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International Journal
of
Learning, Teaching
And
Educational Research
p-ISSN:
1694-2493
e-ISSN:
1694-2116
IJLTER.ORG
Vol.22 No.4
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
(IJLTER)
Vol. 22, No. 4 (April 2023)
Print version: 1694-2493
Online version: 1694-2116
IJLTER
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER)
Vol. 22, No. 4
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part
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Society for Research and Knowledge Management
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been
established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the
fields of learning, teaching and educational research.
Aims and Objectives
The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators,
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fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment;
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virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education;
digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e-
tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom
management issues, educational case studies, etc.
Indexing and Abstracting
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Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in
Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned
a unique DOI number.
Foreword
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and Educational Research.
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to
publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions
may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to
problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational
organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website
http://www.ijlter.org.
We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board
and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue.
We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration.
The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the
world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers.
We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal
with this issue.
Editors of the April 2023 Issue
VOLUME 22 NUMBER 4 April 2023
Table of Contents
The Reconstruction of Blended Learning Teaching Model for Full Online Learning System: A Study on English
Education Department in Islamic Universities in Indonesia ............................................................................................1
M. Arif Rahman Hakim, Reko Serasi, Yashori Revola, Nur Ilianis Adnan, Ade Riska Nur Astari
The Impact of Online Self-Assessment on Learning Outcomes and Self-Assessment Skills Among Grade 11
Students in Vietnam ............................................................................................................................................................. 21
Tran Thi Ngoc Anh, Nhi Thi Nguyen, An Thi Tan Nguyen
Developing Skill of Using Feedback in Learning-outcome Assessment for Future Teachers ....................................36
Khuu Thuan Vu, Nguyen Thi Viet Nga
Examining the Relationships between Academic Adaptation and Life-Domain Issues among Working University
Students in Estonia ............................................................................................................................................................... 58
Mohammad Abu Sayed Toyon
Effectiveness of Teacher and Peer Feedback in EFL Writing: A Case of High School Students ................................ 73
Paul Gonzalez-Torres, Cristhian Sarango
Influence of Organizational Innovation Climate on Creativity and the Mediating Role of Feedback-Seeking
Behavior—A Case Study of University Teachers in Hebei, China................................................................................. 87
Tao Du, Yuan-Cheng Chang
A Mediation Model of the Effect of Visionary Leadership on Teachers’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior.... 104
Widodo Widodo, Irvandi Gustari, Rahayu Permana
Perception of Religious Lecturers of Higher Order Thinking Skills and Students’ Academic Performance in
Online Learning ..................................................................................................................................................................124
Indah Wigati, Mardeli ., Mardiah Astuti, Yuniar ., Zulmi Ramdani
Research Writing Readiness of Graduate Students in a Philippine State College...................................................... 141
Willow F. Pangket, Sylesia Kaning K. Pangesfan, Johnny P. Cayabas, Geraldine L. Madjaco
Developing Early Graders' Collaborative Skills through Group-Work, Play-Based Pedagogy............................... 160
Martin Chukwudi Ekeh
Challenges of First-Year Extended Curriculum Programme Students at a University in South Africa.................. 178
Funmilola Kemi Megbowon, Makhetha-Kosi Palesa, Kavi Bongi, Mayekiso Siphokazi
ESL Pre-university Learners’ Needs Analysis for Web-based English Academic Vocabulary Learning Resource
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 195
Farah Amirah Mohd Fisal, Nur Ehsan Mohd Said
‘One day I will make it to university’: Students from Refugee Backgrounds in University Pathway Programs ..217
Snjezana Bilic, Teresa Thai
Matthew Effect and Achievement Gap in Rwandan Basic Education......................................................................... 242
Jean de Dieu Habyarimana, Abdou Mugabonake, Emmanuel Ntakirutimana, Theogene Hashakimana, Emmanuel
Ngendahayo, Faustin Mugiraneza, Ke Zhou
Being a Teacher in China: A Systematic Review of Teacher Identity in Education Reform ..................................... 267
Xiaoyi Liu, John Trent
Sociolinguistic Pedagogical Implications of EFL Issues: A Case Study of Saudi Universities .................................264
Omer Elsheikh Hago Elmahidi, Mohammed AbdAlgane, Ibtesam AbdulAziz Bajri
Formation and Consolidation of Research Seedbeds: A Systematic Literature Review............................................ 286
Beatrice Avolio, Luz María Paucar-Menacho, Pretell Carolina
Metasynthesis of Classroom-Based Assessment Implementation: Impact and Issues .............................................. 310
Hairul Faiezi Lokman, Norazilawati Abdullah, Mazlina Che Mustafa, Saniah Sembak, Vijaya Letchumy Baskaran
School-Based Positive Behavior Support for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Implementation
and Teachers’ Experiences................................................................................................................................................. 326
Aini Mahabbati, Edi Purwanta, Budi Astuti
Teacher Strategies for Providing Access to Learning for Students with Special Needs in Elementary Schools .... 345
Hermanto Hermanto, Bayu Pamungkas
Evaluation of Psychosomatic Symptoms Associated with Stress in Teachers after Returning to Face-to-Face
Classes.................................................................................................................................................................................. 362
Edwin Gustavo Estrada Araoz, Judith Annie Bautista Quispe, Benjamín Velazco Reyes, Wilber Cesar Calsina Ponce,
Duverly Joao Incacutipa Limachi, Victor Soto Aquino, Yolanda Paredes Valverde, Rosel Quispe Herrera
Products Evaluation of Environmental Education Curriculum/Program Implementation in the University of
Calabar, Nigeria ..................................................................................................................................................................377
Chris-Valentine Ogar Eneji, Benard Diwa Otu, Caroline I. Ita, Usang Nkanu Onnoghen, Aganyi Asu Ojong, Stella Bassey
Esuabana, Janets Sunday Petters, Lucy Obil Arop, Cecilia Kori Essien, Ettah Ettah Omini, Monity Flora Michael Monity
Implementing an Internal Quality Assurance System to Enhance Elementary School Education Quality............ 414
Nan Rahminawati, Tedi Supriyadi
Professional Development Needs and Challenges Faced by K-12 Teachers in Delivering Effective Online
Education in the United Arab Emirates........................................................................................................................... 434
Hamdy A. Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ankit, Abdurrahman G. Almekhlafi, Semiyu Aderibigbe, Athra Alawani, Apollos Bitrus
Goyol
Patterns of Character Education for Vocational School Students through Non-Academic Programs: Paradigm and
Implementation................................................................................................................................................................... 459
Amilda ., Dian Andesta Bujuri, Muhammad Uyun, Dindin Nasrudin, Junaidah .
A Gender-Based Comparison of the Effects of Face-to-Face and Online Learning on Student Performance in
Introductory Computer Science Courses......................................................................................................................... 478
Ali Alshammari
Assessment of Math Teachers’ Dispositions to Improve Urban Teacher-Leaders’ Growth and Effectiveness...... 494
L. L. Moore, W. Steve Lang
Barriers Towards the Implementation of E-portfolio in Education Based on the Diffusion of Innovation Theory
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 512
Sameh Said Ismail
Social Media Influenced Lexicons: A Child’s Vocabulary Production in Talk-In Interactions ................................ 541
Jollibee Angchangco Aharul
Knots and Bolts of Online Teaching Internship amid the COVID-19 Pandemic........................................................ 557
Feleeh De Leon Enanoza, Maria Nancy Quinco Cadosales, Ethel De Leon Abao
1
©Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0
International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 1-20, April 2023
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.4.1
Received Feb 21, 2023; Revised Apr 4, 2023; Accepted Apr 22, 2023
The Reconstruction of Blended Learning
Teaching Model for Full Online Learning
System: A Study on English Education
Department in Islamic Universities in Indonesia
M. Arif Rahman Hakim
Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Fatmawati Sukarno Bengkulu
Bengkulu, Indonesia
Reko Serasi
Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Fatmawati Sukarno Bengkulu
Bengkulu, Indonesia
Yashori Revola
Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Fatmawati Sukarno Bengkulu
Bengkulu, Indonesia
Nur Ilianis Adnan
Universiti Teknologi MARA Penang Branch
Penang, Malaysia
Ade Riska Nur Astari
Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Syari’ah Nahdlatul Ulama (STIESNU) Bengkulu
Bengkulu, Indonesia
Abstract. The aim of this research was to construct a teaching model that
was intended as a standardization and benchmark for lecturers in the
online class teaching and learning process during the COVID-19
pandemic in the English Education Department of Islamic religious
universities in Indonesia. This problem was identified from the results
of pre-observation research which indicated that in Indonesian Islamic
religious university institutions, especially in the English Language
Education study program, there was not yet clear standardization for
conducting full online learning. The product of this research study is in
the form of a teaching model developed using the ASSURE method that
consists of analyzing the participants’ needs, stating the objectives,
selecting appropriate strategies, utilizing a technological approach,
requiring learners' participation, and evaluating the final product of this
study. In developing this research product, the researchers also
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conducted a validation process with experts in the field of English
teaching strategies. The validation is related to the teaching model,
model design, and contextualization. The product of this research has
been revised and improved based on the advice from the experts.
Furthermore, at the stage of requiring students’ participation, the
product also underwent trials involving 10 lecturers and 100 students
from five different English Education Departments. The results obtained
from the trial process were also used by the researchers for perfecting
the model so that the teaching model based on blended learning would
be an appropriate educational tool to be used in teaching and learning
during online learning in the English Education Departments of
Islamic religious universities in the future.
Keywords: learning model; blended learning; online learning; COVID-
19 pandemic
1. Introduction
In early 2020, the world was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic which
impacted on all sectors, including the economic and government, as well as the
educational sector. Specifically in the world of education, the COVID-19
pandemic affected policies, educational practices and strategies, among others
(Contreras et al., 2021). This forced the educational practices at academic
institutions in Indonesia, including in universities, to transform completely into
a virtual learning-focussed system. The benefit was that although education had
been moving towards technological transformation, the pandemic escalated its
immediate adoption. Nonetheless, this does not mean the process was seamless
or without complications because not all the universities in Indonesia were
prepared for or capable of accommodating these changes (Firmansyah et al.,
2021).
On May 2nd, 2020, on National Teacher's Day, the Minister of Education and
Culture emphasized the need for innovation in education during the pandemic
COVID-19 to ensure the quality of education in Indonesia (Ministry of Education
and Culture, 2020). This included the importance of English language
proficiency among students, especially in the context of online learning.
Proficiency in English is crucial for students at all levels, particularly in higher
education and for those studying English as a foreign language (EFL), as it is
essential for understanding English as a medium of education and
communication in the era of the fourth industrial revolution in the field of
educational technology. This, in turn, would contribute to the development of a
technological advancements in education and enable Indonesia to compete more
effectively in various global fields. Therefore, to improve the English
communication ability of EFL students during and after the COVID-19
pandemic, a research study was conducted to develop online teaching models.
