviations of the participants’
responses on the teaching skills domain due to their gender
Item Mean Standard deviation Gender
1 4.66 0.81 Male
4.40 0.82 female
2 4.46 0.83 Male
4.13 0.83 female
3 4.26 0.88 Male
4.06 0.79 female
4 4.20 0.94 Male
3.93 0.70 female
5 3.86 1.06 Male
3.93 1.09 female
6 3.73 0.96 Male
4.0667 1.16 female
7 3.73 0.88 Male
4.00 1.00 female
8 3.80 0.941 Male
4.00 1.06 female
9 4.00 1.19 Male
4.00 1.00 female
10 4.06 1.03 Male
3.73 1.16 female
11 3.93 1.16 Male
3.93 0.88 female
12 3.86 1.06 Male
3.73 1.03 female
13 3.53 0.91 Male
4.13 0.91 female
14 3.33 1.04 Male
3.86 1.06 female
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15 3.40 1.05 Male
4.06 0.88 female
Whole Dimension
3.90 0.37 Male
4.00 0.16 female
Table (7) shows the differences between the estimates of male and female
students for the importance of the items in the second domain of teaching skills
of the effective faculty member. The mean of the male students was higher than
the mean of the female students’ estimations in paragraphs (16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 26,
27, 28, 29, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 and 40), while female student estimates were
higher than those of male students in (21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 31, 32, 33, 41). The
estimates of male and female students are equal concerning the importance of
the item (30) in the dimension of teaching skills of the faculty member. The
means for both male and female students for the dimension as a whole showed
significant differences, on behalf of male students (mean = 4.06), compared to
females (mean = 4.01).
Also, the researchers have compared the mean score of the male and female
participants’ responses to the social and emotional communication skills
domain. Table (8) shows the results.
Table 8: Comparison of the means and the standard deviations of the participants’
responses on the domain social and emotional communication skills
Item Standard
deviations
Means Gender
42 1.09 4.26 Male
0.96 4.06 Female
43 0.81 4.33 Male
1.00 4.06 Female
44 0.73 4.40 Male
1.24 3.86 Female
45 0.83 4.13 Male
1.09 3.73 Female
46 0.67 4.20 Male
1.35 3.53 Female
47 0.79 4.06 Male
1.20 3.80 Female
48 0.61 4.33 Male
1.27 3.73 Female
49 0.73 4.40 Male
0.70 4.26 Female
50 0.73 4.40 Male
0.83 4.13 Female
51 0.73 4.40 Male
0.74 4.13 Female
52 0.73 4.40 Male
0.88 4.06 Female
Whole Dimension
0.12 4.30 Male
0.22 3.94 Female
‫‏‬
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Table (8) shows the differences of the estimates of male and female students for
the importance of the items in the third dimension of social and emotional
communication skills, where the mean of the male students was higher than the
mean of the female students’ estimations in items (42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51
and 52), while female student estimates were higher than those of male students
in items (43-48) related to social and emotional communication skills. The mean
scores for male and female students for the dimension as a whole showed an
increase in the estimates of the importance of the field in males (mean = 4.30),
compared with females (mean = 3.94).
In addition, the researchers have compared the mean score of the male and
female participants’ responses to the personal traits domain as shown in table
(8).
Table (9): Comparison of the means and the standard deviations of the participants’
responses on the personal traits domain
Item Gender Means Standard deviations
53 Male 4.53 0.63
Female 4.06 1.00
54 Male 4.20 0.77
Female 4.13 0.91
55 Male 4.46 0.63
Female 4.20 1.08
56 Male 4.33 0.81
Female 3.93 0.88
57 Male 4.33 1.00
Female 3.73 1.00
58 Male 4.20 1.00
Female 4.06 1.20
59 Male 4.33 0.81
Female 4.26 1.20
60 Male 4.20 1.00
Female 4.33 1.20
61 Male 4.26 1.00
Female 4.26 1.20
62 Male 4.20 1.00
Female 4.20 1.20
Whole Dimension Male 4.30 0.11
Female 4.12 0.18
Table (9) shows the differences of the estimates of male and female students for
the importance of the items in the fourth dimension related to personal
characteristics, where the mean of the male students ‘estimates was higher than
the mean of the female students’ estimations in items (53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59 ).
The female student estimates were higher than those of male students in item
(60), while the estimates of male and female students were equal concerning the
importance of the items (61 and 62) in the dimension of personality traits. The
means for the male and female students for the dimension as a whole showed a
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
high estimate of the importance of the dimension among male students (mean =
4.30), compared to females (mean = 4.12).
The results of the study showed statistically significant differences between male
and female students’ assessment of the characteristics of the active faculty
members in each of the four dimensions of study, namely, knowledge, teaching
skills, social and emotional communication skills, and personal characteristics.
The results of the present study are consistent with the results of several
previous Arab studies (e.g., Al-Hattami, Muammar, & Elmahdi, 2013), which
examined the characteristics and traits of an effective faculty member from the
students’ point of view (e.g., Abu Houmaidan and Suaqid, 2008; Al-Ja’afra, 2015;
Sarhan, 2017) as well as other communities related to the educational process in
universities.
5. Conclusion
The present study proposed to identify vocational education students’
perceptions of the traits of an effective faculty members at Al-Balqa Applied
University. It also examined whether there were significant differences based on
the students’ gender. The study recruited participant students from Albalqa
Applied University which could be a limitation of this study and prevents the
result from the generalization issue. The study revealed that students’
perceptions and estimates to the faculty members’ characteristics were high all
the time. However, male students’ perceptions were higher than the female on
the four dimensions of the study (knowledge, teaching skills, and social and
emotional communication skills). The finding suggests encouraging faculty
members who teach vocational education courses to develop their effectiveness
in acquiring more knowledge in the field of vocational education. This could be
realized by more reading and conducting research in the field, attending
conferences and using new materials in teaching vocational courses. Also,
faculty members may improve their teaching skills by attending workshops,
colleagues’ lectures, and self-learning from the available traditional and
electronic materials. Moreover, faculty members could improve their social and
emotional communication skills and personal traits.
Moreover, findings suggest conducting further studies that examine the traits of
the effective faculty members in the field of vocational education and
conducting training in modern teaching methods and strategies.
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International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 29-45, February 2020
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.2.3
Philosophy for Children (P4C) in Improving
Critical Thinking in a Secondary Moral
Education Class
Hafizhah Zulkifli
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Bangi, Malaysia
Rosnani Hashim
International Islamic University Malaysia
Gombak, Malaysia
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of
Philosophy for Children (P4C) in improving critical thinking among
students. The study was conducted via the quasi-experimental research
comprising of 27 students placed in the experimental group while the
remaining 34 students in the control group. The instrument used was
the Ujian Kemahiran Menaakul (Test for Reasoning Skills) Centre for
Teaching Thinking (UKMCTT). Based on the statistical t-test on critical
thinking, the treatment group scored a higher mean in the post-test
mean score compared to the control group, which suggests that P4C had
helped to improve students’ critical thinking. The application of P4C
allows students to think or reflect on the consequences of the action or
assumption they made in their discussion. Simultaneously, it provides
career advancement for the teachers by providing the classroom with a
new strategy and renewed energy and enthusiasm.
Keywords: Philosophy for Children (P4C); Critical Thinking; Moral
Education; Students; Test for Reasoning Skills
1. Introduction
Teaching student’s critical thinking will strengthen their logical skills and ability
to reason (Lipman, Sharp, & Oscanyan, 1980). Effective teaching is comprised of
three strategies, i.e., dialogue strategies, stimulating critical thinking, and
encouraging discussion in the classroom (Hashim, 2013). Moral and academic
excellence are profoundly affected by effective teaching (Solomon, Watson, &
Battistich, 2001), and teachers who have positive attitudes about their students
can enhance the students’ achievement and ethical behaviour (Haberman, 1999).
Teachers need to have content knowledge as well as to associate caring
classrooms, achievement, and prosocial character. Pedagogical skills are also
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
necessary, and they are expected to be committed to providing caring climates
as a teaching practice (Che Abd Rahman, 2007).
In Malaysia, thinking skills are a significant agenda in national education and
are eminent (Yen & Halili, 2015). Malaysia has put a significant effort in
enhancing thinking skills with the implementation of structural reforms by the
Ministry of Education (MOE) through the Integrated Curriculum for Secondary
Schools (KBSM). The concept of critical thinking was incorporated in some major
national plans including in KBSM in 1988, Vision 2020 in 1991, the Critical and
Creative Thinking Skills (KBKK) in 1996, and the concept of “smart school” to
produce human capital with high-level thinking ability introduced in 1997
(Ministry of Education, 2012).
In 2012, the Preliminary Report of the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013–2025
was introduced by MOE that emphasised on six critical attributes needed by the
students to thrive in the globally competitive market such as knowledge,
thinking skills, leadership skills, bilingual proficiency, ethics and spirituality,
and national identity (Yen & Halili, 2015). Nevertheless, in reality, the majority
of teachers have failed to engage students in effective teaching as they still
employ the lecture method instead of promoting the culture of Higher Order
Thinking Skills (HOTs) (Ivie, 1998; Ministry of Education, 2012; Zohar &
Schwartzer, 2005).
Moreover, the majority of teaching methods involved memorising (Hoon, 2010;
Glickman, 1991), taking notes (Balakrishnan, 2002, 2009), possess lack of
activities (Appoo, 2009), emphasises on exam (Barone, 2004), asked lower-order
thinking questions, and usually used the lecture technique (Che Abd Rahman,
2007). This pedagogy assumes teachers as a source of knowledge, with student
engagement at a minimal level and indirect interactions between students.
In addition, Nachiappan, Sinnasamy & Suffian (2017) contend that the
problems that teachers have to overcome were the inability to relate to the
moral values in real-life situation among students, lack of teaching aids,
lack of mastery in lesson delivery among teachers, lack of interest from
students, inability to explain about moral issues among students, problem
in mastery of language among students, presence of teachers with no
Moral Education field background and the inability to understand and
master the moral values among students. Moreover, the influence of
students’ mother tongue also has become an alarming issue among
teachers. Students also tend to have an attitude towards Moral Education
which shows their lack of concern which leads to them being unable to
pay attention. Then, lack of optional teachers in Moral Education, lack of
references and unconducive classroom surrounding can cause problems
in Moral Education.
In light of such issues, we can conclude that students have not achieved a
higher level of critical thinking. Thus, students need to be catered with a
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
pedagogy that provides them with the opportunity to enhance their
critical thinking. So far, not many researchers have paid attention to the
usage of philosophical inquiry such as P4C as an alternative methods in
Moral Education in order to enhance critical thinking. Based on these
stated gaps, thus, this study aims to examine the effect of P4C on the students’
critical thinking level after the P4C is implemented in the classroom.
2. Philosophy for Children (P4C)
Several critical thinking programmes are available to teach students to think
critically. The 'Teaching for thinking' approach was developed by teachers
across the world in different ways. They integrate the approach into everyday
teaching to create 'thinking classroom' and develop whole school policies to
create 'thinking school'. Lateral Thinking, which was promoted by Edward De
Bono (Bono, 1995) is one of the examples that has inspired a wide range of
curriculum and programme developments, while the Instrumental Enrichment
Program by Reuven Feuerstein (Feuerstein, Falik & Feuerstein, 2015) is a
programme for struggling learners. It also includes ‘cognitive acceleration’
approaches (such as Adey and Shayer’s Cognitive Acceleration through Science
Education), which are called ‘brain-based' approaches like the ‘Accelerated
Learning' and ‘philosophical’ approaches, such as Lipman’s Philosophy for
Children, which unlike other approaches, not only aims to develop the
intellectual aspects of thinking, caring and collaboration, as well as critical and
creative thinking, but also the moral, social, and emotional aspects (Fisher, 2013).
Philosophy for Children (P4C) was created in the late 1960s by Matthew Lipman
and his colleagues as a coherent programme in teaching thinking at the
Montclair State University, United States. This programme was created due to
the realisation by Lipman (1993) who was a professor teaching philosophy at
Colombia University at the time that the undergraduates lacked in reasoning
and judgment (Naji, 2005).
According to Lipman et al. (1980), the P4C was built upon the recommendation
of John Dewey (1938) and the Russian educator, Lev Vygotsky (Minick, 2005).
They emphasised on the necessity of teaching for thinking and not for merely
memorising (Lipman, 2017). He mentioned other philosophers and
psychologists who instigate influence in P4C such as Justus Buchler, Jean Piaget,
Gilbert Ryle, George Herbert Mead, and Ludwig Wittgenstein (Lipman, 2017). It
is essential to highlight that the aim of P4C “is not to make children into little
philosophers but to help them to think better than they now think. The more
quickly they can adapt to philosophy, it will emphasis mental acts, thinking
skills, reasoning and judgment” (Lipman, 2017, p. 9).
In providing and pursuing a P4C curriculum, the Institute for the Advancement
of Philosophy for Children (IAPC) began to implement the P4C programme in
kindergarten to the twelfth-grade classroom in Montclair. For the first draft, he
published a novel for children entitled Harry Stottlemeier’s Discovery to foster
children's critical thinking, discussion, and questioning (McLeod, 2010). More
philosophical children’s novels were published in the following years by
Lipman such as Suki, (1978), Mark (1979), Pixie, (1981), Lisa (1983), Elfie (1987);
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Kio & Gus, 1982). Every novel was different as each novel was written to suit
different age groups and schooling grade, as shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Philosophical Novel
Age Children’s
novel
Teacher’s
manual
Philosophical
area
Educational
area
3-6 years Doll
Hospital
Making sense
of my word
Concept
formation
Basic concepts-
what is true,
good, real,
beautiful?
6-7 years Elfie Getting our
thought
together
Reasoning
about thinking
Exploring
experience
7-8 years Kio and
Gus
Wondering at
the world
Reasoning
about nature
Environmental
education
8-10 years Pixie Looking for
Meaning
Reasoning
about language
Language and
arts
10-12
years
Harry
Stottlemeir’
s Discovery
Philosophical
Inquiry
Basic reasoning
skills
Thinking and
logic
12-13
years
Lisa Ethical
inquiry
Reasoning
in ethics
Moral
education
14-15
years
Suki Writing:
How and
Why
Reasoning
in language
Writing and
literature
16 +
years
Mark Social
inquiry
Reasoning
in social
foundation
Social
studies
Source: Fisher (2013)
Each novel, as explained by Lipman (1988) revolves around a common theme,
which is the workings of the human mind, and the primary purpose of the
theme is to serve as springboards for intellectual debate. However, one of the
drawbacks of the novels was that they are not good stories in a literary sense, as
they do not hold the interest as stories. Nevertheless, Lipman saw this as an
advantage. Most children’s book and stories do not contain a rich range of
philosophical questions, and they do not provide models for children as
enquiring thinkers. He believed that children’s existing literary experience
lacked in intellectual stimulation, causing the link between reading and thinking
to be disconnected. Children usually do not think about what the words mean
for the story, and they eventually believe that reading is only about following
words in a book (Fisher, 2013).
Besides, Lipman’s 'philosophic novels' (1988) by contrast, are seeded with
puzzles, questions, and problems of meaning. There is an educational purpose to
stimulate questioning and philosophical discussion. They present models of
reasonable and thoughtful discussion between children that Lipman hoped his
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
readers would emulate in their discussion of questions arising from the text
(Fisher, 2013).
Furthermore, a philosophical novel is more effective than a philosophical context
because it is far more enjoyable to be conveyed through stories. Children will be
more motivated to think and inquire if the stories focus on issues and events that
are related to their personal experience but at the same time, are intriguing and
contestable. The philosophical text is an attempt to present philosophy logically
and comprehensively despite the lack of experience. Stories will be used as a
springboard or trigger for their further inquiry by children who are in the
process of building their communities of philosophical inquiry (Sharp, 2017).
3. Methodology
Research Design
A quasi-experimental design was chosen for the assessment of this study. The
researcher used existing classroom to avoid disrupting classroom learning
(Creswell, 2005) and it is usually not possible for educational researchers to
randomly assign pupils to groups or to design a study in which the control
group is taught the irregular programme from the prescribed curriculum (Ann,
1993).
In the quasi-experimental design, the participants were divided into two groups
with group A1 as the experimental group and group B1 as the selected group
without random assignment. A pre-test and post-test were applied to both
groups, and only the experimental group will receive the treatment (Creswell,
2009). In the treatment group of this study, students were taught through the use
of P4C while in the control group, students were offered the regular formal
Moral Education course. Both experimental and control groups consisted of
form two students.
Group A1 O1 X O2
----------------------------------------------------------
Group B1 O1 O2
Group A1: Experimental Group (P4C)
Group B1: Control Group (conventional learning)
O1: Pre-test
O2: Post-test
X: Treatment
Sample
The population of this study was form two Moral Education students. The
samples of this study comprised of two classes of Moral Education students in
one secondary public school in Gombak. The sample was chosen due to the
diversity of non-Muslim students in the school, the study's ability to attain
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
cooperation from the school administrator, and the conducive environment for
teaching and learning offered in the school.
The form two students were selected because they were not involved in any
major compulsory examination. The students were selected from schools that
consist of a minimum of ten non-Malay or non-Muslim students as Moral
Education is only offered to non-Muslim students. According to Berg and Latin
(1994), there should be at least ten subjects per group when researching group
comparison.
The samples from the two classes of form two consisted of 61 students. The total
number of students for the experimental group was 27, and the control group
consisted of 34 students. The sample experimental group consisted of 13 males
and 14 females, which consisted of 19 Indian students and 8 Chinese students.
Meanwhile, the control group consisted of 13 males and 21 females with 30
Indian students and 4 Chinese students.
The samples were not randomly assigned to the two groups as this study cannot
artificially create groups for the experiment to avoid the disruption of classroom
learning. The form two classes were in the afternoon session. The two classes of
Moral Education involved were 2A and 2C, where 2A stands for Aktif, Amal, and
Amanah that comprised of excellent and moderate students based on their form
one year-end exam achievement. Meanwhile, 2C that represent Ceria and Cerdas
consisted of moderate and low achievement students based on the same
assessment. 2A was assigned as the control group and 2C as the experimental
group.
The Moral Education class provides students with multicultural ethnics,
different religious beliefs, different spoken languages, and dialects. In addition,
the Moral Education class emphasises on Moral Reasoning, Moral Feeling and
Moral Action that is suitable for this study.
Instrument
The Ujian Kemahiran Menaakul Centre for Teaching Thinking (UKMCTT) used to
examine the level of critical thinking among students is an adaptation from the
New Jersey Test of Reasoning Skills (NJTRS) that was developed by Dr. Virginia
Shipman, a senior research psychologist in the Education Department in New
Jersey (Shipman, 1983). It is a test of the ability to reason, rather than a test of
scientific inquiry of judgment. It is clear with a written Flesch Reading level of
4.5, and reliability ranging from 0.84 to 0.91 and compares favourably with other
thinking tests such as the Cornell Critical Thinking Test and the Whimbey
Analytical Skills programme.
The test is recommended for high school and colleague students. It has been
widely used with groups of foreign language learners in high schools in many
parts of the world that conducted the P4C programme in the past 30 years
(Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children). These countries
include Singapore (Lim, 1994) and Malaysia (Hashim, Hussien, & Imran, 2014).
35
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
A reliability test was conducted for this study and its Cronbach alpha for
internal reliability was 0.73.
The UKMCTT had been translated and had 33 multiple-choice items. Some of
the reasoning skills included are reasoning with the relationship, identifying
good reasons, inductive reasoning, recognizing improper questions and
analogical reasoning, and syllogistic reasoning. The duration of the test was one
hour.
Data Collection Procedures
Initially, the researcher met with the principal to discuss the class and timetable
that would be suitable for the study. Next, the researcher entered the class and
built rapport among the students in the classroom for about a month.
Accordingly, the researcher gave critical thinking instruments for the pre-test
while the teacher started implementing the intervention module for 11 sessions.
After the teacher completed the 11 sessions of intervention, the researcher again
gave out the critical thinking instruments to the students in the post-test.
Data Analysis Procedures
The researcher used inferential statistic comprised of independent-samples t-test
and paired sample t-test on UKMCTT instruments. As stated by Pallant (2007),
researchers use the independent sample t-test when they want to compare the
mean scores of two different groups of people or conditions. On the other hand,
when the researchers want to compare the mean scores for the same group of
people on two different occasions, or when there are matched pairs, a paired
sample t-test is used. In this research, SPSS was used to analyse the data.
Validity
Validity in quantitative data, as mentioned by Creswell (2005) refers to when
individual scores from the instrument are meaningful and make sense. The
validity of an instrument also enables the researcher to draw a reasonable
conclusion from the sample of the population. The quasi-experimental approach
introduces more threats to internal validity than the actual experiment. This
happens because the researcher does not randomly assign participants to
groups. A threat to validity refers to when design issues can threaten the
experiment conclusions reached from data, leading to a false reading and
plausible cause and effect between the treatment and the outcome (Creswell,
2005).
The threats to internal validity threatened the researcher’s ability to draw the
correct cause and effect of inferences that arise. This is profoundly affected by
the experimental procedures or the experiences of participants. History,
maturation, regression, selection, mortality, and interaction with selection are
among the potential threats to internal validity (Creswell, 2005; Campbell &
Stanley, 1963; Christensen, 2004).
Table 2 shows a list of internal validity threats and suggested means of control.
First, history refers to any situation or event that coincides with the treatment
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IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 2 February 2020

  • 1. International Journal of Learning, Teaching And Educational Research p-ISSN: 1694-2493 e-ISSN: 1694-2116 IJLTER.ORG Vol.19 No.2
  • 2. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 19, No. 2 (February 2020) Print version: 1694-2493 Online version: 1694-2116 IJLTER International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 19, No. 2 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks. Society for Research and Knowledge Management
  • 3. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of learning, teaching and educational research. Aims and Objectives The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators, teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the world to present the results of their research activities in the following fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment; multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education; knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning; virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education; digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e- tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom management issues, educational case studies, etc. Indexing and Abstracting The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned a unique DOI number.