Several courses in the English education study program were selected as
subjects for which the teaching models would be developed. Some of the courses
developed were selected based on the needs analyses conducted by the
researchers.
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However, before carrying out the research process, observations were
conducted for one semester of the lecturers’ and students’ teaching and learning,
respectively in the six subjects taught in the English education study program.
These lecturers and students were randomly selected from five Islamic religious
universities in Indonesia. Based on the results of interviews conducted with
lecturers and student representatives of the English education study program, it
appeared that they were all taken by surprise by the new approach in the form
of a full online course. Moreover, this was suddenly being implemented in the
middle of their teaching and learning courses in 2020. As far as the lecturers
were concerned, they were not fully prepared to provide online lectures because
both the lesson plans for one semester as well as the teaching materials that they
had distributed among their students were books or materials intended for face-
to-face learning.
Initial observations in the form of interviews were also conducted by the
researchers with 10 student representatives in the English education study
program who had also undergone the online lecture process for almost three
semesters during the pandemic. The results of interviews stated that, in general,
teaching would continue by means of online lectures. However, the students felt
that online learning was not running optimally because there were still various
challenges such as limited teaching materials, high students’ expectations,
assigning assignments and inadequate support systems. This was also
acknowledged by the lecturers of the English education study programme who
felt that they were not yet fully prepared to face the online learning challenge.
Therefore, the purpose of this research was to develop online-based teaching
models as solutions for lecturers and students in the English education study
programme in the online teaching and learning programme during the COVID-
19 pandemic in the Islamic religious universities in Indonesia. The model was
specifically necessary in the English Education Departments which did not yet
have a standardized teaching model; therefore the output of this research would
be an innovation in this field.
2. Literature Review
The phrase ‘blended learning’ refers to learning methodologies that incorporate
elements of integration or the amalgamation of one learning methodology with
other learning methodologies. Blended learning is a contemporary educational
topic that has emerged owing to the advancements in globalization and
technology. Numerous institutions or professionals have formulated and
presented definitions in their respective languages based on the classification of
blended learning practices. There are currently four generally accepted
definitions of blended learning (Bruggeman et al., 2020): (a) Blended learning is
a process of learning that utilizes a mix of diverse Internet-based technologies to
attain academic objectives; (b) Blended learning is a fusion of multiple learning
methodologies (e.g. constructivism, behaviorism, and cognitivism) designed to
achieve maximum knowledge acquisition, whether through technology-based
education or not; (d) Blended learning is also a combination of varied learning
technology formats, such as videos, online training, and films, with in-person
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instruction; and (e) Blended learning is also a combination of learning
technology with real-life assignments to impact both learning and teaching
positively.
In line with some of the explanations above, Graham (2013) and Heilporn et al.
(2021) mention other definitions of blended learning that are often suggested as
those that combine several kinds of teaching and learning media modalities;
those that integrate several kinds of teaching and learning methods, learning
theories, and elements of pedagogical dimensions; or those that integrate the
online teaching and learning process with the face-to-face learning process.
Based on these definitions, the blended learning method (BLM) can be
considered as a combination of the characteristics of traditional learning and
electronic learning (e-learning) (Hrastinski, 2019; Smith & Hill, 2019).
Furthermore, the BLM is a learning activity that combines face-to-face learning
processes with e-learning activities through aspects of learning theory, learning
approaches, and learning models to achieve the desired learning objectives.
The advantages of the blended learning model can be an answer to the
weaknesses of each of the face-to-face learning and e-learning methods.
Moreover, each of these learning models has several advantages. The main
advantage of face-to-face lectures is the direct interaction between teachers and
students and between students and students. This interaction can create a
stronger feeling of connection between students and teachers, both
psychologically and emotionally. However, in terms of the weakness of face-to-
face learning, the learning process that is carried out is limited by space and time
so that learning is felt to be less than optimal from the educator's side (Cancino
& Carpedoni, 2020).
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia in early 2020 had an effect
on many sectors, such as the world of education where the central government
issued policies to local governments to suspend classes at all educational
institutions and replace them with online learning (Yunus et al., 2023). This was
done as an effort to prevent the transmission of the Coronavirus in Indonesia.
It was hoped that, since no Indonesian educational institutions were carrying
out face-to-face activities, the spread of the COVID-19 virus in Indonesia would
be minimized. Since various countries globally were also exposed to the
COVID-19 virus disease, the lockdown or quarantine policy was one of the
efforts to reduce the interaction of crowds in order to curb the spread of this
virus (Subarao & Kadali, 2022).
The policies adopted by many countries globally, including Indonesia, extended
to the educational process by means of shutting down all educational activities.
Educational institutions then had to come up with alternatives and solutions
related to continuing the educational process for students who could no longer
attend face-to-face classes at their educational institutions. Some of the
education-related measures implemented by the government of the Republic of
Indonesia regarding the COVID-19 case was online learning for school level
students, online lecturing for university students, cancelling the national exams,
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withdrawing the computer-based test for the Joint Entrance Test for State
Universities (UTBK SBMPTN) and reviewing the National Selection for State
Universities (SNPTN) application (Hasniati, 2022).
The adjustment of the policy on the implementation of education during the
COVID-19 pandemic was no exception; it also affected policies at religious
universities in Indonesia. This led to the leaders of Islamic universities in
Indonesia making various efforts in preventing the spread of COVID-19
(Corona) on their respective campuses. One of the steps taken was to change the
face-to-face lecture system into distance learning or online lectures from March
2020 to 2022 (Fauzi & Asri, 2021). These steps taken by the leaders of Islamic
universities were also fully supported by the Ministry of Religious Affairs which
issued a letter No. 697/03/2020 regarding changes to the letter of the Director
General of Islamic Education No. 657/03/2020 regarding Efforts to Prevent the
Spread of the COVID-19 virus within the Islamic Universities. It stated that all
lecturing would take place online until the end of the even semester (December
to May) of the 2019/2020 academic year at all Islamic religious universities, both
state and private (Hidayat et al., 2021).
Regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the education sector, it was
necessary for teaching and learning activities during the pandemic era to be
conducted online and independently since teachers and students had to remain
at home. Some of the direct effects related to this situation were that teachers
were forced to adapt to and participate in redesigning the existing learning
media as innovations by adjusting to online systems and the use of media. This
was also in accordance with the decision of the Minister of Education and
Culture of the Republic of Indonesia regarding the Letter Number 4 of 2020
concerning the Implementation of Education Policies in the Emergency Period
during the Spread of the COVID-19 Pandemic (Restian, 2020). The pandemic
had resulted in extraordinary changes to the world of education, as every
educational institution at all levels was forced to transform at very short notice
so that students could adapt to learning from home using online media.
This was certainly not easy, considering that in general the technological
preparedness of educational institutions in Indonesia was still limited.
According to Munastiwi and Puryono (2021), one of the main problems in
Indonesian education related to this was the lack of uniform learning processes
and models, both in terms of standardization and the quality of the desired
learning targets. This problem was a challenge for both the teachers and
students, but especially for educators who are always required to be creative in
their teaching and learning process and who now had to adjust the delivery of
the teaching material to online learning media. For most of these teachers this
was a new experience.
3. Methodology
This study used a research and development (R&D) design in the field of
education which aimed to develop an online-based teaching model for the
English Education Department of the Islamic Religious University in Indonesia.
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In particular, the research development model adapted in this study is the
ASSURE (Analyze learner; State standards and objectives; Select strategies,
technology, media and materials; Utilize technology; Require learners'
participation; and Evaluate and revise) model (Hakim et al., 2020). The ASSURE
model has a constructivist philosophical approach, namely behaviourism and
cognitivism, therefore it is relatively easy to implement and can be easily
developed by every educator in the R&D process (Affandi et al., 2022).
The participants in this study were 100 students of the English Education
Department from five Indonesian Islamic religious universities who, until the
time of the research implementation process, were still participating in online
learning methods, and 10 lecturers who oversaw 10 different courses in the
English Education Department. The participant requirements for inclusion in
this research were students and lecturers who had experience in the
implementation of the face-to-face teaching and learning process (before the
COVID-19 outbreak) and who were also currently either teaching or learning
online courses.
In this study, participants were involved in the observation stage and initial
needs analysis, for which the results of this process were used as the main basis
for designing and developing the research products, as suggested by Zubaedi
et al. (2018). Furthermore, participants were also involved in the product trial
phase to gather input from the field trial process.
For the interview process in the needs analysis and observation stage of this
study, the researchers used the semi-structured interview method with 10
lecturers and 10 students as representatives of the research population. This
approach allowed for more open and flexible data collection, as semi-structured
interviews consist of both pre-designed questions and additional questions
based on the context, as mentioned in studies by Kallio et al. (2016), Adnan et al.
(2020), and Hakim et al. (2021). This type of interview is considered easier to use
as it can be adapted to the respondents' needs.
In terms of data processing for this study, the researchers utilized technical
triangulation and source triangulation. Technical triangulation involves using
multiple data collection techniques, such as observation, interviews, and
documentation, to obtain data from the same source, as referenced in studies by
Walsh and Mann (2019), Sileyew (2019), and Natow (2020). The research
instrument used for the interviews was a question list, while field notes were
taken during the observation and documentation processes.
In this study, a thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the data,
drawing on the works of Flick (2014) and Daghigh and Rahim (2021). The
analysis process started with the researchers familiarizing themselves with the
data by transcribing the interviews, which had been conducted in English as all
the participants were English lecturers with ELT qualifications. However, some
participants occasionally used Bahasa Indonesia when they were unable to find
suitable words in English to convey their ideas. Transcribing the interviews
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provided the researchers with their initial understanding of the data. They then
read through the entire dataset and assigned notes or codes to each statement,
representing the content or meaning of the participants' statements. This process
was recursive and involved constant back-and-forth movement among the entire
datasets. The same procedure was followed for all twenty interview transcripts.
Subsequently, the researchers created a 'codebook' that contained the coding list
from the interviews, which was categorized and classified into themes. To
maintain ethical considerations, codes were used throughout the discussion to
refer to each participant, as suggested by Hidayat et al. (2023), in reporting on
this research.