  • 4. Foreword We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue. Editors of the February 2020 Issue
  • 5. VOLUME 19 NUMBER 2 February 2020 Table of Contents Problem of Resistance to the Introduction of Distance Learning Models of Training in the Vocational Training of Educators .................................................................................................................................................................................1 Svitlana Dovbenko, Ruslana G. Naida, Victor M. Beschastnyy, Halyna V. Bezverkhnia and Viktoriia V. Tsybulska Vocational Students’ Perceptions toward the Traits of Effective Faculty Members: The Case of Albalqa Applied University .............................................................................................................................................................................. 13 Maaly Mefleh Almzary, Muhammad Khaled Al-Alawneh, Ibtisam Mustafa Alomari, Inas Ahmad Albado and Khawla Mahmoud Alawneh Philosophy for Children (P4C) in Improving Critical Thinking in a Secondary Moral Education Class.................. 29 Hafizhah Zulkifli and Rosnani Hashim Integration of Cloud Technologies in Teaching Foreign Languages in Higher Education Institutions.................... 46 Iryna L. Pokrovska, Tetiana M. Kolodko, Zamina K. Aliyeva, Iryna V. Tymoshchuk and Ruslan V. Vakariuk Teachers and Students Code-Switching: The Inevitable Evil in EFL Classrooms........................................................ 60 Riyad F. Hussein, Hadeel A. Saed and Ahmad S. Haider Validating a Model of Change Readiness among Malaysian School Teachers: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach ............................................................................................................................................................................... 79 Banu Ramanan and Mua'azam Bin Mohamad Technology Interest of Secondary School Students at Five Testing Points over one Complete School Year after Participating at a Student-Centered Learning Program about Bionics.......................................................................... 94 Michaela Marth-Busch and Franz X. Bogner Becoming Critical: In-service Teachers’ Perspectives on Multicultural Education.................................................... 112 Roland G. Pourdavood and Meng Yan Consistency Verification between Qualitative Entries and Quantitative Ratings in the Teaching Evaluation Forms of Filipino Pre-service Teachers ........................................................................................................................................ 136 William Jr D. Magday and Issra Pramoolsook
  • 6. Promoting Personalized Learning Skills: The Impact of Collaborative Learning (A Case Study on the General Directorate of Residency and Foreigners Affairs in Dubai) .......................................................................................... 163 Hamdy Ahmed Abdelaziz and Aisha Al-Ali Motivation to Get a Second Higher Education: Psychological and Pedagogical Aspect .......................................... 188 Roksolana I. Sirko, Halyna V. Bezverkhnia, Olha Ya. Zaverukha, Svitlana V. Chupakhina and Nataliia R. Kyrsta The Physical Space and the Development of Creativity in Peruvian Early Childhood Education: A Case Study in Arequipa .............................................................................................................................................................................. 203 Karol Andrea Puma-Yagua, Teresa Ramos-Quispe, Sonia Esther Castro-Cuba-Sayco, Alicia García-Holgado, Antonio Silva Sprock and Klinge Orlando Villalba-Condori Factors Affecting Practical Knowledge Acquisition of Pre-service Computer Science Teachers During the Practicum: A Multiple Regression Analysis.................................................................................................................... 214 Pu Song, Nor Aniza Ahmad, Mas Nida Md. Khambari and Ng Keng Yap Computerized Visual Perception Games and its Effects on Learning Letters and Numbers among Jordanian Kindergarten Children....................................................................................................................................................... 231 Ebtesam Qassim Rababah, Mais Nusair and Ayed Hamdan AlHersh Same Mindset, Different Pedagogical Strategies: A Case Study Comparing Chinese and Finnish Teachers ........ 248 Junfeng Zhang, Elina Kuusisto and Kirsi Tirri Gamification Acceptance for Learners with Different E-Skills..................................................................................... 263 Aliki Panagiotarou, Yannis C. Stamatiou, Christos J. Pierrakeas and Achilles Kameas The Effect of Student Perception of Negative School Climate on Poor Academic Performance of Students in Indonesia.............................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra, Agus Supriyanto, Budi Astuti, Yulia Ayriza and Sofwan Adiputra Use of Multiple Representations in Understanding Addition: The Case of Pre-school Children............................ 292 Kamariah Abu Bakar, Suziyani Mohamed, Faridah Yunus and Aidah Abdul Karim “Glocal” Transnational Higher Education: A Case Study of a Finnish-Vietnamese Collaboration......................... 305 Kirsi Hasanen
  • 7. 1 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 1-12, February 2020 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.2.1 Problem of Resistance to the Introduction of Distance Learning Models of Training in the Vocational Training of Educators Svitlana Dovbenko Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine Ruslana G. Naida Rivne State University of the Humanities Rivne, Ukraine Victor M. Beschastnyy Donetsk Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine Halyna V. Bezverkhnia Lutsk National Technical University Lutsk, Ukraine Viktoriia V. Tsybulska Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University Uman, Ukraine Abstract. This study seeks to specify the factors preventing end-users (learners) from doing the distance learning courses successfully and university management from introducing this mode of study into vocational training of educators in Ukraine. It employed a non- experimental, descriptive study design performed through online and offline surveys. The preliminary data were collected through a self- completion Google Forms-based questionnaire (Course Satisfaction Questionnaire) for the students used at the first stage of our research followed by an interview questionnaire used with a focus group at the subsequent one. The latter developed the evaluation scale and made all necessary adjustments so that the validity of the study was ensured. The Chi-Square method was used to determine whether there were any correlations between internal and external factors of resistance. This study proved that the issue of resistance to the introduction of distance- learning models of training in the vocational training of educators is mostly a personal perception factor. It raised the issue of training and
  • 8. 2 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. assisting lecturers in using distance education tools and shifting their role from being a source of knowledge to being a facilitator of learning. Keywords: Online education; Vocational training of educators; Resistance to distance learning; Higher educational institutions 1. Introduction Resistance towards introduction of online education models of training in the vocational training is a shaming case for higher educational institutions (HEIs) in Ukraine (Zolotareva & Brezhneva-Ermolenko, 2015). Though its benefits have been widely discussed and have become obvious for both learners and educators, and the shift from face-to-face instruction to online teaching/training has become trendy, the introduction of this mode of study in the educational process of HEIs in Ukraine has still been put off. Furthermore, it seems of even much greater concern that HEIs providing vocational training for educators ‘are leading’ this negative trend. 1.1. Literature Review The typical reasons for reluctance to on-line education found in the literature were bias-based perceptions, negative experiences of both learners and teachers, technical illiteracy or lack of technical skills to manage classroom and build the community, gender-based specifics along with the gap between theory and practice of the e-learning (Uzunboylu & Tuncay, 2010; Lee & Choi, 2011; Bacow et al., 2012; Kintu & Simon, 2019; Mahlangu, 2018; Akmeşe, Demir & Dünder, 2016; Ravhudzulo, 2016; Lederman, 2019; Rost, 2019). While the number of scientific investigations seeking to handle this problem is growing, this has still been a gap to complete that are related to optimal (value-for-money) online course and curriculum design, student-lecturer motivation and engagement. Theoretical and Practical gaps Up to now, the studies have examined the problem of resistance to introduction of a distance education mode at HEIs from the students’ perspective (Rashid & Rashid, 2011; Fojtik, 2018) but few studies addressed this issue from the perspective of both education seeker and education provider. Additionally, this study found a practical gap between research and educational policy-making for accumulating and sharing best practices in using technology (Biesta, 2007; Conole, 2010). 1.2. Theoretical Model The theoretical framework used in this study is based on the data obtained from two domains (theoretical and practical) through integration and inference (see it visualized in Figure 1 below).
  • 9. 3 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Figure 1: The theoretical framework used in this study 1.3. Research purpose The purpose of this study was to specify the factors preventing end-users (learners) from doing the distance learning courses successfully and university management from introducing this mode of study into vocational training of educators. 1.4. Research Questions Therefore, this study seeks to answer two questions: 1) what internal and external factors/reasons make students and university management representatives resist the online learning; 2) what factors seem to be crucial. 2. Method This study used methods which are common for quantitative and qualitative types of research (Mehrad & Tahriri, 2019; Streefkerk, 2019). It employed a non- experimental, descriptive study design performed through online and offline surveys. It dealt nothing with assessment of academic performance of the students when they did the distance course. This section provides the highlights of a research model and procedure, a self-completion Google Forms-based questionnaire (Course Satisfaction Questionnaire) for the students, an interview (a semi-structured one) questionnaire for a sampled student group and management representatives, and an overview of sampling and statistical tools. This research is based on both students’ self-assessment and management Theoretical Domain: Concepts, empirical facts, models Practice-related Domain: Concepts, empirical facts, models This study theoretical & practical subdomains: Assumptions, concepts, definitions, empirical facts, models, generalisations, facts Integration Interference Derivation and Translation Theoretical and Research Gap Research Design
  • 10. 4 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. representatives’ views of challenges occurring when a distance mode of studies is introduced at the universities majoring in Pedagogics in Ukraine. 2.1. Research model It took the members of the research team one semester (4 months) of the academic year of 2019-2020 to complete this study which was a sequence of three stages (see it visualised in Figure 2 below). Figure 2: The timeline of the study At the pre-survey stage, theory and best practices were examined to explore the issues to have been addressed and gaps to complete. Concurrently, peer- reviewed and public domain sources were studied to evaluate the situation with distance courses in Ukraine and abroad. After obtaining the consent (approval) of the Boards of Academics for Borys Hrinchenko Kyiv University, M. Drahomanov National Pedagogical University, and Nizhyn Mykola Gogol State University to perform this study, the questionnaires and the evaluation scale were developed, data collection tools were selected, and sampling was performed. Additionally, we, among the other things, examined the curriculums of the chosen universities to get aware of the number and topics of the distance courses, and we involve two experts ‒ Oksana Pozhydaeva (Ph.D. for the Academy of Labour, Social Relations and Tourism) and Valentyna Bobrytska (Doctor of Pedagogics for the Department of Educational Policies at M. Drahomanov National Pedagogical University) to check face validity of the questions in the questionnaires. At the subsequent stage, Course Satisfaction Questionnaire (Google Forms- based) was used to reduce the population of 176 and to sample the subjects for the next stage of this study which was a semi-structured interview. 2.2. Distance Course Satisfaction Questionnaire This was designed and administered to respond the first half of the research question which was to define the aspects causing educators the resistance to doing the distance learning courses. Additionally, it was used as a filter when •Litrature review •Emperical research on the situation with distance courses •Obtaining consent (approval) of the Board of Academics •Questionnaires design •Data collection tools selection •The evaluation scale development •Sampling Pre-survey stage •Surveying through a questionnaire and an interview •Data collection While-survey stage •Data processing •Results interpretation After-survey stage 8 weeks 6 weeks 2 weeks
  • 11. 5 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. sampling was performed. The questionnaire comprised 11 questions. The questions 4 to 7 used a 5-point Linkert scale (with ‘a’ meaning not at all helpful; ’b’ ‒ slightly helpful; ‘c’ ‒ somewhat helpful; ‘d’ ‒ very helpful; ‘e’ ‒ extremely helpful) to respond them. 1. Which device did you use to access the course? a) desktop computer; b) laptop; c) smart phone; d) iPhone. 2. Which type of internet connection did you use to get access to the course? a) Wired connection; b) wireless connection; c) Mobile (3G or 4G) internet. 3. Was the course obligatory or elective or optional? Please, choose one. a) obligatory; b) elective; c) optional. 4. To what extend did the course meet your expectations? It was a) not at all helpful; b) slightly helpful; c) somewhat helpful; d) very helpful; e) extremely helpful. 5. To what extend were you satisfied or dissatisfied with the content of the course? a) very dissatisfied; b) dissatisfied; c) unsure; d) satisfied; e) very satisfied. 6. To what extend were you satisfied or dissatisfied with the format of the course? a) very dissatisfied; b) dissatisfied; c) unsure; d) satisfied; e) very satisfied. 7. To what extend were you satisfied or dissatisfied with the teaching methods? a) very dissatisfied; b) dissatisfied; c) unsure; d) satisfied; e) very satisfied. 8. How many distance courses have you done so far including this course? a) 1-3; b) 4-6; c) 7 and more. 9. What is your average grade (ECTS) in your studies? a) 90-100; b) 80-90; c) 70-80; d) 60-70. 10. What confused or caused you the greatest trouble while doing the course? 11. Are you male or female? 2.3. Semi-structured Interview Questionnaire This was designed and conducted with the sampled group students and university management representatives to respond the second half of the research question which was to examine the reasons why both students and management representatives are resistant to introducing the distant mode of study into vocational training of educators. Questions for the sampled students: 1. What are your reasons to feel resistant to the distance learning? 2. What failures or troubles do you associate it with? 3. Who or what should be blamed for your failures or troubles above? 4. Do you link your future job as an educator with the delivery of online courses? Questions for the sampled management representatives: 1. What seem to be the reasons to postpone introduction the distance learning in your institution? And why do students dislike this mode of study? 2. What failures or troubles do you associate distance learning with? 3. Who or what should be blamed for your failures or troubles above? 4. Do you link the students’ future job as educators with the delivery of online courses?
  • 12. 6 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 2.4. Sample The third-year-students seeking a Bachelor Degree in Education at Borys Hrinchenko Kyiv University, National Pedagogical University named after M. Drahomanov, and Nizhyn Mykola Gogol State University, directors of curriculum and instruction departments and heads for the departments of Methods of Teaching for the above universities were the general population for this study. Upon completion of the Moodle-based 30-hour (1 credit, ECTS) course in “Methods of Teaching/Training”, 176 students (64 males and 112 females) were suggested to complete the Course Satisfaction Questionnaire (Google Forms-based) asking, among the other things, whether they were (and would be) ready to do the other distance course in any other subject. 83 students (56 females and 27 males) who answered this question negatively to questions 4 to 7 of the above Questionnaire were chosen to be the subjects to this study. 3 directors of curriculum and instruction departments and 9 heads for the departments of Methods of Teaching were also involved purposefully. The total sample size was 95 people ( ) and it was an adequate number to meet the purpose of this research. 2.5. Instruments The preliminary data were collected through a self-completion Google Forms- based questionnaire (Course Satisfaction Questionnaire) for the students used at the first stage of our research followed by an interview questionnaire used with a focus group at the subsequent one. The in-built Google Forms statistical tools were used to roughly process the answers of the student population. The interview responses were both recorded and written down to be analysed and interpreted by the experts in educational technology and educational psychology. The evaluation scale developed by the latter was used and all necessary adjustments were made to it so that the validity of the study was ensured. The Chi-Square method was used to determine whether there were any correlations between internal and external factors of resistance. 3. Results The interview responses of the sampled group students and university management representatives for questions 4 to 7 from the Distance Course Satisfaction Questionnaire were to explore the perception of distance learning made by interviewees. Those were the core question intended to discover the perception or attitudes of the respondents to the distance learning. Question 4. To what extend did the course meet your expectations? Just 3% reported that they found the distance course extremely helpful and 8 % found it very helpful while 43% of the surveyed stated the course was somewhat helpful, 38% evaluated the course as slightly helpful and 8% of the respondents found it not at all helpful. Question 5. To what extend were you satisfied or dissatisfied with the content of the course? 59% of people experienced significant dissatisfaction about distance course content, 35% were just dissatisfied, while 5% were unsure or satisfied and the rest (only 1%) of the participants very satisfied.
  • 13. 7 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Question 6. To what extend were you satisfied or dissatisfied with the format of the course? 52 % of the respondents were very dissatisfied, 43% of the surveyed were unsure and 5% of the sampled people expressed satisfaction about the format. Question 7. To what extend were you satisfied or dissatisfied with the teaching methods? The majority (73%) of the surveyed were dissatisfied, 20% of people were unsure while 7% evaluated the teaching methods positively (satisfied). After the semi-structured interview had been conducted, the factors/reasons for resistance were categorised into two broad types like internal (or human factors) (personal attitude-related (PA), skills-related (S) and awareness-related (A)) and external (objective reasons) (marketing policy-related (MP), technology-related challenges (TC)). Tables 1 and 2 below provide an account of the interview answers. The figures in the table suggest that personal attitude-related responses of both students and university management representatives dominated all the interview through. The second significant trigger for resistance to distance learning were those related to technology challenges. The next ones were skills and awareness followed by marketing policy-related ones. While there was some contradiction in the respondents’ answers concerning who was supposed to be responsible for failures and troubles (Question 4) – both denied their responsibility, students as well as university management representatives reported that computer skills, bad infrastructure and anxieties were quite important triggers to make their mind up to be resistant to distance learning mode. Table 1: The students’ interview answers consolidated ( ) #Question Students % of respondents ( 1 a) does not suit my personality (PA) b) is not effective (PA; A) c) robotic education (PA) d) challenges me technologically (TC; S) e) causes anxiety of failure (PA) f) demotivates me (PA) 27 27 7 18 15 6 2 2 a) lack of computer skills (S) b) out-of-dated computer infrastructure (TC) c) general distancing (PA) d) robotic education (PA) e) causes me anxious (PA) 43 37 4 6 10 1 3 a) myself (PA) b) students and lecturers (PA) c) lecturers (PA) d) institution (PA) 11 3 39 53 1 4 a) no (PA) b) unsure (PA) c) yes (PA) 19 56 25 2 Note abbreviations: PA ‒ personal attitude; S – skills; A – awareness; MP ‒ marketing policy; TC ‒ technology challenges.
  • 14. 8 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Table 2: The students’ interview answers consolidated ( ) #Question Representatives % of respondents ( 1 a) does not suit everyone (A) b) less effective than the traditional mode (PA; A) c) robotic education (PA) d) challenges lecturers technologically (TC; S) e) challenges a lecturer’s reputation (PA; MP) f) challenges the reputation of an institution (MP) g) causes lecturers the feeling of losing power over the students (PA) h) destroys the traditional academic roles – lecture-student (A; PA) i) financial reasons (MP) 9 9 9 19 18 17 5 11 3 2 2 a) lack of computer skills (S) b) out-of-dated computer infrastructure (TC; MP) c) general distancing (PA) d) robotic education (PA) e) causes anxieties (PA) 49 34 2 3 12 1 3 a) students b) students and lecturers (PA) c) lecturers (PA) d) institution (PA) 57 9 9 25 1 4 a) no (PA) b) unsure (PA) c) yes (PA) 2 24 74 2 Note abbreviations: PA ‒ personal attitude; S – skills; A – awareness; MP ‒ marketing policy; TC ‒ technology challenges. Relative importance of the types of factors has been presented below (see Table 3 below). Table 3: Relative importance of the types of factors Type of Factor Regression analysis Dominance analysis (%) PA .27 .00 .07 39.5 .98 S 0.15 .026 .02 12.5 .71 A 0.11 .017 .02 14.5 .77 MP -0.3 .606 .00 8.2 .65 TC .01 .895 .00 25.3 .94 100 Note abbreviations: PA ‒ personal attitude; S – skills; A – awareness; MP ‒ marketing policy; TC ‒ technology challenges; p < .01. Total = .18
  • 15. 9 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Internal factors prevail over external factors and personal attitude factors dominated the list compared to marketing factor which seemed the least important among the interviewees. Moreover, the processed data made us certain that the problem of resistance was not sporadic. As can be seen from the above Table 3, the Chi-squared of correlations between internal and external factors of resistance showed that this study result should be considered suggestive. Furthermore, three times more students than representatives confessed that their reluctance to distance learning is a result of lack of confidence that this mode of study was effective. Additionally, the majority of students were not certain whether their future job as an educator would be linked with the delivery of online courses. Finally, the university management representatives implied that the issue of resistance to the introduction of distance-learning models of training in the vocational training of educators is related to the image creating (marketing) policy of the tertiary educational institution. 4. Discussion It was found that the issue of resistance to the introduction of distance-learning models of training in the vocational training of educators is fuelled by human factors and objective reasons. Both students and representatives surveyed articulated lack of personal confidence and technological background to be able to design high standard online courses which might indirectly influence lecturers’ and institution’s public image. Additionally, the students were found to experience the atmosphere of boredom and disinterest while doing the distance course. The link between marketing policy and distance learning mode emerged unexpectedly. The university management representatives confessed that they could not allow public access to the distance learning courses because of low quality of their design (professors do not receive any training in online course pedagogics and design), plagiarism issue (very often the content is just ripped off) and over-theoreticity (causes increased anxiety of failure, demotivates). Some students stated that their reluctance is based on their prior experience in doing the online courses at university in which they suffered from the language used to explain concepts - it was too much complicated for them, the teaching techniques lecturers used to accommodate the learners in the course – a limited number of them, and over-criticizing their mistakes when lecturers provided feedback. Professors claimed that it was more common for students to cheat when studying distantly that when attending a course personally. This study contributed to investigation of the problem of resistance to the introduction of distance-learning models of training in the vocational training of educators, specifically: perception of and resistance to online education (Schwartz, 2010; Ghandforoush, 2013; Mitchell, Parlamis & Claiborne, 2015; Arinto, 2016; Lucas, 2016), anxiety and resistance to distance learning
  • 16. 10 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. (Uzunboylu & Tuncay, 2010; Parlakkılıç, 2014; Bousbahi & Alrazgan, 2015), and on-line instruction vs. traditional teaching (Sheeja, 2011; Khorsandi et al., 2012; McNair-Crews, 2015; Hurlbut, 2018). 5. Conclusion & Recommendations This study proved that the issue of resistance to the introduction of distance- learning models of training in the vocational training of educators is mostly a personal perception factor. Due to the great proportion of personal perception, it is difficult to assess and evaluate the online course design and its quality as the course which is viewed by some as “good” can be just bookish comprising several types of activities like reading and self-checking (self-testing). It raised the issue of training and assisting lecturers in using distance education tools and shifting their role from being a source of knowledge to being a facilitator of learning. Institutions in Ukraine should address the issues of computer infrastructure and upgrading it. The lecturers should help the students to surmount their anxieties, inspire them to succeed, and deal individually with their personal perception problems. So, are recommendations:  It should be prerequisite for the educators to take the courses like the computer skills upgrade course, the course in methodology for the development of online learning course for the students.  The lecturer’s computer literacy testing should be a part of the employment procedure.  An institutional department set up to provide expertise to ensure the quality of the online courses is a newly must-have. 6. Implications & Limitations This study implied that the current situation in the educational system demotivates both educators and students to self-develop leading to resistance. Both educators’ and students’ perceptions of distance learning mode are more associated with trouble than with benefits. There are three apparent limitations to this study which are as follows: first, time limit that might be an argument to dispute the validity of its significance, second, the major of students which is Education, third, the number of institutions and management representatives involved. 7. Acknowledgments We are cordially grateful to all contributors to this research so that we were able to smoothly run and complete it. References Akmeşe, Ö. F., Demir, E., & Dünder, E. (2016). Student Perceptions for Distance Education and Efficieny Analysis of the System. Hitit Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(2), 981-998. doi:10.17218/hititsosbil.280826 Arinto, P. (2016). Issues and Challenges in Open and Distance e-Learning: Perspectives from the Philippines. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed
  • 17. 11 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Learning, 17(2). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1913/3651 Biesta, G. (2007). Bridging the gap between educational research and educational practice: The need for critical distance. Educational Research and Evaluation, 13, 295-301. doi:10.1080/13803610701640227. Bousbahi, F., & Alrazgan, M. S. (2015). Investigating IT Faculty Resistance to Learning Management System Adoption Using Latent Variables in an Acceptance Technology Model. The Scientific World Journal, 2015, Article ID 375651. doi:10.1155/2015/375651 Conole, G. (2010). Bridging the gap between policy and practice: A framework for technological intervention. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 6(1), 13-27. doi:10.20368/1971-8829/384 Fojtik, R. (2018). Problems of Distance Education. International Journal of Information and Communication Technologies in Education, 7, 14-23. doi:10.2478/ijicte-2018-0002. Ghandforoush, P. (2013). A study of perceptions of online education among professionals. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED562275.pdf Hurlbut, A. R. (2018). Online vs. traditional learning in teacher education: a comparison of student progress. American Journal of Distance Education, 32(4), 248-266. doi:10.1080/08923647.2018.1509265 Khorsandi, M., Kobra, A., Ghobadzadeh, M., Kalantari, M., & Seifei, M. (2012). Online vs. Traditional Teaching Evaluation: A Cross-Sectional Study. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 481-483. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.145 Kintu, D., & Simon, W. (2019). Students' perceptions about a distance learning programme: A case of the open, distance and E-learning programme at Kyambogo University, Uganda. International Journal of Advance Research, Ideas and Innovations in Technology, 5(1), 388-394. Bacow, L. C., Bowen, W. G., Guthrie, K. M., Lack, K. A., & Long, M. P. (2012). Barriers to Adoption of Online Learning Systems in U.S. Higher Education. ITHAKA. Retrieved from http://anitacrawley.net/Resources/barriers-to-adoption-of- online-learning-systems-in-us-higher-education%20(1).pdf Lee, Y., & Choi, J. (2011). A review of online course dropout research: Implications for practice and future research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59, 593-618. doi:10.1007/s11423-010-9177-y. Lederman, D. (2019). Professors' Slow, Steady Acceptance of Online Learning: A Survey. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/survey/professors-slow-steady- acceptance-online-learning-survey Lucas, H. C. (2016). Professors Hate Online Education. To Save Colleges, They Have to Learn to Love it. Grade Point at Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/grade- point/wp/2016/04/27/professors-hate-online-education-to-save-colleges-they- have-to-learn-to-love-it/ Mahlangu, V. P. (2018). The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Distance Learning in Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/books/trends-in-e- learning/the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly-of-distance-learning-in-higher- education McNair-Crews, G. (2015). Investigating Instructor Perceptions of On-line Teaching versus Traditional Classroom Instruction (Doctoral dissertation). Walden University, Minneapolis, MN.