4. Result & Discussion
In this development research, the researchers chose the ASSURE model based on
several considerations, one of which was that the ASSURE development model
was more system-oriented, thus an option for the researchers in producing good
learning model designs. Therefore, in accordance with the ASSURE theory, the
research was focused on reconstruction, the process of designing and
developing learning models for English Education Department programs in
Islamic religious universities in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic. From
all the research design processes that were created and modified for the
development of the ASSURE model by several experts, some of the steps taken
by the researchers in developing products follow, some of which are described
or designed based on an analysis of research needs. These steps were taken to
determine the characteristics of the students, which involves identifying the
students' aptitude, mindset, background, and preferences
Analyzing learners
The initial stage of the ASSURE model is the evaluation stage. This stage
involves an evaluation of students, environment, and instructional resource
requirements.. Moreover, it entails establishing the desired educational
outcomes that need to be met to cater to the specific needs of the students. The
needs analysis stage is carried out by first analyzing the circumstances and
conditions of learning as the main source of information in the learning process.
It relates to the implementation of learning, especially during the COVID-19
pandemic. At this stage, researchers made suggestions related to ongoing
teaching and learning activities for one semester at the English Education
Departments in Islamic universities. The use of observation and field note
instruments enabled researchers to analyze the data and describe the actual
conditions.
In addition, the researchers also interviewed 25 students representing the
English Education Departments of five different Islamic universities. Their aim
was to ascertain the procedures and stages of learning in the classroom during
the COVID-19 pandemic. They wished to determine whether the students were
quite satisfied with the methods of learning as applied by their lecturers. Most
of the students indicated that the learning methods of the lecturers differed
considerably and there seemed to be no special rules or standards. The students
added that some of their lecturers made use of face-to-face virtual lectures
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every week by using the Zoom or Google Meet applications. On the other hand,
some only used WhatsApp as a teaching and learning tool without any face-to-
face meetings at all, while yet others combined the two methods, by using both
a virtual face-to-face process and a chat application. Thus, students often felt
confused by the differences in the learning processes and suggested their
lecturers and universities establish a clear standardization of the teaching and
learning process.
This was in line with the results of the analysis conducted by the researchers
with lecturers at the English Education Departments of Islamic religious
universities. From the results of interviews with five lecturers who teach in the
English Language Study Program at five different Islamic universities, it was
established that they did have different ways of teaching during the COVID-19
pandemic era. Furthermore, there was no official standardization laid down by
their universities or the Ministry of Religious Affairs. According to them, despite
their willingness to undertake the fully online teaching process at the beginning
of the COVID-19 pandemic, they felt they were not fully prepared for it, both in
terms of human resources (HR) and in terms of supporting facilities. Therefore,
what they had done for two semesters was more about survival since they were
determined that the teaching and learning process should continue. Therefore,
the lecturers also hoped that there would be an official learning model and
standard that they could apply as their guide for teaching and learning in
situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
Stating standards and objectives
The next stage was the process of determining the objectives of the research and
the design of the product development. At this step the researchers began to
design standardization and learning models based on the results of the needs
analysis that had been conducted previously. Furthermore, the researchers
drafted the design by determining the elements needed in the learning model
such as compiling a classification of the needs of the teaching and learning
process and the conditions experienced by students, lecturers, institutions
during the COVID-19 pandemic. The researchers also collected references that
could be used in developing learning models. From the findings of the previous
stage, the researchers determined that in designing this research product it was
necessary to have a synergy during face-to-face learning which could not be
done physically. Therefore, the concept was changed to face-to-face meetings
conducted virtually and supported by the learning process, using applications
which were already familiar to both lecturers and students. This basic concept
was the initial standardization and establishing of objectives formulated by the
researchers at this stage.
At this stage the researchers also developed an instrument that would be used to
assess the learning model that had been developed. This concept is also
supported by the connectivist learning theory that focuses on expanding the
connection and networking activities (Chang et al., 2022). The instrument was
prepared by considering aspects of the model assessment, namely the feasibility
of using it in learning, the feasibility of the technology used, the feasibility of
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conforming to circumstances and conditions, and the suitability of the approach
used. The instruments were arranged in the form of model evaluation sheets
(See Tables 2, 4 & 6).
Selecting strategies, technology, media and materials
The third phase of this development research comprises determining the
strategy applied to the learning model. This is also supported by the
determination of the media and materials involved in the ongoing research and
development process. This development step is the product realization stage at
which the learning model is developed in accordance with the design that has
been established in the previous stage. After that, this research development
product was validated by experts who were judged to have competence in the
field of curriculum and English teaching strategies. In the validation process, the
validators used instruments that had been prepared in the previous stage with
the main assessment criteria being the suitability of the strategy to the current
conditions, the suitability of media technology for the teaching process and the
compatibility of the media as well as the material in the product developed,
namely the teaching model, with the needs of analysis results and the conditions
of the educational institution that was the subject of the research. The details of
the teaching models as a result of this research can be seen in Table 1:
Table 1:The construction of teaching model of blended learning for full online
learning
Meeting Activity Teaching-Learning
Media
1 Introduction of the course with face-to-face
virtual meeting
Zoom/Google Meet
2 Delivery a lecture & giving some contextual
examples related to the learning topic
YouTube/Instagram
3 Group discussion about specific topic and
giving individual project
WhatsApp group/
Telegram
4 Continuing the group discussion and project
reflection
WhatsApp group/
Telegram/online
academic campus
portal
5 Face-to-face virtual meeting and project review Zoom/Google Meet
6 Holding quizes by maximizing features on
Google Classroom
WhatsApp group/
Telegram/Google
Classroom
7 Group discussion WhatsApp group/
Telegram
8 Mid- Test Google Classroom/
Zoom/Google Forms
9 Delivering a lecture about general topic YouTube channel/
Instagram
10 Face-to-face meeting and mid-test feedback Zoom/Google Meet
11 Deep discussion related to specific topic and
giving a group project
WhatsApp group/
Telegram
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12 Holding quizes by maximizing features on
Yahoo
Yahoo website
13 Group discussion about specific topic and group
project reflection
WhatsApp group/
Telegram
14 Continue the group discussion about specific
topic and group project review
WhatsApp group/
Telegram
15 Virtual face to face meeting and all topics review Google Classroom/
Zoom
16 Final Test Google Classroom/
Zoom/Google Forms
Utilizing technology
The fourth stage of the research process relates to the use of technology in the
research development process. Based on the needs analysis, the objective of this
research was to develop a product in the form of a teaching model that could be
applied during learning in the COVID-19 pandemic. From first-hand
experience it has been established that technology is the main supporting
element on which online teaching and learning are based (Mariano-Dolesh et
al., 2022). The use of technology in the research process of developing this
product was thus imperative. In developing this teaching model, the technology
used included Zoom, WhatsApp, Google Classroom, the YouTube channel and
the academic system (SIAKAD). These applications were the most suitable
options for the online teaching and learning process during the COVID-19
pandemic.
Requiring learners' participation
During the next phase, the lecturers applied the teaching model in their
respective classes. They included several important aspects related to the field
notes. This process is essential for establishing the actual conditions and serves
as input for the next step of the research (Weng et al., 2022). After the
completion of the trial process, five lecturers and 25 students as representatives
of the trial participants were interviewed. The interviews were related to the
suitability of applying the teaching model for seven meetings, the level of
difficulty, activity steps, learning variations and the application of online
learning applications, and the effect on their motivation and understanding of
the material being taught.
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Figure 1: The result of preliminary analysis from students and lecturers
After conducting interviews with the students, it was unanimously agreed that
the teaching model created was highly appealing. This was because the teaching
and learning methods used by the lecturers was not only focused on one
strategy or application but included a variety. The teaching and learning process
thus felt more real even though they were using a full online system. This view
was also expressed by the five lecturers who had participated in the trial
process, namely that the attractiveness of the teaching model that had been
developed was impressive. They claimed that this teaching model had
introduced new variations to the teaching process and had been proven to
increase the participation of the students during classes.
On the aspect of the level of difficulty in applying the teaching model to
teaching and learning activities, the lecturers stated that the teaching model that
had been developed was not too difficult to implement and relatively easy to
follow. However, when the researchers asked whether there were parts that had
been e difficult to apply during the trial process, the lecturers stated that in some
ways they felt they had to be more active and busier than in face-to-face classes.
Nevertheless, they understood that it was essential to pay more attention to the
students. The students also expressed the same view when asked about the
level of difficulty of this teaching model. However, they were not really
concerned as they benefitted from more attention from the lecturers. Despite the
online learning, they nevertheless experienced a learning atmosphere that
closely resembled the face-to-face teaching and learning process. However,
some had previously felt the lectures were too monotonous and not varied
enough; therefore the online learning process seemed more rigid and they
missed the face-to-face learning process.
Regarding the instructional steps and learning variations in the teaching model,
the lecturers indicated that the activities and organization of the model were
well-designed, with logical and coherent sequencing of steps, and the utilization
of various platforms and applications to support the learning process. Similarly,
none of the students reported any dissatisfaction with the steps or organization
of the teaching model. This indicates that the researchers were successful in
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Attractiveness of the teaching
model (Impressive/ Very good)
the level of difficulty Easy to
follow)
Activity steps (Different
Atmosphere)
Learning variations (Really nice)
Instructional Online Steps &
Learning Variations (Familiar…
Lecturers
Students
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meeting the needs and expectations of both lecturers and students, as identified
through the needs analysis conducted.
In terms of applying online learning applications and their effect on students'
learning motivation, the lecturers and students responded well. Because the
lecturers themselves admitted that previously they had mostly only focused on
using one or two online platforms in teaching classes during the COVID-19
pandemic. The main reason was that there was no official online learning
process guide or standardization applied by the institution. As a result, most
lecturers followed the same teaching and learning process during the COVID-
19 pandemic, making only a few adjustments. Therefore, when using the
model developed in this study, the lecturers felt that their teaching methods
were more varied by using a combination of several platforms such as Zoom,
Google Classroom, WhatsApp, the YouTube channel and YouTube, without
reducing the essence of the learning process. On the other hand, the students
indicated that they appreciated the lecturers using this teaching model because it
increase their motivation in learning and enhanced their understanding of the
teaching material presented. They expressed the hope that the lecturers would
continue to use the same teaching model until the end of the semester.
Evaluating and revising
The final stage of the study involved both formative and summative evaluations.
Formative evaluation took place during the development stage of the teaching
model, while summative evaluation occurred at the end of the development
process using the ASSURE stage, as described by Aktas and Ozmen (2020). As
part of the evaluation, a validation process was conducted to assess the
feasibility and construction of the developed product. Validators, who were
experts in the fields of curriculum as well as the development of teaching
materials, and technology in teaching English, were asked to provide an
assessment of the learning model's feasibility and offer suggestions and
comments on the design. This would serve as a benchmark for revisions and
improvements to the final product. The validation process was carried out
through virtual meetings with the expert validators, and the data obtained from
the model evaluation results were analyzed to determine the validity of the
teaching model, as suggested by Asiyah et al. (2018). The instruments used for
evaluation and validation included a checklist and a suggestion column. The
teaching model's content, design, and context were the three main aspects that
were validated by the expert validators. The researchers collaborated closely
with the expert validators to ensure that the teaching material modules were
adjusted based on their recommendations before they were validated. The
results of the expert validation assessment regarding the contents of the
development module can be seen in Tables 2 -7:
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Table 2: Teaching model content validation instrument
No Indicator Assessment Remarks
5 4 3 2 1
1 The reasonableness between instructing
substance and standard as well
as fundamental capability.