  • 18. 12 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Mehrad, A., & Tahriri, M. (2019). Comparison between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Approaches: International Journal for Research in Educational Studies, 5(7), 1-7. Mitchell, L. D., Parlamis, J. D., & Claiborne, S. A. (2015). Overcoming Faculty Avoidance of Online Education: From Resistance to Support to Active Participation. Journal of Management Education, 39(3), 350-371. doi:10.1177/1052562914547964 Parlakkılıç, A. (2014). Change Management in Transition to E-learning System. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Libraries, 3, 637-651. Rashid, N., & Rashid, M. (2012). Issues and problems in distance education. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 13(1), 20-26. Ravhudzulo, A. (2015). Practical and Critical Iissues in Open Distance Learning. Pretoria: Unisa Press. Rost, M. (2019). A Dive into the Challenges of Online Distance Learning. Pearson. Retrieved from https://www.english.com/blog/a-dive-into-the-challenges-of- online-distance-learning/ Schwartz, J. (2010). Faculty perception of and resistance to online education in the fields of acupuncture, chiropractic, and massage therapy. International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork, 3(3), 20-31. doi:10.3822/ijtmb.v3i3.96 Sheeja, S. R. (2011). Major Trends and Issues in the Field of Distance Education. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 4(3), 201-203. Streefkerk, R. (2019). Qualitative vs. quantitative research. Scribbr. Retrieved from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/qualitative-quantitative-research/ Uzunboylu, H., & Tuncay, N. (2010). Anxiety and Resistance in Distance Learning. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 5, 142-150. Zolotareva, O., & Brezhneva-Ermolenko, O. (2015). Training teaching personnel of higher education institutions of Ukraine to be capable to use the forms and methods of distance education. The Philosophy of Education, 16(1), 231-241.
  • 19. 13 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 13-28, February 2020 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.2.2 Vocational Students’ Perceptions toward the Traits of Effective Faculty Members: The Case of Albalqa Applied University Maaly Mefleh Almzary Albalqa Applied University Muhammad Khaled Al-Alawneh Yarmouk University, Faculty of Education Department of Curriculum and Instruction Ibtisam Mustafa Alomari, Inas Ahmad Albado and Khawla Mahmoud Alawneh Albalqa Applied University Abstract. This study sought to identify what traits describe effective faculty members as perceived by students at Balqa' Applied University (BAU). Descriptive analytical research was utilized to achieve the aims of the study. The researchers developed a questionnaire that consisted of 62 items divided into four-domains: Knowledge, teaching skills, social skills, and personal traits. The questionnaire was distributed to the students of the university (N=910) (600 male, 310 female) in the Second Semester 2018/2019. However, 300 usable questionnaires were answered by students with a rate of return thirty-three percent. The study instrumentation was checked for validity and reliability by a number of faculty members from several universities in Jordan. The results showed that students’ perceptions toward the traits of effective faculty members were different from one domain to another. Personality traits were the most important traits of effective faculty members, followed by social and emotional skills, and the dimension of knowledge was ranked as less important. Based on the results, researchers concluded with suggestions and recommendations such as encouraging faculty members to develop their effectiveness in the four domains and to conduct continuous training to the faculty members in modern teaching and learning strategies. Keywords: Faculty Members; Vocational Education; Students’ Perceptions, effectiveness, Traits
  • 20. 14 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The success of the educational process depends on many factors, such as building, high-quality equipment, instructional strategies, and good administration to count a few. However, the most important factor in the whole teaching and learning process is the instructor, who leads the student to achieve the educational outcomes. Moreover, the instructor is a role model to the students in terms of respectable behavior, creative thinking, and worthy values (Moustafa, 2009). Besides, the instructor plays a prominent role in determining the quality of education and its outcomes. He can prepare the mental excitement of his students and create constructive human relations by giving students the freedom to express themselves, with a great deal of democracy. A successful teacher builds relationships with his students based on mutual respect and appreciation (Al-Jarrah & Al-Shraifeen, 2010). Khodair et. al. (2012) referred to the effective instructor as the most important factor among other factors in the educational process. Therefore, the effective instructor’s cognitive and emotional characteristics play a prominent role in the effectiveness of this process as constituting one of the important educational inputs that affect, in one way or the other, the educational outcomes at different cognitive, psychological, performance, and emotional levels. The effective faculty member is the one who can perform his role effectively and efficiently. He is dedicated to find more suitable educational opportunities for his students and constantly seeks to be more effective in his teaching at all levels. The current study is intended to identify the importance of the faculty members’ effectiveness as perceived by vocational education students at AL-Balqa Applied University. This perception is probably believed to be vital because the students are the most qualified candidates who can assess the traits and characteristics of their teachers. Also, they are the most influenced ones by their teachers’ traits and characteristics as well. Teachers can enhance their student’s motivation to learn and improve their achievement. The task of improving education and learning is a priority for many different countries, both developed and developing because this process effectively contributes to the achievement of their goals and future hopes. Faculty is one of the most important factors that help to achieve the desired educational reforms, which lead to the social-reform in all aspects. The role of the faculty member in any educational system depends on a set of interrelated factors that form the frame of reference for the concept of the educational process, and irrespective of the different concepts in the role of the faculty member, it remains a decisive factor in the success or failure of the educational process. This role is not a mechanical process that is limited to transferring knowledge to learners but rather is an effective tool in developing the mental, social and physical learners’ abilities and developing their personalities in general. In view of the latest development and increasing importance of university education and in light of rapid changes, society is required to provide faculty members who are highly qualified and trained. Stakeholders should pay attention to the faculty members as an important factor in the success of the
  • 21. 15 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. educational process and as a tool for achieving the educational goals and outcomes. Given the distinguished role of the faculty member in the education system in the community, choosing, preparing, training, sustaining, and retaining are some of the aspects that need to be taken into consideration when we talk about teachers and faculty members (Ramadan and Hamza, 2011). Academic effectiveness can be described as a skilled faculty member who leads by goals. The effectiveness of a faculty member refers to the results and student achievement, or the progress made by students towards the specific educational goals. Effectiveness can also be defined as precisely as knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are believed to be necessary for a faculty member (Moustafa, 2009). Identifying the desired characteristics of an effective faculty member is not an easy task. The term "effective" can be interpreted differently from one person to another, depending on the measure used to judge effectiveness. Early studies described effective teachers as those who obtain high grades and assessments from those responsible for their evaluation. These studies examined the relationship between these high ratings and the characteristics and traits of the faculty. At a later stage, effective teachers were identified through their ability to help students achieve the maximum from their education (Khodair et al, 2012). Effective teaching requires also the provision of an effective learning skill for the faculty member through which we can judge the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of learning. The skill takes different images according to the general conditions in which it occurs, and it is the treatment of these different images that highlight the importance of the skill of the faculty member during the teaching process (Yahya, 2013, 28). The creation of an environment conducive to learning depends on the talents and self-efficacy of the faculty member. A faculty member who has a sense of high self-efficacy helps low-achieving students, develops their self-confidence, and praises their achievements. It is not enough for a faculty member to have the necessary skills to perform his duties. He should have faith and confidence in his ability to conduct the behavior required under difficult circumstances. If individuals do not believe that their actions achieve the desired outcome, they will have little incentive to work (Hasounah, 2009). 2. Literature Review According to Samples and Martinazzi (2002), over the years, the role of the faculty member has changed from controller, authorizer, and the container of the knowledge to coach, trainer, mentor, and facilitator. In parallel, the traits of the professors have changed as well. All teachers, even those with limited experience, can gain characteristics and traits that make them effective in the classroom. Kourieos and Evripidou (2014) pointed out that an effective teacher is no longer considered the one who has an authoritarian role in the teaching and learning process, but the one who believes in diversity and individual differences, abilities, and interests and who designs learning environment accordingly.
  • 22. 16 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Previous research approved the role of training in improving faculty members’ performance and traits. For example, Sarhan (2017) conducted a study to identify training needs for faculty members at the University of Al-Balqa Applied University in the fields of educational technology. The researchers found that all training requirements would contribute to the efforts of improving faculty members’ traits and characteristics which assist in improving the quality of teaching and learning. Köpsén (2014) conducted a research on how vocational students describe their vocational teachers’ identities. The study followed the qualitative methodoloty by interviewing 22 vocational teachers. The results suggested that the identity of vocational teachers includes orienting students to be effective in members of social practices. Moreover, all domains of the study scored a high level of performance. However, domain 5five, which is "Assessment of students’ learning” came at the middle level. There were statistically significant differences due to the variable of the college for the advantage of students from Sciences Colleges. Also, There were no statistically significant differences due to the variable "gender". There were statistically significant differences due to the variable "academic level" for the advantage of second-year students, the fourth- year students, and the third-year students respectively. Al-Sa’aydeh (2012) aimed at identifying the teaching skills that should be possessed by the faculty members Al-Balqa Applied University from the perspective of the students. The skills were divided into four areas, namely, planning, implementation, evaluation, and communication. The study sample consisted of 368 male and female students who were selected by the class sample method. The results of the study showed that the teaching skills of the faculty members at the University of Balqa Applied from the point of view of the students were medium, and there were differences in the results due to the variable of gender, on behalf of males, and differences due to the variable college for the benefit of scientific colleges. Isa & Al-Naqah (2009) aimed to determine the professional competencies of faculty members in the Faculty of Education at the Islamic University in Gaza, as perceived by students according to the quality standards. The study sample consisted of 426 male and female students, who answered the paragraphs of the questionnaire. The questionnaire which consisted of 61 items on quality standards. The results of the study showed that the personality and public relations came first, while the scientific and professional ability were ranked second. The results of the study did not show differences attributed to gender variables and specialization of the student. Abu- Humaidan and Sawaqed (2008) aimed at identifying the characteristics that must be available in the faculty member from the perspective of students at Mu’tah University. The sample of the study consisted of 700 male and female students. The researchers used the questionnaire to collect data. The sample was divided into three areas: the personal factor, educational efficiency, and the relationship with the students. The results showed that there were no differences
  • 23. 17 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. in the ranking of the three fields of study according to their importance to the students. The results also showed no differences ascribed to gender, college or level of study. Moghtadaie and Taji (2016) conducted a study that aimed at finding the relationship between the study’s dimensions of talent management and improving the faculty members’ performance at university. The population of this study was all public universities in Iran. Data were collected in two methods: interviewing with experts and distributing questionnaires to the sample. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis and Analytical Network Process (ANP) by SPSS and Super Decisions software. The results showed that the "Talents development" dimension came in the first position. However, the two dimensions "attracting the talent" and "talents maintenance", were ranked in second and third positions, respectively. The study revealed that the most relevant dimension of talent management in improving the performance of faculty members was "educational services". Thus, before considering the work processes and relying on modern technology, the role of "in-service training courses", "continuous learning" and "technical skills training" are crucial in improving the performance of faculty members. Al-Hattami, Muammar, and Elmahdi (2013) conducted a study in Saudi Arabia to investigate the needs and the competencies that are required by faculty members at the Saudi universities to enable them to achieve the standards stated by the National Center for Academic Accreditation and Assessment (NCAAA). For achieving the aim of the study, a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were utilized to collect the data. The sample of the study consisted of (882) participants: (students, faculty members, chairmen and college boards, colleges deans, and deanships deans) from Saudi universities in the eastern province. The results showed a great need and importance of providing training programs to enhance and elevate faculty members’ professional abilities in teaching. Many participants emphasized that in-service training should be mandated to ensure quality teaching. Ansari and Malik (2013) aimed to identify the most important features of the teacher suitable for teaching in contemporary educational environments. The sample included (82) teachers. The researchers used a questionnaire in collecting the study data. The results showed that the most prominent feature of an effective 21st-century teacher is to be a transformational teacher with five basic characteristics, namely, personal knowledge, personal qualifications, instructional effectiveness, the ability to communicate and lifelong learning. Gao and Liu (2013) aimed at identifying the characteristics of the effective teacher from the perspective of both Chinese and American teachers. The sample of the comparative study included (80) American teachers and (75) Chinese teachers. The researchers used the questionnaire to collect data. The results showed that there were (12) important features in the two groups of teachers as follows: Adaptability, Enthusiasm, Fairness, High Expectations, Sense of
  • 24. 18 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Humor, Patience, Responsibility, Agreeableness, Caring, Friendliness, Honesty, Respectfulness. Walker’s (2008) longitudinal study aimed at identifying the attitudes of teachers towards the characteristics of an effective teacher in the American society. The study sample included (300) teachers whose attitudes towards these characteristics were measured over ten years. The results showed that the most consistent features in teachers’ attitudes toward the effective teacher included: Preparedness, positive, high expectations, creativeness, fairness, personal touch, developing students’ sense of belonging, compassion, sense of humor, respectfulness, forging, and admitting mistakes. Ginsberg (2007) sought to identify the characteristics shared by the faculty members who are effective classroom communicators. The researcher employed qualitative method through conducting interviews and observing the faculty members. Two-public-comprehensive universities were chosen to collect the data. Faculty members with good communication skills, particularly, immediacy and clarity, were all found to carry humanistic views of their students and to be reflective about their communication and their teaching on the one hand. On the other hand, faculty members who demonstrated poor communication skills were neither reflective nor humanistic instructors. To improve faculty member effectiveness, the researcher recommended that universities must consider underlying views and thought processes rather than teaching communication skills techniques in isolation. The perceptions toward educators and those related to teaching vocational education courses vary. A number of studies showed that traits of teachers and instructors have an impact on students’ learning and achievement. However, based on the experience of the researchers as vocational instructors and faculty members, they noticed that students’ learning and achievement at Al-Balqa Applied University what are those traits that would define students’ perceptions toward faculty member. Moreover, due to the nature of vocational courses in terms of the strategy of teaching (theoretical and practical), it seems that teaching those courses could have an impact on the students because of to the close interaction between the learners and the instructors. Studying characteristics of the effective faculty member requires further and in-depth investigation. This is due the nature pf the important role it plays in overcoming teaching difficulties. As a result, the present study came to answer the following questions: 1. What are vocational education students’ perceptions of the traits of effective faculty members? 2. Are there any differences in the mean scores of students’ perceptions toward the traits of effective faculty members due to their genders?