 Acceptable
2 The reasonableness between the
instructing demonstrates substance and
the study goals that will be accomplished.
 Incredible
3 The reasonableness between the title and
the fabric talked about.
 Acceptable
4 Potential definition of the substantial ? 
5 Chronological and efficient course of
activity of the teaching appear ?
 Incredible
6 The instructing show can encourage
students' comprehension of education.
 Acceptable
7 Precision in utilizing terms.  Neutral
8 Precision in utilizing innovation.  Acceptable
9 The educating demonstrate can encourage
understudies in Internet based-education.
 Acceptable
10 The instructional approach can promote
face-to-face online meeting between
lecturers and learners.
 Acceptable
11 The instructional approach can encourage
interaction between lecturers and learners
in a virtual education process.
 Acceptable
12 There is input within the assessment
displayed.
 Acceptable
13 The reasonableness of the curriculum and
instructing model.
 Acceptable
Total 10 40 3 Incredible
Percentage 81, 54 %
(Adapted from Asiyah, 2019)
Table 3: Data analysis results from model validation
Validator Total
Item
Optimal
Score
Result % Qualification Additional
1 13 65 53 81,54 Incredible Have to be
changed
Based on the results of the development that was carried out, the validation
result of the blended learning teaching model during the COVID-19 pandemic
was 81.54%. Therefore, from the results of the validation, it can be concluded
that the teaching model developed during this research is feasible to use and try
out on students during the teaching and learning process (Sartono et al., 2022).
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The second expert validation process is related to the design of the teaching
model that has been developed. The detailed results of the validation carried out
by expert validators can be seen in Table 4:
Table 4: Result of the teaching model design validation design validation process by
expert validator
No Standard Assessment Remarks
5 4 3 2 1
1 The appeal of the pedagogical approach.  Acceptable
2 The lucidity of the instructions for
utilizing the teaching methodology.
 Acceptable
3 The appeal of the packaging of the
teaching model.
 Incredible
4 The visual appeal of the instructional
approach model presented.
 Acceptable
5 The instructional model empowers
students to conduct self-evaluation.
 Incredible
6 The instructional approach embodies the
intended outcomes of the syllabus.
 Incredible
7 The numerical values employed in every
educational task.
 Acceptable
8 The teaching model is amenable to self-
directed study.
 Acceptable
9 The simplicity of operating the teaching
model (intuitive).
 Acceptable
10 The instructional approach can serve as
autonomous learning materials.
 Incredible
11 The pedagogical approach offers the
objective of the instructional process.
 Incredible
12 The pedagogical approach offers
comprehensive educational prospects
(autonomous).
 Acceptable
13 The pedagogical approach is in line with
the advancement of science and
technological development (flexible).
 Acceptable
14 The pedagogical approach can enhance
the virtual instructional process.
 Incredible
Total 30 32 Incredible
Percentage 91, 43 %
(Adapted from Asiyah, 2019)
Table 5: Result of data analysis from teaching model design validation
Validator Total
Item
Optimal
Score
Result % Qualification Additional
2 14 70 63 91,43 Incredible Have to be
changed
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The second characteristic that was evaluated and validated was the teaching
model design (Dwijayani, 2019). The percentage of validation results carried out
by design expert validators for blended learning teaching models during the
COVID-19 pandemic was 91.43%. Thus, based on the results, it can be concluded
that the developed model is feasible to use for experimentation on learners
during their educational journey.
Table 6: Context appropriate validation of teaching models
No Standard Assessment Remarks
5 4 3 2 1
1 Clarity of instructions  Acceptable
2 The adherence to language conventions  Acceptable
3 The efficacy of sentences  Acceptable
4 The ability to convey messages  Acceptable
5 The utilization of terminology and icons  Acceptable
6 The comprehensibility of queries in the
collaborative project section and personal
practice drills
 Acceptable
7 The comprehensibility of visuals presented in
every web-based study action
 Acceptable
8 The comprehensibility of the recapitulation,
queries, and discourse
 Acceptable
9 The appropriateness for the students' academic
level
 Neutral
10 The appropriateness for the students' emotional
maturity
 Acceptable
11 The precision in the application of punctuation  Neutral
12 The uniformity in the use of the term ‘clarity of
instructions’
 Incredible
Total 5 36 6 Acceptable
Percentage 78, 33 %
(Adapted from Asiyah, 2019)
Table 7: Data analysis of the context suitability validation process
Validator Total
Item
Optimal
Score
Result % Qualification Additional
3 12 60 47 78,33 Acceptable Have to be
changed
The final stage in the validation process comprised evaluating the suitability of
the context of the teaching model resulting from the development research.
Based on the data above, the percentage of suitability context validation from
expert validators was 78.33%. In this case, an expert validator stated that the
suitability of the context offered in the teaching model resulting from the
development research was generally good. Therefore, it was believed that there
was no suggestion that was over-emphasized in this section. Based on the
results of validation, evaluation, and input from three expert validators, it was
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necessary to make revisions based on corrections and suggestions from the three
experts so that the final product of this research would be much improved.
Revising product development results
After the validation process by the students, lecturers and experts had been
completed, the teaching model was revised based on the corrections and
suggestions from the experts. This stage was important in order to ensure a
quality final product of the development research (Zalazar et al., 2021).
Revisions made by the researchers relate to changes in teaching models that
were not in accordance with the needs of the students and lecturers, spelling
errors, structures that are not in accordance with the applicable curriculum, and
suggestions to use more familiar platforms in teaching online. They stated that
the aim of these revisions to the teaching model that had been developed were
to ensure its efficacy and that it would meet the required standards in
accordance with the objectives of this research. The model was intended as a
guide for the learning process in English language study programs in particular
and for all lecturers within the Islamic religious and other public universities in
Indonesia in general.
Furthermore, all suggestions from the experts such as revising the context,
exercises and level of difficulty of the final product were very useful in
improving the learning model to develop a better quality product. After passing
all these stages, the teaching model was ready to be tested by lecturers in the
actual learning process of the students of the English Education Departments of
the Indonesian Islamic religious universities.
Final Product
The last stage in this study was to revise the blended learning teaching model
over the pandemic or full online learning period as a result of development
research. This was compiled based on some comments and inputs given by
lecturers and students’ representatives during the trial process to produce
teaching material products in the form of teaching models. This was considered
to be a good solution for the full online learning system during the pandemic.
This was also conveyed by three expert validators who recommended the
process of improving this teaching model after trials had been carried out so that
this teaching model would be excellent in terms of content. Hence, the authors
are optimistic that the instructional model resulting from this advancement
investigation would be beneficial not only to students in the English Education
Departments at Indonesian Islamic religious universities, but also to a wider
range of students enrolled in all universities throughout Indonesia.
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Figure 2: Stages of the blended learning teaching model for the full online learning
system during the pandemic in the English Tadris Study Program
5. Conclusion
This research activity was focussed on lecturers and students of the English
Education Departments of five Islamic religious universities in Indonesia. The
output of this study is in the form of a teaching model that is intended as a
standardization and benchmark for lecturers in the teaching and learning
process in fully online classes during the pandemic. The product of development
research in the form of a teaching model was developed using the ASSURE
method. In addition, the study suggests that the fully online learning process in
the English language study program in the Islamic religious universities in
Indonesia during a pandemic needs to be re-constructed. Clear learning models
and guidelines would facilitate the teaching and learning process for lecturers
and students, respectively.
Therefore, blended learning is a solution and plays a major role in the
reconstruction of this teaching model. However, what needs to be understood is
that blended learning, known as a direct face-to-face learning process, has
been interpreted as virtual face-to-face learning during a pandemic. Hence, the
value of blended learning applied to this teaching model is that it is a virtual
face-to-face medium. In addition, the maximum use of technological devices has
been utilized as the main support system in the entire teaching process that is
also supported by connectivist theory. Therefore the product of this research is
expected to be able to make a contribution as an alternative teaching model that
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can be applied by lecturers in teaching and learning at Islamic religious
universities, especially in the English Education Departments, when faced with
a fully online learning situation as experienced during the previous pandemic.
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©Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives
4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 21-35, April 2023
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.4.2
Received Feb 27, 2023; Revised Apr 10, 2023; Accepted Apr 22, 2023
The Impact of Online Self-Assessment on
Learning Outcomes and Self-Assessment Skills
Among Grade 11 Students in Vietnam
Tran Thi Ngoc Anh*
University of Education, Hue University, Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam
Nhi Thi Nguyen
Vinh University, Nghe An, Vietnam
An Thi Tan Nguyen
University of Education, Hue University, Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam
Abstract. The application of information technology to self-assessment
has received a lot of attention in recent years. Several previous studies
have discovered a positive relationship between online self-assessment
and academic performance. This study aimed to confirm the relationship
between online self-assessment and learning outcomes and self-
assessment skills among grade 11 students in Vietnam. With a total of 160
students, this research had been designed as quasi-experimental. The two
groups did the self-assessment in different ways over the six weeks of
impact implementation. To perform an online self-assessment, the
intervention group employed interactive online exercises that delivered
instant feedback on Liveworksheets. Throughout this period, the control
group engaged in traditional self-assessment. The study found that the
intervention group’s final test scores (7.7) were higher than the control
group’s (6.3), and their self-assessment skills were more developed at the
end of the study. The study confirms the positive relationship between
online self-assessment and learning outcomes and self-assessment skills
among grade 11 students in Vietnam. The findings suggest that online
interactive exercises with immediate feedback can improve learning
outcomes and that regular online self-assessment can enhance students’
self-assessment skills. Conceptually, this study contributes to the growing
body of research on the application of information technology in
education and gives insight into the potential of online self-assessment as
a promising tool to promote student learning and development. The
results of this study can serve as early data to investigate the effectiveness
of online self-assessment in diverse educational settings.
*
Corresponding author: Tran Thi Ngoc Anh, tranthingocanh@dhsphue.edu.vn &
tranthingocanh@hueuni.edu.vn
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Keywords: interactive online exercises; learning outcomes; online self-
assessment; self-assessment; skill
1. Introduction
Self-assessment plays a crucial role in self-regulated learning (Andrade, 2019;
Garrido Astray et al., 2019; Yan, 2020). While not a new concept, self-
assessment has been identified in numerous previous studies as the learners’
ability to plan, monitor, and control their thoughts, feelings, and actions
(Hadwin et al., 2015; Karmaker, 2020; Punhagui & De Souza, 2013; Schumacher
et al., 2013; Steuber et al., 2017; Wolters & Benzon, 2013). In education, self-
assessment refers to learners’ capacity to evaluate and monitor their
understanding of a specific subject area (Boud et al., 2015). Alternatively, self-
assessment is defined as a cyclical process that enhances learners’ skills by
detecting the gap between present ability and desired ability (Yew et al., 2016).
A critical aspect of the learning journey is the process of self-assessment, in
which individuals engage in a reflective evaluation of their learning, abilities,
and skills to determine their areas of proficiency, as well as limitations, and
establish objectives for personal growth and improvement. It not only
promotes better self-awareness in learners but also enables them to take charge
of their academic advancement. As a result, self-assessment is extremely
important as an integral element of the learning process since it allows students
to get a full awareness of their cognitive capacities and take responsibility for
their growth and development.
Several studies have found that self-assessment empowers students to become
owners of their learning (Azar & Tanggaraju, 2020; Luo et al., 2021; Mäenpää
et al., 2020; Oh et al., 2021; Rini et al., 2020; Rizk, 2016; Wiliam & Leahy, 2020);
other studies describe it as making learners co-owners of the learning process
by having them critically reflect on their learning while addressing the needs
of the learning task (Fletcher, 2016; Muñoz-Escalona et al., 2018). This process
allows learners to review previous course content, assess their knowledge, and
identify their weak points (Elkhatat et al., 2021), motivating them to learn
actively (Styers et al., 2018) and influencing their self-regulated learning
(Papanthymou & Darra, 2018).
Whether the student is a “owner” or a “co-owner”, self-assessment requires
that learners be aware of the goals of a task and monitor their own progress
toward them. The act of self-assessment, that is, engaging in a self-reflective
process that enables individuals to discern their own unique learning styles,
preferences and needs, is a crucial aspect of the pedagogical journey.
Through self-reflection, learners can gain a more profound comprehension of
their own cognitive faculties, enabling them to identify the modalities and
approaches that are most efficacious for their learning. Consequently, the
process of self-assessment becomes an invaluable tool for learners, providing
them with the ability to optimize their academic output and achieve their goals
in a more expeditious manner. Additionally, by engaging in self-assessment,
students are better equipped to identify their areas of difficulty, enabling them
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to seek out the necessary assistance from their instructors or peers, and
ultimately overcoming any obstacles that may hinder their academic success.
Therefore, self-assessment is an indispensable component of the learning
process, contributing to the growth and development of learners, and
promoting a culture of self-directed and autonomous learning. As a result,
learners must develop the ability to analyze task requirements, set learning
goals, and track their understanding, as they actively participate in the learning
process (Meusen-Beekman et al., 2016; Ratminingsih et al., 2018; Tur et al., 2019;
Wallin & Adawi, 2018; Wanner & Palmer, 2018). Self-assessment can also help
students develop critical thinking skills, as they learn to evaluate their own
work and identify areas for improvement. By setting goals and tracking their
progress, students can become more motivated and engaged in the learning
process.
The role of self-assessment in the learning process is to provide students with
a tool to evaluate their own learning and identify areas where they need to
improve. Self-assessment can also help teachers identify areas where students
may be struggling, and provide targeted support to help them overcome those
challenges (Alseddiqi et al., 2012; Childress et al., 2020; Ishikawa et al., 2021;
Rick & Phlypo, 2019). In order to be effective, self-assessment should be an
ongoing process that is integrated into the learning environment. Students
should be taught how to self-assess and given opportunities to practice and
refine their skills. Teachers can also provide feedback and support to help
students develop their self-assessment skills. Overall, self-assessment is a
valuable tool for students to take control of their own learning, identify areas
where they need to improve, and set goals for future growth and success.
With the trend of incorporating information technology into teaching, self-
assessment is not insusceptible to this influence (Borg & Edmett, 2019; Chang
& Wu, 2018; Christensen & Knezek, 2017). The transition from traditional
paper-based self-assessments to online self-assessments on mobile devices is
taking place (Ching-Ter et al., 2017; Scherer et al., 2015; Valtins et al., 2020).
Online self-assessment has been shown to be an effective self-regulated
learning method in a variety of subjects (Fan et al., 2021; Koehler & Meech,
2022; Lawson et al., 2012).
Online self-assessments can be accessed anytime and anywhere, making it
easier for students to complete them. Students can complete assessments on
their own devices, reducing the need for paper-based assessments and making
it easier to keep track of their progress. Automatic scoring of online self-
assessments reduces the time and resources required to grade assessments
manually. This can also provide students with immediate feedback, allowing
them to address areas of weakness more quickly. Many studies show that
online self-assessment has a positive impact on student learning and
motivation (Nikou & Economides, 2016).
Additionally, online self-assessments can be more engaging than traditional
paper-based assessments. Multimedia elements, such as videos, images, and
interactive activities, for example, can be incorporated into online assessments
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to make them more visually appealing and interactive. Therefore, students are
less stressed as a result of taking online self-assessments (Stančić, 2021). When
students feel at ease taking an assessment, their participation in the assessment
process increases, which promotes self-efficacy (Seifert & Feliks, 2019).
Furthermore, it is used to increase student motivation in a variety of learning
contexts, such as flipped classroom courses or online courses (Broadbent et al.,
2021; Cacciamani et al., 2021; Lock et al., 2021). Learners can easily
communicate with classmates and teachers through social networks and
communities at any time and from any location in order to assess their
knowledge and receive immediate feedback using the online assessment
system (Lesage et al., 2015; Y. N. Lin et al., 2019).
Online self-assessments can provide valuable data for teachers to analyze.
Teachers can use this data to identify trends and patterns in student
performance, and to adjust their teaching strategies accordingly. As a result,
teachers can focus more on activities that require students to interact physically
while teaching in the classroom. Academic performance, student motivation,
and engagement in blended learning and online learning have piqued the
interest of researchers in recent years (Azizan et al., 2014; X. Chen et al., 2020;
Lo et al., 2020; Paniagua & Simpson, 2018; Tsai et al., 2020).
Students in Vietnam have had little experience with online self-assessment,
even though, previous to the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of information
technology in teaching and assessment was widespread across many schools
and subjects (Anh et al., 2021). However, it was not until the post-COVID-19,
normal period that synchronous and widespread digital transformation in
teaching activities was implemented. The current literature on the impact of
online self-assessment on academic performance and self-assessment skills
lacks research conducted in Vietnam. Existing findings may not be applicable,
as the country’s educational system and cultural values differ from those of
other countries where similar studies have been conducted. As a result, the goal
of this study was to create an online self-assessment tool for grade 11 physics
students and to investigate the impact of online self-assessment outside of
classroom hours.
Given the potential benefits of online self-assessment, it is important to
investigate whether it can improve students’ learning outcomes and self-
assessment skills in the Vietnamese context.
Therefore, this study aims to address the following research questions:
1. What is the relationship between online self-assessment and learning
outcomes among grade 11 students in Vietnam?
2. Can online interactive exercises with immediate feedback improve
learning outcomes compared to traditional self-assessment methods?
3. Does regular online self-assessment enhance students’ self-assessment
skills?
Liveworksheets is a platform designed to assist teachers in creating interactive
worksheets that can be completed by students online (Bārdule, 2021). These
worksheets incorporate various question types commonly used in self-
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assessments, such as multiple choice, drag and drop, pairing, fill in the gaps,
and others. The platform is a tool for producing interactive worksheets that
present material in different formats and question styles (Rudenko et al., 2021).
Liveworksheets provides various customization options, including the
integration of multimedia elements, such as audio, videos, and images, that can
enhance the engagement of students during self-assessments. Additionally, the
platform allows teachers to effortlessly share the worksheets with their
students via email, messaging apps, or a learning management system.
By using Liveworksheets, teachers can create interactive exercises that offer a
more dynamic and engaging self-assessment experience for students. The
ability to personalize the worksheets with multimedia elements and the ease of
sharing them make Liveworksheets a valuable tool for educators seeking to
facilitate student learning and self-assessment.
With Liveworksheets, teachers can input conventional exercises in the form of
PDF or Word files and transform them into interactive online exercises in
several formats. This application simplifies the process of creating engaging
and interactive exercises that can aid in student learning and self-assessment.
The use of Liveworksheets is an innovative approach to online learning. It
allows for real-time feedback and interaction between the students and the
teacher, which can improve the effectiveness of the learning process.
In this study, we used Liveworksheets, an online platform that provides
interactive activities and immediate feedback to students. Liveworksheets is
effective in promoting student engagement, motivation, and learning
outcomes in previous studies (Daher et al., 2022). The use of Liveworksheets in
this study represents a novel approach to online self-assessment in Vietnam.
This study’s focus on grade 11 students and their self-assessment skills adds to
the existing literature by examining a specific age group that has received
limited attention in the literature. Furthermore, the study’s use of the quasi-
experimental method, with a control group, helps address the limitations of
previous studies in this area. Finally, this study’s findings can provide valuable
insights for educators and policymakers on the potential benefits of online self-
assessment in promoting student learning outcomes and self-assessment skills
in Vietnam and other similar contexts.
2. Material and Methods
The study utilized a quasi-experimental design that involved two groups: an
intervention group and a control group. The study’s population consisted of
grade 11 students in Vietnam, and the sample size was 160. Participants were
selected using a purposive sampling technique to ensure that they met the
inclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria included being a student in grade 11,
having access to a computer with an internet connection, and giving informed
consent to participate in the study. All students were informed that their
Liveworksheets online self-assessments and academic results would be
recorded, and that their personal information would be anonymized for
research purposes. This policy was accepted by all participants.
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The two groups were then randomly assigned to either the intervention or
control group. After each lesson, both the control and intervention groups
completed self-assessment exercises related to the week’s content outside of
class time. The intervention group received interactive online exercises that
delivered instant feedback on Liveworksheets based on the links or QR codes
provided by the teacher, while the control group engaged in traditional self-
assessment. During the online self-assessment, students carried out different
assignments as required and obtained instant feedback on their responses
upon completing each task. At the same time, the teacher received email
notification of the outcomes. We explicitly stated that students’ performance
on the online self-assessments would not impact their final test scores to
discourage any attempts to cheat or seek answers from study materials during
the assessment. At the end of the six weeks, both groups completed a post-test
to assess their learning outcomes and self-assessment skills.
To measure students’ learning outcomes, a pre-test, and a post-test were
administered to both groups. The test comprised of multiple-choice questions
that assessed the students’ understanding of the topics covered in the self-
assessment. The test was scored out of 10, and the student’s scores were
recorded for analysis.