  • 25. 19 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 3. Methodology Al- Balqa Applied University (BAU) is a public university which was established in 1997. The university is located in Al-Balqa Province in Jordan. It offers Bachelor and Community College degrees in applied education. The number of students exceeded 45,000 students distriuted into 10, 000 ate bachelor’s degree program and 11, 000 at the community college degree. The university was shaped after merging and affiliating about 40 community colleges under one umbrella. Today, the university branches are distributed over all Jordan governorates. The main focus of the university is on applied technical studies. The sample of the study consisted of all the students who enrolled in vocational courses. The number of students who were reached and responded to the survey was (N=910) or ( 300 male and 610 female) in the year 2018/2019. However, 300 usable questionnaires were answered with a rate of return thirty-three percent. The researchers used the analytical descriptive method in answering the study questions and achieving its aims. Descriptive research shed light on current problems through data collection. The study instrument consisted of (62) items divided into four dimensions: knowledge- items (1-15), teaching skills- items (16-41), social and emotional communication skills- items (42-52), and the dimension of personal characteristics- items (53-62). Students were asked to answer the questionnaire items on a five-point Likert scale based on the degree of importance: very high (5), high (4), medium(3), low(2), and very low(1). Internal consistency was calculated, and its value was (0.84), while the reliability was (0.82), which is acceptable for the current study. 4. Results and Discussion Results of question 1: What is vocational education students’ perceptions of the traits of effective faculty members? To answer this question, the means and the standard deviations of the sample responses were calculated on the four dimensions of the study. The results are presented below. 4.1 Results related to the first dimension: knowledge The means and standards deviations were calculated to find out the students’ perceptions toward the traits of the faculty members in terms of the knowledge domain as shown in tble (1). Table 1: Means and standard deviations of participants’ responses on the knowledge domain Rank Means Standard deviation Item 1 4.53 0.81 1 2 4.30 0.83 2 3 4.16 0.83 3 4 4.06 0.82 4 5 4.00 1.08 9 6 3.93 1.01 1 1 7 3.90 1.06 6
  • 26. 20 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 8 3.90 0.994 8 9 3.90 1.09 10 11 3.90 1.06 5 11 3.86 0.937 7 12 3.83 0.949 13 13 3.80 1.03 12 14 3.73 1.01 15 15 3.60 1.06 14 3996 .23 Whole dimension Table (1) shows that the means of the responses related to the dimension of knowledge ranged between (3,60- 4.53) with a high level of importance. The table also shows that item (1), which states that a faculty member must have "appropriate knowledge of the scientific concepts associated with vocational education", was ranked first in terms of importance according to the responses of the students participating in the study sample, with a mean of (4.5333), and a standard deviation of (0.81). The item which states that the faculty member "has sufficient knowledge about the formal aspects of vocational work", came second, with a mean of 4.3000 and a standard deviation of 83666. Item (14), was ranked last in terms of importance within the knowledge dimension, with a mean of (3.6000) and a standard deviation of (1.06). The mean for the knowledge dimension as a whole was (3.96). 4.2 Results related to the second dimension: Teaching skills The means and standards deviations were calculated to retrieve the students’ perceptions toward the traits of the faculty members in terms of the teaching skills domain as table (2) shows. Table 2: Means and standard deviations of participants’ responses on the teaching skills domain Standard deviations Means Rank Item 0.68 4.46 1 36 1.03 4.20 2 35 0.66 4.20 3 41 1.09 4.20 4 26 0.77 4.13 5 38 0.95 4.10 6 27 0.95 4.10 7 16 0.98 4.06 8 17 0.99 4.03 9 41 0.96 4.03 11 37 1.03 4.03 11 33 1.03 4.03 12 21 0.99 4.03 13 21 0.92 4.03 14 34 1.17 4.00 15 22 1.14 4.00 16 23 1.03 3.96 17 28 1.18 3.96 18 24
  • 27. 21 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 0.92 3.96 19 18 0.96 3.96 21 32 1.01 3.93 21 31 0.94 3.93 22 19 0.88 3.90 23 29 0.93 3.86 24 39 1.04 3.86 25 31 1.07 3.86 26 25 0.13 4.03 Whole Dimension Table (2) shows that the means of the dimension of teaching skills ranged between (3.8667 - 4.4667) with a high level of importance. The table also shows that item (36), which states that the faculty member should "inform students of the expected learning outcomes before starting teaching", ranked first in terms of importance according to the responses of the students participating in the study sample, with a mean of (4.4667), and a standard deviation of (0.68145). It was followed by item (35), as the second most important item, which states that the faculty member "analyzes the content of the curriculum in a comprehensive and detailed way before teaching.", with a mean of 4.2000, and a standard deviation of (1.0305, ), item (25) was ranked last in terms of importance within the teaching skills dimension, with a mean of (3.8667) and a standard deviation of (1.07425). The mean for the knowledge dimension as a whole was (4.0346). 4.3 Results related to the third dimension: Social and emotional communication skills. The means and standard deviations were calculated to retrieve the students’ perceptions toward the traits of the faculty members in terms of the communication skills domain as table (3) shows. Table 3: Means and standard deviations of participants’ responses on the communication skills domain Standard deviation Means Rank Item 0.71 4.33 1 49 0.73 4.26 2 51 0.78 4.26 3 51 0.81 4.23 4 52 0.96 4.20 5 43 1.01 4.16 6 42 1.04 4.13 7 44 1.03 4.03 8 48 0.98 3.93 9 45 1.01 3.93 11 47 1.10 3.86 11 46 0.15 4.12 Whole Dimension Table (3) shows that the means of the items related to the social and emotional communication skills of the faculty member ranged from (3.86 to 4.33) with a high level of importance. The table also shows that item (49), which states that a faculty member should "discuss with his students the subjects and issues of interest to them.", Ranked first in terms of importance according to the responses
  • 28. 22 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. of the students participating in the study sample, with a mean of (4.33), And a standard deviation of (0.71). It was followed by the second most important item (51), which states that the faculty member "uses nonverbal behaviors to attract the attention and interest of students", with a mean of (4.26), and a standard deviation of (0.73), while item (46) was ranked last in terms of importance within the dimension, with a mean of (3.86) and a standard deviation (1.10). The total mean of the dimension of social and emotional communication skills as a whole was (4,12). 4.4 Results related to the fourth dimension: Personal characteristics The means and standard deviations were calculated to retrieve the students’ perceptions toward the traits of the faculty members in terms of the personal characteristics domain as table (4) shows. Table 4: Means and standard deviations of participants’ responses on the personal characteristics domain Standard deviations Means Rank Item 0.88 4.33 1 55 0.91 4.30 2 53 1.05 4.28 3 59 1.11 4.26 4 61 1.11 4.23 5 61 1.09 4.20 6 62 0.83 4.16 7 54 0.86 4.13 8 56 1.10 4.08 9 58 1.09 4.03 11 57 0.95 4.20 Whole Dimension Table (4) shows that the means of the personal characteristics of the faculty member ranged between (4.03- 4.33) with a high level of importance. The table also shows that item (55), which states that the faculty member should be "flexible and non-rigid.", was ranked first in terms of importance according to the responses of students participating in the study sample, with a mean of (4.3) and a standard deviation of (0.88). It was followed by the item number (53), which states that the faculty member should be "serious in his work and enthusiastic about his profession.” with a mean of 4.30 and a standard deviation of (0.91), while item (57), was ranked last in terms of importance within the dimension, with a mean of (4.03) and a standard deviation (1.09). The total mean of the dimension of personal and effective characteristics as a whole was (4.20). 4.5 Comparison of the results of the four dimensions In order to have a wide view of the students’ perceptions toward faculty members’, the researchers have calculated the means and the standards deviations for each domain. Table (5) shows the results and the ranking of each domain:
  • 29. 23 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Table 5: Comparison means and standard deviations of the participants’ responses on the four domains Standard deviation Mean Rank Dimension 0.23 3.96 4 First: knowledge 0.13 4.03 3 Second: teaching skills 0.15 4.12 2 Third: social and emotional skills 0.95 4.20 1 Fourth: personal characteristics Table (5) shows that the personal characteristics domain has ranked at the top of other domains with a mean score of (4.20) and a standard deviation (0.95), followed by social and emotional skills (4912), teaching skills (4.03). Knowledge domain was ranked as the last of other domains with a mean of (3.96), and a standard deviation of (.23089). Results from research question 2: Are there any differences in the mean scores of students’ perceptions toward the traits of effective faculty members due to their genders (male, female)? To answer this question, the means and standard deviations of the sample responses were calculated on the four study dimensions, as table (5) shows: Table 6: Comparison of the means and the standard deviations of the participants’ responses on the knowledge domain due to their gender Item Mean Standard deviation Gender 1 4.66 0.81 Male 4.40 0.82 female 2 4.46 0.83 Male 4.13 0.83 female 3 4.26 0.88 Male 4.06 0.79 female 4 4.20 0.94 Male 3.93 0.70 female 5 3.86 1.06 Male 3.95 1.09 female 6 3.73 0.96 Male 4.07 1.16 female 7 3.74 0.88 Male 4.00 1.00 female 8 3.80 0.94 Male 4.00 1.06 female 9 4.00 1.19 Male 3.99 1.00 female 10 4.06 1.03 Male 3.73 1.16 female 11 3.93 1.16 Male 3.95 0.88 female 12 3.86 1.06 Male 3.73 1.03 female 13 3.533 0.91 Male 4.13 0.91 female 14 3.33 1.04 Male 4.04 1.06 female
  • 30. 24 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 15 3.40 1.05 Male 4.06 0.88 female Whole dimension 3.93 0.37 Male 4.00 0.16 female Table (6) shows the differences between male and female students’ estimates of the importance of the items in the first domain related to the knowledge of the faculty member. The mean of the male students’ estimations was higher than the mean of female students’ estimations in items (1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 12 ), while the female students’ estimates were higher than those of male students in items (5, 6, 7, 8, 13 ,14, 15), whereas the estimates of male and female were equal concernening the importance of the items (9 and 11). The means for the male and female students of the dimension as a whole showed a high estimate of the importance of the dimension in females (mean = 4.00), compared to males (mean= 3.92). Moreover, the researchers have compared the mean score of the male and female participants’ responses to the teaching skills domain. Table (7) shows the results. Table 7: Comparison the means and the standard deviations of the participants’ responses on the teaching skills domain due to their gender Item Mean Standard deviation Gender 1 4.66 0.81 Male 4.40 0.82 female 2 4.46 0.83 Male 4.13 0.83 female 3 4.26 0.88 Male 4.06 0.79 female 4 4.20 0.94 Male 3.93 0.70 female 5 3.86 1.06 Male 3.93 1.09 female 6 3.73 0.96 Male 4.0667 1.16 female 7 3.73 0.88 Male 4.00 1.00 female 8 3.80 0.941 Male 4.00 1.06 female 9 4.00 1.19 Male 4.00 1.00 female 10 4.06 1.03 Male 3.73 1.16 female 11 3.93 1.16 Male 3.93 0.88 female 12 3.86 1.06 Male 3.73 1.03 female 13 3.53 0.91 Male 4.13 0.91 female 14 3.33 1.04 Male 3.86 1.06 female
  • 31. 25 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 15 3.40 1.05 Male 4.06 0.88 female Whole Dimension 3.90 0.37 Male 4.00 0.16 female Table (7) shows the differences between the estimates of male and female students for the importance of the items in the second domain of teaching skills of the effective faculty member. The mean of the male students was higher than the mean of the female students’ estimations in paragraphs (16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 26, 27, 28, 29, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 and 40), while female student estimates were higher than those of male students in (21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 31, 32, 33, 41). The estimates of male and female students are equal concerning the importance of the item (30) in the dimension of teaching skills of the faculty member. The means for both male and female students for the dimension as a whole showed significant differences, on behalf of male students (mean = 4.06), compared to females (mean = 4.01). Also, the researchers have compared the mean score of the male and female participants’ responses to the social and emotional communication skills domain. Table (8) shows the results. Table 8: Comparison of the means and the standard deviations of the participants’ responses on the domain social and emotional communication skills Item Standard deviations Means Gender 42 1.09 4.26 Male 0.96 4.06 Female 43 0.81 4.33 Male 1.00 4.06 Female 44 0.73 4.40 Male 1.24 3.86 Female 45 0.83 4.13 Male 1.09 3.73 Female 46 0.67 4.20 Male 1.35 3.53 Female 47 0.79 4.06 Male 1.20 3.80 Female 48 0.61 4.33 Male 1.27 3.73 Female 49 0.73 4.40 Male 0.70 4.26 Female 50 0.73 4.40 Male 0.83 4.13 Female 51 0.73 4.40 Male 0.74 4.13 Female 52 0.73 4.40 Male 0.88 4.06 Female Whole Dimension 0.12 4.30 Male 0.22 3.94 Female ‫‏‬
  • 32. 26 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Table (8) shows the differences of the estimates of male and female students for the importance of the items in the third dimension of social and emotional communication skills, where the mean of the male students was higher than the mean of the female students’ estimations in items (42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51 and 52), while female student estimates were higher than those of male students in items (43-48) related to social and emotional communication skills. The mean scores for male and female students for the dimension as a whole showed an increase in the estimates of the importance of the field in males (mean = 4.30), compared with females (mean = 3.94). In addition, the researchers have compared the mean score of the male and female participants’ responses to the personal traits domain as shown in table (8). Table (9): Comparison of the means and the standard deviations of the participants’ responses on the personal traits domain Item Gender Means Standard deviations 53 Male 4.53 0.63 Female 4.06 1.00 54 Male 4.20 0.77 Female 4.13 0.91 55 Male 4.46 0.63 Female 4.20 1.08 56 Male 4.33 0.81 Female 3.93 0.88 57 Male 4.33 1.00 Female 3.73 1.00 58 Male 4.20 1.00 Female 4.06 1.20 59 Male 4.33 0.81 Female 4.26 1.20 60 Male 4.20 1.00 Female 4.33 1.20 61 Male 4.26 1.00 Female 4.26 1.20 62 Male 4.20 1.00 Female 4.20 1.20 Whole Dimension Male 4.30 0.11 Female 4.12 0.18 Table (9) shows the differences of the estimates of male and female students for the importance of the items in the fourth dimension related to personal characteristics, where the mean of the male students ‘estimates was higher than the mean of the female students’ estimations in items (53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59 ). The female student estimates were higher than those of male students in item (60), while the estimates of male and female students were equal concerning the importance of the items (61 and 62) in the dimension of personality traits. The means for the male and female students for the dimension as a whole showed a
  • 33. 27 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. high estimate of the importance of the dimension among male students (mean = 4.30), compared to females (mean = 4.12). The results of the study showed statistically significant differences between male and female students’ assessment of the characteristics of the active faculty members in each of the four dimensions of study, namely, knowledge, teaching skills, social and emotional communication skills, and personal characteristics. The results of the present study are consistent with the results of several previous Arab studies (e.g., Al-Hattami, Muammar, & Elmahdi, 2013), which examined the characteristics and traits of an effective faculty member from the students’ point of view (e.g., Abu Houmaidan and Suaqid, 2008; Al-Ja’afra, 2015; Sarhan, 2017) as well as other communities related to the educational process in universities. 5. Conclusion The present study proposed to identify vocational education students’ perceptions of the traits of an effective faculty members at Al-Balqa Applied University. It also examined whether there were significant differences based on the students’ gender. The study recruited participant students from Albalqa Applied University which could be a limitation of this study and prevents the result from the generalization issue. The study revealed that students’ perceptions and estimates to the faculty members’ characteristics were high all the time. However, male students’ perceptions were higher than the female on the four dimensions of the study (knowledge, teaching skills, and social and emotional communication skills). The finding suggests encouraging faculty members who teach vocational education courses to develop their effectiveness in acquiring more knowledge in the field of vocational education. This could be realized by more reading and conducting research in the field, attending conferences and using new materials in teaching vocational courses. Also, faculty members may improve their teaching skills by attending workshops, colleagues’ lectures, and self-learning from the available traditional and electronic materials. Moreover, faculty members could improve their social and emotional communication skills and personal traits. Moreover, findings suggest conducting further studies that examine the traits of the effective faculty members in the field of vocational education and conducting training in modern teaching methods and strategies. References Abu-Houmaidan, Y., & Sauaqid, S. (2008). The Important attributes to be possessed by the faculty member from the perspective of the students of Mu’tah University. Damascus University Journal, 24(1), 175-200. Abu-Nemer, A. (2008). Traits of the exemplary teacher in the light of Islamic education and their presence among the faculty members at the faculty of education from the perspective of their students. Unpublished Master Thesis, Islamic University, Gaza Strip. Aljarrah, A., & Shraifeen, N. (2010). Traits of the effective teacher as perceived by students at Yarmouk University in light of some variables. Arab Union Universities Journal, 8(3), 87-112.
  • 34. 28 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Al-Hattami, A. A., Muammar, O. M., & Elmahdi, I. A. (2013). The need for professional training programs to improve faculty members teaching skills. European Journal of Research on Education, 1(2), 39-45. ‫‏‬ ‫‏‬ Ansari, P., & Malik, A. (2013). Image of an effective teacher in the 21st Century Classroom. Journal of Educational and Instructional studies in the world, 3(4), 61-68.‫‏‬ ‫‏‬ Fox, W., & Bayat, M.S. (2007). A Guide to Managing Research. Richmond: Juta Publications. Gao, M., & Liu, Q. (2013). Personality traits of effective teachers represented in the narratives of American and Chinese perspective teachers: A cross-cultural comparison. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(2), 84-95.‫‏‬ ‫‏‬ Ginsberg, S. (2007). Shared characteristics of college faculty who are effective communicators. Journal of Effective Teaching, 7(2), 3-20.‫‏‬ ‫‏‬ Hasouneh, S. (2009). Self-efficacy in science teaching among the elementary pre-service teachers. Aqsa University Journal, 13(2), 122-149. Isa, H., & Al-Naqah, S. (2009). Assessment of the professional competencies among the faculty members at the Islamic University from the perspective of their students. Paper presented at the conference "Role of Higher Education in the Comprehensive Development", Islamic University, Gaza’s Strip. Khodair, R., Khawaldeh, M., Maqableh, N., & BaniYaseen, M. (2012). Traits of effective teachers of Arabic: Comparative study. Jordanian Journal for Educational Research, 8(2), 167-181. Köpsén, S. (2014) How vocational teachers describe their vocational teacher identity. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 194-211, doi:10.1080/13636820.2014.894554. Kourieos, S., & D. Evripidou, (2013 ). Students’ Perceptions of Effective EFL Teachers in University Settings in Cyprus. English Language Teaching, 6(11), 1-16. Martinazzi, R., & Samples, J. (2000). "Characteristics and traits of an effective professor," 30th Annual Frontiers in Education Conference. Building on A Century of Progress in Engineering Education. Conference Proceedings (IEEE Cat. No.00CH37135), Kansas City, MO, USA, 2000, pp. F3F/7-F3F/9 doi:10.1109/FIE.2000.896581 Moghtadaie, L., & Taji, M. (2016). Study of the performance of faculty members according to talent management approach in higher education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(8), 781-790.‫‏‬ ‫‏‬ Moustafa, I. (2009). Traits of effective Islamic education teachers for the second stage from the perspective of students. Damascus University Journal, 25(3+4), 251-287. Ramadan, A., & Hamza, M. (2011). A future vision of the preparation of teachers in the light of competencies teaching. Journal of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 4(4), 271- 283. Sarhan, M. (2017). Identification of the Training needs of the faculty members at Al- Balqa’ Applied University in terms of educational technologies. Journal of the Faculty of Education, Azhar University, 176(1), 537-581. Walker, R. (2008). Twelve characteristics of an effective teacher: A longitudinal, qualitative, quasi-research study on in-service and pre-service teachers’ opinions. Education Horizon, 87(1), 61–68.‫‏‬ ‫‏‬ Yahya, R. (2013). Assessment of the performance of science teachers in the Kurdistan region in Iraq in Light of the principles of effective teaching. Unpublished Master Thesis, Clements University, Dahouk.