To measure the students’ self-assessment skills, a self-assessment rubric was
developed. The self-assessment skills of students in the intervention group
were compared before and after participating in the intervention. The self-
assessment skills’ scale consisted of eight criteria, which were as follows:
1. Recognizing assessment and self-assessing learning outcomes.
2. Collecting and processing information on learning outcomes.
3. Establishing learning objectives and tasks.
4. Comparing learning outcomes with established objectives and tasks.
5. Creating and revising study plans.
6. Implementing the proposed study plan.
7. Reflecting on personal strengths and weaknesses.
8. Developing a plan for personal capacity enhancement.
Each criterion was scored on a scale of 1 to 3, with 1 representing the lowest
and 3 representing the highest level of attainment.
The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Descriptive statistics, such as means and standard deviations, were used to
summarize the data. Inferential statistics, such as independent samples t-test
was used to compare the final test scores between the intervention and control
groups, and ANOVA was used to compare the pre- and post-intervention self-
assessment skills of the intervention group. The p-value was set at 0.05, and all
statistical tests were two-tailed.
Overall, the study’s quasi-experimental design was robust and allowed for a
thorough investigation of the relationship between online self-assessment and
learning outcomes and self-assessment skills among grade 11 students in
Vietnam. The selection of participants, the random assignment of participants
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to groups, and the use of pre- and post-tests and a self-assessment rubric all
contributed to the validity and reliability of the study’s findings.
3. Results
The study aimed to confirm the relationship between online self-assessment
and learning outcomes and self-assessment skills among grade 11 students in
Vietnam. The study involved 160 students and was conducted over six weeks.
The intervention group employed interactive online exercises that delivered
immediate feedback on Liveworksheets for online self-assessment. The control
group, in contrast, engaged in traditional self-assessment.
The statistical analysis conducted to support these findings included the use of
the t-test and ANOVA. SPSS software was used to analyze and compare the
learning outcomes of the control and intervention group. Table 1 shows the
results of the statistical test of the difference between the intervention and
control groups’ final test scores.
Table 1: A summary of the test’s average statistical parameters
Group n M SD
Levene’s Test for
Equality of Variances Sig. (2-
tailed)
F Sig.
Intervention 80 7.7 0.28
1.824 0.161 0.005
Control 80 6.3 0.34
The results of Levene’s test for Sig = 0.161 > 0.05 show that the variance of the
test mean between the intervention and control groups is not different. The test
results on the difference between the two mean values of the tests between the
intervention group and the control group had Sig = 0.005 < 0.05. As a result,
there is a difference in the mean score of the test between the intervention and
control groups. The intervention group’s mean test score was 7.7 points higher
than the control group’s mean score of 6.3. This demonstrates that there is a
difference in learning outcomes between the intervention and control groups
after the impact of online self-assessment via Liveworksheets. It also shows a
positive relationship between online self-assessment and learning outcomes.
The intervention group’s self-assessment skills were analyzed and compared
using pre- and post-test data. The average scores of the criteria of self-
assessment skills of students in the intervention group are shown in Table 2
based on statistics of points according to the level of each criterion:
Table 2: Student self-assessment skills in the intervention group
Criteria
Pre-test Post-test
M SD M SD
1 1.48 0.64 2.49 0.68
2 1.44 0.59 2.35 0.73
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3 1.68 0.73 2.50 0.62
4 1.54 0.64 2.15 0.64
5 1.36 0.58 2.34 0.67
6 1.38 0.58 2.25 0.72
7 1.61 0.70 2.63 0.56
8 1.50 0.57 2.44 0.74
Table 2 displays the average scores and standard deviations for each criterion
of self-assessment skills for students in the intervention group in two
evaluations, prior to and after the pedagogical experiment. The findings show
that after six weeks of impact, students’ self-assessment skills improved in all
criteria, more or less.
As a whole, the study confirmed the positive relationship between online self-
assessment and learning outcomes and self-assessment skills among grade 11
students in Vietnam. The findings suggest that interactive online exercises with
immediate feedback can improve learning outcomes, and regular online self-
assessment can enhance students’ self-assessment skills.
4. Discussion
One novel finding in this study is the effectiveness of interactive online
exercises with immediate feedback on Liveworksheets in improving learning
outcomes and self-assessment skills among grade 11 students in Vietnam.
This study builds upon previous research that has found a positive relationship
between online self-assessment and learning outcomes (Prisacari & Danielson,
2017) but goes a step further by demonstrating the specific benefits of
interactive online exercises with immediate feedback. This finding is
particularly relevant in the current educational landscape, where many schools
are turning to online and blended learning models due to the COVID-19
pandemic. The use of interactive online tasks with immediate feedback can
help educators facilitate self-assessment and improve student learning
outcomes, even in virtual environments. This finding is consistent with
previous research that has shown the effectiveness of online self-assessment
tools in promoting self-regulated learning and improving academic
performance (Alanzi, 2021; Hsu et al., 2022; Pinto-Llorente et al., 2017).
Online self-assessment allows students assess themselves whenever and
wherever they want, which helps to alleviate the anxiety and pressure that
some students feel when using traditional assessment methods (Tay, 2015;
Yang et al., 2022). Furthermore, technology-based self-assessment tools
frequently include features that encourage learners to interact with the system
and motivate them to learn (Rodríguez et al., 2019). Motivation is a critical
factor in student learning (Azar & Tanggaraju, 2020; Lin et al., 2017; Luo et al.,
2021; Mäenpää et al., 2020; Oh et al., 2021; Rini et al., 2020; Tokan & Imakulata,
2019). Furthermore, the features of assessment tools via interactive online
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exercises encourage students to view self-assessment as an enjoyable task that
they can master. This leads to increased academic engagement and success.
Because COVID-19 required many teaching activities to be conducted online,
educators were looking for ways to improve student learning through the use
of online tools (Katsarou & Chatzipanagiotou, 2021; Strauß & Rummel, 2020;
Yusof et al., 2022). Many studies have been conducted on the use of information
technology in the teaching of physics in high schools; however, very few
studies have been conducted on the impact of online self-assessment on
student learning outcomes in Vietnam.
In most cases, self-assessment is an important learning characteristic because it
allows students to accurately reflect on their work and progress. Effective self-
assessment is frequently associated with high scores, which is an intriguing
discovery to share. As a result, our case study on the relationship between
online self-assessment, self-assessment skills, and academic performance raises
critical issues for future practice and research.
Nevertheless, there were several limitations to this study that should be
considered. One of these limitations was the small sample size, which may
limit the generalizability of the findings to other populations and contexts.
Future research could replicate this study with a larger sample size to increase
the external validity of the results. Additionally, this study did not control for
other factors that may have influenced the development of self-assessment
skills, such as prior knowledge and motivation. Further research could
investigate the causal mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of
Liveworksheets for promoting self-assessment skills by using intervention
designs that control these factors.
Furthermore, the role of the teacher in the use of Liveworksheets should also
be considered. Although Liveworksheets can be an effective tool for promoting
self-assessment skills, the teacher’s guidance and feedback are essential in
helping students develop these skills. Teachers should provide clear
instructions on how to use Liveworksheets for self-assessment, as well as
timely feedback on students’ self-assessment performance.
5. Conclusion
The online self-assessment on Liveworksheets is not only appropriate for
improving learning efficiency but also for objectively assessing learners’ self-
assessment skills. These findings are useful for learning analytics researchers
and practitioners interested in using online self-assessment for learning. Using
multimedia resources in conjunction with immediate feedback is an
appropriate solution for creating an online self-assessment environment for
learners, contributing to digital transformation in educational activities, and
meeting the current trend of globalization.
Despite several limitations, this study adds to the growing body of research on
the effectiveness of online self-assessment tools and provides a foundation for
future research in this area. It is hoped that the findings of this study will
encourage educators to explore the potential benefits of using Liveworksheets
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and other online self-assessment tools in their teaching practices and to
continue to develop innovative approaches to enhance student learning and
performance.
Acknowledgment
This research is funded by the University of Education, Hue University under
grant number NCM.T.23-03.
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IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
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IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
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IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023

  • 1. International Journal of Learning, Teaching And Educational Research p-ISSN: 1694-2493 e-ISSN: 1694-2116 IJLTER.ORG Vol.22 No.4
  • 2. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 22, No. 4 (April 2023) Print version: 1694-2493 Online version: 1694-2116 IJLTER International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 22, No. 4 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks. Society for Research and Knowledge Management
  • 3. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of learning, teaching and educational research. Aims and Objectives The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators, teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the world to present the results of their research activities in the following fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment; multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education; knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning; virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education; digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e- tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom management issues, educational case studies, etc. Indexing and Abstracting The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned a unique DOI number.