  • 35. 29 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 29-45, February 2020 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.2.3 Philosophy for Children (P4C) in Improving Critical Thinking in a Secondary Moral Education Class Hafizhah Zulkifli Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi, Malaysia Rosnani Hashim International Islamic University Malaysia Gombak, Malaysia Abstract. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of Philosophy for Children (P4C) in improving critical thinking among students. The study was conducted via the quasi-experimental research comprising of 27 students placed in the experimental group while the remaining 34 students in the control group. The instrument used was the Ujian Kemahiran Menaakul (Test for Reasoning Skills) Centre for Teaching Thinking (UKMCTT). Based on the statistical t-test on critical thinking, the treatment group scored a higher mean in the post-test mean score compared to the control group, which suggests that P4C had helped to improve students’ critical thinking. The application of P4C allows students to think or reflect on the consequences of the action or assumption they made in their discussion. Simultaneously, it provides career advancement for the teachers by providing the classroom with a new strategy and renewed energy and enthusiasm. Keywords: Philosophy for Children (P4C); Critical Thinking; Moral Education; Students; Test for Reasoning Skills 1. Introduction Teaching student’s critical thinking will strengthen their logical skills and ability to reason (Lipman, Sharp, & Oscanyan, 1980). Effective teaching is comprised of three strategies, i.e., dialogue strategies, stimulating critical thinking, and encouraging discussion in the classroom (Hashim, 2013). Moral and academic excellence are profoundly affected by effective teaching (Solomon, Watson, & Battistich, 2001), and teachers who have positive attitudes about their students can enhance the students’ achievement and ethical behaviour (Haberman, 1999). Teachers need to have content knowledge as well as to associate caring classrooms, achievement, and prosocial character. Pedagogical skills are also
  • 36. 30 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. necessary, and they are expected to be committed to providing caring climates as a teaching practice (Che Abd Rahman, 2007). In Malaysia, thinking skills are a significant agenda in national education and are eminent (Yen & Halili, 2015). Malaysia has put a significant effort in enhancing thinking skills with the implementation of structural reforms by the Ministry of Education (MOE) through the Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools (KBSM). The concept of critical thinking was incorporated in some major national plans including in KBSM in 1988, Vision 2020 in 1991, the Critical and Creative Thinking Skills (KBKK) in 1996, and the concept of “smart school” to produce human capital with high-level thinking ability introduced in 1997 (Ministry of Education, 2012). In 2012, the Preliminary Report of the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013–2025 was introduced by MOE that emphasised on six critical attributes needed by the students to thrive in the globally competitive market such as knowledge, thinking skills, leadership skills, bilingual proficiency, ethics and spirituality, and national identity (Yen & Halili, 2015). Nevertheless, in reality, the majority of teachers have failed to engage students in effective teaching as they still employ the lecture method instead of promoting the culture of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTs) (Ivie, 1998; Ministry of Education, 2012; Zohar & Schwartzer, 2005). Moreover, the majority of teaching methods involved memorising (Hoon, 2010; Glickman, 1991), taking notes (Balakrishnan, 2002, 2009), possess lack of activities (Appoo, 2009), emphasises on exam (Barone, 2004), asked lower-order thinking questions, and usually used the lecture technique (Che Abd Rahman, 2007). This pedagogy assumes teachers as a source of knowledge, with student engagement at a minimal level and indirect interactions between students. In addition, Nachiappan, Sinnasamy & Suffian (2017) contend that the problems that teachers have to overcome were the inability to relate to the moral values in real-life situation among students, lack of teaching aids, lack of mastery in lesson delivery among teachers, lack of interest from students, inability to explain about moral issues among students, problem in mastery of language among students, presence of teachers with no Moral Education field background and the inability to understand and master the moral values among students. Moreover, the influence of students’ mother tongue also has become an alarming issue among teachers. Students also tend to have an attitude towards Moral Education which shows their lack of concern which leads to them being unable to pay attention. Then, lack of optional teachers in Moral Education, lack of references and unconducive classroom surrounding can cause problems in Moral Education. In light of such issues, we can conclude that students have not achieved a higher level of critical thinking. Thus, students need to be catered with a
  • 37. 31 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. pedagogy that provides them with the opportunity to enhance their critical thinking. So far, not many researchers have paid attention to the usage of philosophical inquiry such as P4C as an alternative methods in Moral Education in order to enhance critical thinking. Based on these stated gaps, thus, this study aims to examine the effect of P4C on the students’ critical thinking level after the P4C is implemented in the classroom. 2. Philosophy for Children (P4C) Several critical thinking programmes are available to teach students to think critically. The 'Teaching for thinking' approach was developed by teachers across the world in different ways. They integrate the approach into everyday teaching to create 'thinking classroom' and develop whole school policies to create 'thinking school'. Lateral Thinking, which was promoted by Edward De Bono (Bono, 1995) is one of the examples that has inspired a wide range of curriculum and programme developments, while the Instrumental Enrichment Program by Reuven Feuerstein (Feuerstein, Falik & Feuerstein, 2015) is a programme for struggling learners. It also includes ‘cognitive acceleration’ approaches (such as Adey and Shayer’s Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education), which are called ‘brain-based' approaches like the ‘Accelerated Learning' and ‘philosophical’ approaches, such as Lipman’s Philosophy for Children, which unlike other approaches, not only aims to develop the intellectual aspects of thinking, caring and collaboration, as well as critical and creative thinking, but also the moral, social, and emotional aspects (Fisher, 2013). Philosophy for Children (P4C) was created in the late 1960s by Matthew Lipman and his colleagues as a coherent programme in teaching thinking at the Montclair State University, United States. This programme was created due to the realisation by Lipman (1993) who was a professor teaching philosophy at Colombia University at the time that the undergraduates lacked in reasoning and judgment (Naji, 2005). According to Lipman et al. (1980), the P4C was built upon the recommendation of John Dewey (1938) and the Russian educator, Lev Vygotsky (Minick, 2005). They emphasised on the necessity of teaching for thinking and not for merely memorising (Lipman, 2017). He mentioned other philosophers and psychologists who instigate influence in P4C such as Justus Buchler, Jean Piaget, Gilbert Ryle, George Herbert Mead, and Ludwig Wittgenstein (Lipman, 2017). It is essential to highlight that the aim of P4C “is not to make children into little philosophers but to help them to think better than they now think. The more quickly they can adapt to philosophy, it will emphasis mental acts, thinking skills, reasoning and judgment” (Lipman, 2017, p. 9). In providing and pursuing a P4C curriculum, the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children (IAPC) began to implement the P4C programme in kindergarten to the twelfth-grade classroom in Montclair. For the first draft, he published a novel for children entitled Harry Stottlemeier’s Discovery to foster children's critical thinking, discussion, and questioning (McLeod, 2010). More philosophical children’s novels were published in the following years by Lipman such as Suki, (1978), Mark (1979), Pixie, (1981), Lisa (1983), Elfie (1987);
  • 38. 32 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Kio & Gus, 1982). Every novel was different as each novel was written to suit different age groups and schooling grade, as shown in Table 1. Table 1. Philosophical Novel Age Children’s novel Teacher’s manual Philosophical area Educational area 3-6 years Doll Hospital Making sense of my word Concept formation Basic concepts- what is true, good, real, beautiful? 6-7 years Elfie Getting our thought together Reasoning about thinking Exploring experience 7-8 years Kio and Gus Wondering at the world Reasoning about nature Environmental education 8-10 years Pixie Looking for Meaning Reasoning about language Language and arts 10-12 years Harry Stottlemeir’ s Discovery Philosophical Inquiry Basic reasoning skills Thinking and logic 12-13 years Lisa Ethical inquiry Reasoning in ethics Moral education 14-15 years Suki Writing: How and Why Reasoning in language Writing and literature 16 + years Mark Social inquiry Reasoning in social foundation Social studies Source: Fisher (2013) Each novel, as explained by Lipman (1988) revolves around a common theme, which is the workings of the human mind, and the primary purpose of the theme is to serve as springboards for intellectual debate. However, one of the drawbacks of the novels was that they are not good stories in a literary sense, as they do not hold the interest as stories. Nevertheless, Lipman saw this as an advantage. Most children’s book and stories do not contain a rich range of philosophical questions, and they do not provide models for children as enquiring thinkers. He believed that children’s existing literary experience lacked in intellectual stimulation, causing the link between reading and thinking to be disconnected. Children usually do not think about what the words mean for the story, and they eventually believe that reading is only about following words in a book (Fisher, 2013). Besides, Lipman’s 'philosophic novels' (1988) by contrast, are seeded with puzzles, questions, and problems of meaning. There is an educational purpose to stimulate questioning and philosophical discussion. They present models of reasonable and thoughtful discussion between children that Lipman hoped his
  • 39. 33 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. readers would emulate in their discussion of questions arising from the text (Fisher, 2013). Furthermore, a philosophical novel is more effective than a philosophical context because it is far more enjoyable to be conveyed through stories. Children will be more motivated to think and inquire if the stories focus on issues and events that are related to their personal experience but at the same time, are intriguing and contestable. The philosophical text is an attempt to present philosophy logically and comprehensively despite the lack of experience. Stories will be used as a springboard or trigger for their further inquiry by children who are in the process of building their communities of philosophical inquiry (Sharp, 2017). 3. Methodology Research Design A quasi-experimental design was chosen for the assessment of this study. The researcher used existing classroom to avoid disrupting classroom learning (Creswell, 2005) and it is usually not possible for educational researchers to randomly assign pupils to groups or to design a study in which the control group is taught the irregular programme from the prescribed curriculum (Ann, 1993). In the quasi-experimental design, the participants were divided into two groups with group A1 as the experimental group and group B1 as the selected group without random assignment. A pre-test and post-test were applied to both groups, and only the experimental group will receive the treatment (Creswell, 2009). In the treatment group of this study, students were taught through the use of P4C while in the control group, students were offered the regular formal Moral Education course. Both experimental and control groups consisted of form two students. Group A1 O1 X O2 ---------------------------------------------------------- Group B1 O1 O2 Group A1: Experimental Group (P4C) Group B1: Control Group (conventional learning) O1: Pre-test O2: Post-test X: Treatment Sample The population of this study was form two Moral Education students. The samples of this study comprised of two classes of Moral Education students in one secondary public school in Gombak. The sample was chosen due to the diversity of non-Muslim students in the school, the study's ability to attain
  • 40. 34 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. cooperation from the school administrator, and the conducive environment for teaching and learning offered in the school. The form two students were selected because they were not involved in any major compulsory examination. The students were selected from schools that consist of a minimum of ten non-Malay or non-Muslim students as Moral Education is only offered to non-Muslim students. According to Berg and Latin (1994), there should be at least ten subjects per group when researching group comparison. The samples from the two classes of form two consisted of 61 students. The total number of students for the experimental group was 27, and the control group consisted of 34 students. The sample experimental group consisted of 13 males and 14 females, which consisted of 19 Indian students and 8 Chinese students. Meanwhile, the control group consisted of 13 males and 21 females with 30 Indian students and 4 Chinese students. The samples were not randomly assigned to the two groups as this study cannot artificially create groups for the experiment to avoid the disruption of classroom learning. The form two classes were in the afternoon session. The two classes of Moral Education involved were 2A and 2C, where 2A stands for Aktif, Amal, and Amanah that comprised of excellent and moderate students based on their form one year-end exam achievement. Meanwhile, 2C that represent Ceria and Cerdas consisted of moderate and low achievement students based on the same assessment. 2A was assigned as the control group and 2C as the experimental group. The Moral Education class provides students with multicultural ethnics, different religious beliefs, different spoken languages, and dialects. In addition, the Moral Education class emphasises on Moral Reasoning, Moral Feeling and Moral Action that is suitable for this study. Instrument The Ujian Kemahiran Menaakul Centre for Teaching Thinking (UKMCTT) used to examine the level of critical thinking among students is an adaptation from the New Jersey Test of Reasoning Skills (NJTRS) that was developed by Dr. Virginia Shipman, a senior research psychologist in the Education Department in New Jersey (Shipman, 1983). It is a test of the ability to reason, rather than a test of scientific inquiry of judgment. It is clear with a written Flesch Reading level of 4.5, and reliability ranging from 0.84 to 0.91 and compares favourably with other thinking tests such as the Cornell Critical Thinking Test and the Whimbey Analytical Skills programme. The test is recommended for high school and colleague students. It has been widely used with groups of foreign language learners in high schools in many parts of the world that conducted the P4C programme in the past 30 years (Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children). These countries include Singapore (Lim, 1994) and Malaysia (Hashim, Hussien, & Imran, 2014).
  • 41. 35 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. A reliability test was conducted for this study and its Cronbach alpha for internal reliability was 0.73. The UKMCTT had been translated and had 33 multiple-choice items. Some of the reasoning skills included are reasoning with the relationship, identifying good reasons, inductive reasoning, recognizing improper questions and analogical reasoning, and syllogistic reasoning. The duration of the test was one hour. Data Collection Procedures Initially, the researcher met with the principal to discuss the class and timetable that would be suitable for the study. Next, the researcher entered the class and built rapport among the students in the classroom for about a month. Accordingly, the researcher gave critical thinking instruments for the pre-test while the teacher started implementing the intervention module for 11 sessions. After the teacher completed the 11 sessions of intervention, the researcher again gave out the critical thinking instruments to the students in the post-test. Data Analysis Procedures The researcher used inferential statistic comprised of independent-samples t-test and paired sample t-test on UKMCTT instruments. As stated by Pallant (2007), researchers use the independent sample t-test when they want to compare the mean scores of two different groups of people or conditions. On the other hand, when the researchers want to compare the mean scores for the same group of people on two different occasions, or when there are matched pairs, a paired sample t-test is used. In this research, SPSS was used to analyse the data. Validity Validity in quantitative data, as mentioned by Creswell (2005) refers to when individual scores from the instrument are meaningful and make sense. The validity of an instrument also enables the researcher to draw a reasonable conclusion from the sample of the population. The quasi-experimental approach introduces more threats to internal validity than the actual experiment. This happens because the researcher does not randomly assign participants to groups. A threat to validity refers to when design issues can threaten the experiment conclusions reached from data, leading to a false reading and plausible cause and effect between the treatment and the outcome (Creswell, 2005). The threats to internal validity threatened the researcher’s ability to draw the correct cause and effect of inferences that arise. This is profoundly affected by the experimental procedures or the experiences of participants. History, maturation, regression, selection, mortality, and interaction with selection are among the potential threats to internal validity (Creswell, 2005; Campbell & Stanley, 1963; Christensen, 2004). Table 2 shows a list of internal validity threats and suggested means of control. First, history refers to any situation or event that coincides with the treatment