  • 4. Foreword We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue. Editors of the April 2023 Issue
  • 5. VOLUME 22 NUMBER 4 April 2023 Table of Contents The Reconstruction of Blended Learning Teaching Model for Full Online Learning System: A Study on English Education Department in Islamic Universities in Indonesia ............................................................................................1 M. Arif Rahman Hakim, Reko Serasi, Yashori Revola, Nur Ilianis Adnan, Ade Riska Nur Astari The Impact of Online Self-Assessment on Learning Outcomes and Self-Assessment Skills Among Grade 11 Students in Vietnam ............................................................................................................................................................. 21 Tran Thi Ngoc Anh, Nhi Thi Nguyen, An Thi Tan Nguyen Developing Skill of Using Feedback in Learning-outcome Assessment for Future Teachers ....................................36 Khuu Thuan Vu, Nguyen Thi Viet Nga Examining the Relationships between Academic Adaptation and Life-Domain Issues among Working University Students in Estonia ............................................................................................................................................................... 58 Mohammad Abu Sayed Toyon Effectiveness of Teacher and Peer Feedback in EFL Writing: A Case of High School Students ................................ 73 Paul Gonzalez-Torres, Cristhian Sarango Influence of Organizational Innovation Climate on Creativity and the Mediating Role of Feedback-Seeking Behavior—A Case Study of University Teachers in Hebei, China................................................................................. 87 Tao Du, Yuan-Cheng Chang A Mediation Model of the Effect of Visionary Leadership on Teachers’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior.... 104 Widodo Widodo, Irvandi Gustari, Rahayu Permana Perception of Religious Lecturers of Higher Order Thinking Skills and Students’ Academic Performance in Online Learning ..................................................................................................................................................................124 Indah Wigati, Mardeli ., Mardiah Astuti, Yuniar ., Zulmi Ramdani Research Writing Readiness of Graduate Students in a Philippine State College...................................................... 141 Willow F. Pangket, Sylesia Kaning K. Pangesfan, Johnny P. Cayabas, Geraldine L. Madjaco Developing Early Graders' Collaborative Skills through Group-Work, Play-Based Pedagogy............................... 160 Martin Chukwudi Ekeh Challenges of First-Year Extended Curriculum Programme Students at a University in South Africa.................. 178 Funmilola Kemi Megbowon, Makhetha-Kosi Palesa, Kavi Bongi, Mayekiso Siphokazi ESL Pre-university Learners’ Needs Analysis for Web-based English Academic Vocabulary Learning Resource ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 195 Farah Amirah Mohd Fisal, Nur Ehsan Mohd Said ‘One day I will make it to university’: Students from Refugee Backgrounds in University Pathway Programs ..217 Snjezana Bilic, Teresa Thai
  • 6. Matthew Effect and Achievement Gap in Rwandan Basic Education......................................................................... 242 Jean de Dieu Habyarimana, Abdou Mugabonake, Emmanuel Ntakirutimana, Theogene Hashakimana, Emmanuel Ngendahayo, Faustin Mugiraneza, Ke Zhou Being a Teacher in China: A Systematic Review of Teacher Identity in Education Reform ..................................... 267 Xiaoyi Liu, John Trent Sociolinguistic Pedagogical Implications of EFL Issues: A Case Study of Saudi Universities .................................264 Omer Elsheikh Hago Elmahidi, Mohammed AbdAlgane, Ibtesam AbdulAziz Bajri Formation and Consolidation of Research Seedbeds: A Systematic Literature Review............................................ 286 Beatrice Avolio, Luz María Paucar-Menacho, Pretell Carolina Metasynthesis of Classroom-Based Assessment Implementation: Impact and Issues .............................................. 310 Hairul Faiezi Lokman, Norazilawati Abdullah, Mazlina Che Mustafa, Saniah Sembak, Vijaya Letchumy Baskaran School-Based Positive Behavior Support for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Implementation and Teachers’ Experiences................................................................................................................................................. 326 Aini Mahabbati, Edi Purwanta, Budi Astuti Teacher Strategies for Providing Access to Learning for Students with Special Needs in Elementary Schools .... 345 Hermanto Hermanto, Bayu Pamungkas Evaluation of Psychosomatic Symptoms Associated with Stress in Teachers after Returning to Face-to-Face Classes.................................................................................................................................................................................. 362 Edwin Gustavo Estrada Araoz, Judith Annie Bautista Quispe, Benjamín Velazco Reyes, Wilber Cesar Calsina Ponce, Duverly Joao Incacutipa Limachi, Victor Soto Aquino, Yolanda Paredes Valverde, Rosel Quispe Herrera Products Evaluation of Environmental Education Curriculum/Program Implementation in the University of Calabar, Nigeria ..................................................................................................................................................................377 Chris-Valentine Ogar Eneji, Benard Diwa Otu, Caroline I. Ita, Usang Nkanu Onnoghen, Aganyi Asu Ojong, Stella Bassey Esuabana, Janets Sunday Petters, Lucy Obil Arop, Cecilia Kori Essien, Ettah Ettah Omini, Monity Flora Michael Monity Implementing an Internal Quality Assurance System to Enhance Elementary School Education Quality............ 414 Nan Rahminawati, Tedi Supriyadi Professional Development Needs and Challenges Faced by K-12 Teachers in Delivering Effective Online Education in the United Arab Emirates........................................................................................................................... 434 Hamdy A. Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ankit, Abdurrahman G. Almekhlafi, Semiyu Aderibigbe, Athra Alawani, Apollos Bitrus Goyol Patterns of Character Education for Vocational School Students through Non-Academic Programs: Paradigm and Implementation................................................................................................................................................................... 459 Amilda ., Dian Andesta Bujuri, Muhammad Uyun, Dindin Nasrudin, Junaidah . A Gender-Based Comparison of the Effects of Face-to-Face and Online Learning on Student Performance in Introductory Computer Science Courses......................................................................................................................... 478 Ali Alshammari Assessment of Math Teachers’ Dispositions to Improve Urban Teacher-Leaders’ Growth and Effectiveness...... 494 L. L. Moore, W. Steve Lang Barriers Towards the Implementation of E-portfolio in Education Based on the Diffusion of Innovation Theory ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 512
  • 7. Sameh Said Ismail Social Media Influenced Lexicons: A Child’s Vocabulary Production in Talk-In Interactions ................................ 541 Jollibee Angchangco Aharul Knots and Bolts of Online Teaching Internship amid the COVID-19 Pandemic........................................................ 557 Feleeh De Leon Enanoza, Maria Nancy Quinco Cadosales, Ethel De Leon Abao
  • 8. 1 ©Authors This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 1-20, April 2023 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.4.1 Received Feb 21, 2023; Revised Apr 4, 2023; Accepted Apr 22, 2023 The Reconstruction of Blended Learning Teaching Model for Full Online Learning System: A Study on English Education Department in Islamic Universities in Indonesia M. Arif Rahman Hakim Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Fatmawati Sukarno Bengkulu Bengkulu, Indonesia Reko Serasi Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Fatmawati Sukarno Bengkulu Bengkulu, Indonesia Yashori Revola Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Fatmawati Sukarno Bengkulu Bengkulu, Indonesia Nur Ilianis Adnan Universiti Teknologi MARA Penang Branch Penang, Malaysia Ade Riska Nur Astari Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Syari’ah Nahdlatul Ulama (STIESNU) Bengkulu Bengkulu, Indonesia Abstract. The aim of this research was to construct a teaching model that was intended as a standardization and benchmark for lecturers in the online class teaching and learning process during the COVID-19 pandemic in the English Education Department of Islamic religious universities in Indonesia. This problem was identified from the results of pre-observation research which indicated that in Indonesian Islamic religious university institutions, especially in the English Language Education study program, there was not yet clear standardization for conducting full online learning. The product of this research study is in the form of a teaching model developed using the ASSURE method that consists of analyzing the participants’ needs, stating the objectives, selecting appropriate strategies, utilizing a technological approach, requiring learners' participation, and evaluating the final product of this study. In developing this research product, the researchers also
  • 9. 2 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter conducted a validation process with experts in the field of English teaching strategies. The validation is related to the teaching model, model design, and contextualization. The product of this research has been revised and improved based on the advice from the experts. Furthermore, at the stage of requiring students’ participation, the product also underwent trials involving 10 lecturers and 100 students from five different English Education Departments. The results obtained from the trial process were also used by the researchers for perfecting the model so that the teaching model based on blended learning would be an appropriate educational tool to be used in teaching and learning during online learning in the English Education Departments of Islamic religious universities in the future. Keywords: learning model; blended learning; online learning; COVID- 19 pandemic 1. Introduction In early 2020, the world was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic which impacted on all sectors, including the economic and government, as well as the educational sector. Specifically in the world of education, the COVID-19 pandemic affected policies, educational practices and strategies, among others (Contreras et al., 2021). This forced the educational practices at academic institutions in Indonesia, including in universities, to transform completely into a virtual learning-focussed system. The benefit was that although education had been moving towards technological transformation, the pandemic escalated its immediate adoption. Nonetheless, this does not mean the process was seamless or without complications because not all the universities in Indonesia were prepared for or capable of accommodating these changes (Firmansyah et al., 2021). On May 2nd, 2020, on National Teacher's Day, the Minister of Education and Culture emphasized the need for innovation in education during the pandemic COVID-19 to ensure the quality of education in Indonesia (Ministry of Education and Culture, 2020). This included the importance of English language proficiency among students, especially in the context of online learning. Proficiency in English is crucial for students at all levels, particularly in higher education and for those studying English as a foreign language (EFL), as it is essential for understanding English as a medium of education and communication in the era of the fourth industrial revolution in the field of educational technology. This, in turn, would contribute to the development of a technological advancements in education and enable Indonesia to compete more effectively in various global fields. Therefore, to improve the English communication ability of EFL students during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, a research study was conducted to develop online teaching models. Several courses in the English education study program were selected as subjects for which the teaching models would be developed. Some of the courses developed were selected based on the needs analyses conducted by the researchers.
  • 10. 3 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter However, before carrying out the research process, observations were conducted for one semester of the lecturers’ and students’ teaching and learning, respectively in the six subjects taught in the English education study program. These lecturers and students were randomly selected from five Islamic religious universities in Indonesia. Based on the results of interviews conducted with lecturers and student representatives of the English education study program, it appeared that they were all taken by surprise by the new approach in the form of a full online course. Moreover, this was suddenly being implemented in the middle of their teaching and learning courses in 2020. As far as the lecturers were concerned, they were not fully prepared to provide online lectures because both the lesson plans for one semester as well as the teaching materials that they had distributed among their students were books or materials intended for face- to-face learning. Initial observations in the form of interviews were also conducted by the researchers with 10 student representatives in the English education study program who had also undergone the online lecture process for almost three semesters during the pandemic. The results of interviews stated that, in general, teaching would continue by means of online lectures. However, the students felt that online learning was not running optimally because there were still various challenges such as limited teaching materials, high students’ expectations, assigning assignments and inadequate support systems. This was also acknowledged by the lecturers of the English education study programme who felt that they were not yet fully prepared to face the online learning challenge. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to develop online-based teaching models as solutions for lecturers and students in the English education study programme in the online teaching and learning programme during the COVID- 19 pandemic in the Islamic religious universities in Indonesia. The model was specifically necessary in the English Education Departments which did not yet have a standardized teaching model; therefore the output of this research would be an innovation in this field. 2. Literature Review The phrase ‘blended learning’ refers to learning methodologies that incorporate elements of integration or the amalgamation of one learning methodology with other learning methodologies. Blended learning is a contemporary educational topic that has emerged owing to the advancements in globalization and technology. Numerous institutions or professionals have formulated and presented definitions in their respective languages based on the classification of blended learning practices. There are currently four generally accepted definitions of blended learning (Bruggeman et al., 2020): (a) Blended learning is a process of learning that utilizes a mix of diverse Internet-based technologies to attain academic objectives; (b) Blended learning is a fusion of multiple learning methodologies (e.g. constructivism, behaviorism, and cognitivism) designed to achieve maximum knowledge acquisition, whether through technology-based education or not; (d) Blended learning is also a combination of varied learning technology formats, such as videos, online training, and films, with in-person
  • 11. 4 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter instruction; and (e) Blended learning is also a combination of learning technology with real-life assignments to impact both learning and teaching positively. In line with some of the explanations above, Graham (2013) and Heilporn et al. (2021) mention other definitions of blended learning that are often suggested as those that combine several kinds of teaching and learning media modalities; those that integrate several kinds of teaching and learning methods, learning theories, and elements of pedagogical dimensions; or those that integrate the online teaching and learning process with the face-to-face learning process. Based on these definitions, the blended learning method (BLM) can be considered as a combination of the characteristics of traditional learning and electronic learning (e-learning) (Hrastinski, 2019; Smith & Hill, 2019). Furthermore, the BLM is a learning activity that combines face-to-face learning processes with e-learning activities through aspects of learning theory, learning approaches, and learning models to achieve the desired learning objectives. The advantages of the blended learning model can be an answer to the weaknesses of each of the face-to-face learning and e-learning methods. Moreover, each of these learning models has several advantages. The main advantage of face-to-face lectures is the direct interaction between teachers and students and between students and students. This interaction can create a stronger feeling of connection between students and teachers, both psychologically and emotionally. However, in terms of the weakness of face-to- face learning, the learning process that is carried out is limited by space and time so that learning is felt to be less than optimal from the educator's side (Cancino & Carpedoni, 2020). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia in early 2020 had an effect on many sectors, such as the world of education where the central government issued policies to local governments to suspend classes at all educational institutions and replace them with online learning (Yunus et al., 2023). This was done as an effort to prevent the transmission of the Coronavirus in Indonesia. It was hoped that, since no Indonesian educational institutions were carrying out face-to-face activities, the spread of the COVID-19 virus in Indonesia would be minimized. Since various countries globally were also exposed to the COVID-19 virus disease, the lockdown or quarantine policy was one of the efforts to reduce the interaction of crowds in order to curb the spread of this virus (Subarao & Kadali, 2022). The policies adopted by many countries globally, including Indonesia, extended to the educational process by means of shutting down all educational activities. Educational institutions then had to come up with alternatives and solutions related to continuing the educational process for students who could no longer attend face-to-face classes at their educational institutions. Some of the education-related measures implemented by the government of the Republic of Indonesia regarding the COVID-19 case was online learning for school level students, online lecturing for university students, cancelling the national exams,
  • 12. 5 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter withdrawing the computer-based test for the Joint Entrance Test for State Universities (UTBK SBMPTN) and reviewing the National Selection for State Universities (SNPTN) application (Hasniati, 2022). The adjustment of the policy on the implementation of education during the COVID-19 pandemic was no exception; it also affected policies at religious universities in Indonesia. This led to the leaders of Islamic universities in Indonesia making various efforts in preventing the spread of COVID-19 (Corona) on their respective campuses. One of the steps taken was to change the face-to-face lecture system into distance learning or online lectures from March 2020 to 2022 (Fauzi & Asri, 2021). These steps taken by the leaders of Islamic universities were also fully supported by the Ministry of Religious Affairs which issued a letter No. 697/03/2020 regarding changes to the letter of the Director General of Islamic Education No. 657/03/2020 regarding Efforts to Prevent the Spread of the COVID-19 virus within the Islamic Universities. It stated that all lecturing would take place online until the end of the even semester (December to May) of the 2019/2020 academic year at all Islamic religious universities, both state and private (Hidayat et al., 2021). Regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the education sector, it was necessary for teaching and learning activities during the pandemic era to be conducted online and independently since teachers and students had to remain at home. Some of the direct effects related to this situation were that teachers were forced to adapt to and participate in redesigning the existing learning media as innovations by adjusting to online systems and the use of media. This was also in accordance with the decision of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia regarding the Letter Number 4 of 2020 concerning the Implementation of Education Policies in the Emergency Period during the Spread of the COVID-19 Pandemic (Restian, 2020). The pandemic had resulted in extraordinary changes to the world of education, as every educational institution at all levels was forced to transform at very short notice so that students could adapt to learning from home using online media. This was certainly not easy, considering that in general the technological preparedness of educational institutions in Indonesia was still limited. According to Munastiwi and Puryono (2021), one of the main problems in Indonesian education related to this was the lack of uniform learning processes and models, both in terms of standardization and the quality of the desired learning targets. This problem was a challenge for both the teachers and students, but especially for educators who are always required to be creative in their teaching and learning process and who now had to adjust the delivery of the teaching material to online learning media. For most of these teachers this was a new experience. 3. Methodology This study used a research and development (R&D) design in the field of education which aimed to develop an online-based teaching model for the English Education Department of the Islamic Religious University in Indonesia.
  • 13. 6 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter In particular, the research development model adapted in this study is the ASSURE (Analyze learner; State standards and objectives; Select strategies, technology, media and materials; Utilize technology; Require learners' participation; and Evaluate and revise) model (Hakim et al., 2020). The ASSURE model has a constructivist philosophical approach, namely behaviourism and cognitivism, therefore it is relatively easy to implement and can be easily developed by every educator in the R&D process (Affandi et al., 2022). The participants in this study were 100 students of the English Education Department from five Indonesian Islamic religious universities who, until the time of the research implementation process, were still participating in online learning methods, and 10 lecturers who oversaw 10 different courses in the English Education Department. The participant requirements for inclusion in this research were students and lecturers who had experience in the implementation of the face-to-face teaching and learning process (before the COVID-19 outbreak) and who were also currently either teaching or learning online courses. In this study, participants were involved in the observation stage and initial needs analysis, for which the results of this process were used as the main basis for designing and developing the research products, as suggested by Zubaedi et al. (2018). Furthermore, participants were also involved in the product trial phase to gather input from the field trial process. For the interview process in the needs analysis and observation stage of this study, the researchers used the semi-structured interview method with 10 lecturers and 10 students as representatives of the research population. This approach allowed for more open and flexible data collection, as semi-structured interviews consist of both pre-designed questions and additional questions based on the context, as mentioned in studies by Kallio et al. (2016), Adnan et al. (2020), and Hakim et al. (2021). This type of interview is considered easier to use as it can be adapted to the respondents' needs. In terms of data processing for this study, the researchers utilized technical triangulation and source triangulation. Technical triangulation involves using multiple data collection techniques, such as observation, interviews, and documentation, to obtain data from the same source, as referenced in studies by Walsh and Mann (2019), Sileyew (2019), and Natow (2020). The research instrument used for the interviews was a question list, while field notes were taken during the observation and documentation processes. In this study, a thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the data, drawing on the works of Flick (2014) and Daghigh and Rahim (2021). The analysis process started with the researchers familiarizing themselves with the data by transcribing the interviews, which had been conducted in English as all the participants were English lecturers with ELT qualifications. However, some participants occasionally used Bahasa Indonesia when they were unable to find suitable words in English to convey their ideas. Transcribing the interviews
  • 14. 7 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter provided the researchers with their initial understanding of the data. They then read through the entire dataset and assigned notes or codes to each statement, representing the content or meaning of the participants' statements. This process was recursive and involved constant back-and-forth movement among the entire datasets. The same procedure was followed for all twenty interview transcripts. Subsequently, the researchers created a 'codebook' that contained the coding list from the interviews, which was categorized and classified into themes. To maintain ethical considerations, codes were used throughout the discussion to refer to each participant, as suggested by Hidayat et al. (2023), in reporting on this research. 4. Result & Discussion In this development research, the researchers chose the ASSURE model based on several considerations, one of which was that the ASSURE development model was more system-oriented, thus an option for the researchers in producing good learning model designs. Therefore, in accordance with the ASSURE theory, the research was focused on reconstruction, the process of designing and developing learning models for English Education Department programs in Islamic religious universities in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic. From all the research design processes that were created and modified for the development of the ASSURE model by several experts, some of the steps taken by the researchers in developing products follow, some of which are described or designed based on an analysis of research needs. These steps were taken to determine the characteristics of the students, which involves identifying the students' aptitude, mindset, background, and preferences Analyzing learners The initial stage of the ASSURE model is the evaluation stage. This stage involves an evaluation of students, environment, and instructional resource requirements.. Moreover, it entails establishing the desired educational outcomes that need to be met to cater to the specific needs of the students. The needs analysis stage is carried out by first analyzing the circumstances and conditions of learning as the main source of information in the learning process. It relates to the implementation of learning, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. At this stage, researchers made suggestions related to ongoing teaching and learning activities for one semester at the English Education Departments in Islamic universities. The use of observation and field note instruments enabled researchers to analyze the data and describe the actual conditions. In addition, the researchers also interviewed 25 students representing the English Education Departments of five different Islamic universities. Their aim was to ascertain the procedures and stages of learning in the classroom during the COVID-19 pandemic. They wished to determine whether the students were quite satisfied with the methods of learning as applied by their lecturers. Most of the students indicated that the learning methods of the lecturers differed considerably and there seemed to be no special rules or standards. The students added that some of their lecturers made use of face-to-face virtual lectures
  • 15. 8 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter every week by using the Zoom or Google Meet applications. On the other hand, some only used WhatsApp as a teaching and learning tool without any face-to- face meetings at all, while yet others combined the two methods, by using both a virtual face-to-face process and a chat application. Thus, students often felt confused by the differences in the learning processes and suggested their lecturers and universities establish a clear standardization of the teaching and learning process. This was in line with the results of the analysis conducted by the researchers with lecturers at the English Education Departments of Islamic religious universities. From the results of interviews with five lecturers who teach in the English Language Study Program at five different Islamic universities, it was established that they did have different ways of teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic era. Furthermore, there was no official standardization laid down by their universities or the Ministry of Religious Affairs. According to them, despite their willingness to undertake the fully online teaching process at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, they felt they were not fully prepared for it, both in terms of human resources (HR) and in terms of supporting facilities. Therefore, what they had done for two semesters was more about survival since they were determined that the teaching and learning process should continue. Therefore, the lecturers also hoped that there would be an official learning model and standard that they could apply as their guide for teaching and learning in situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Stating standards and objectives The next stage was the process of determining the objectives of the research and the design of the product development. At this step the researchers began to design standardization and learning models based on the results of the needs analysis that had been conducted previously. Furthermore, the researchers drafted the design by determining the elements needed in the learning model such as compiling a classification of the needs of the teaching and learning process and the conditions experienced by students, lecturers, institutions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The researchers also collected references that could be used in developing learning models. From the findings of the previous stage, the researchers determined that in designing this research product it was necessary to have a synergy during face-to-face learning which could not be done physically. Therefore, the concept was changed to face-to-face meetings conducted virtually and supported by the learning process, using applications which were already familiar to both lecturers and students. This basic concept was the initial standardization and establishing of objectives formulated by the researchers at this stage. At this stage the researchers also developed an instrument that would be used to assess the learning model that had been developed. This concept is also supported by the connectivist learning theory that focuses on expanding the connection and networking activities (Chang et al., 2022). The instrument was prepared by considering aspects of the model assessment, namely the feasibility of using it in learning, the feasibility of the technology used, the feasibility of
  • 16. 9 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter conforming to circumstances and conditions, and the suitability of the approach used. The instruments were arranged in the form of model evaluation sheets (See Tables 2, 4 & 6). Selecting strategies, technology, media and materials The third phase of this development research comprises determining the strategy applied to the learning model. This is also supported by the determination of the media and materials involved in the ongoing research and development process. This development step is the product realization stage at which the learning model is developed in accordance with the design that has been established in the previous stage. After that, this research development product was validated by experts who were judged to have competence in the field of curriculum and English teaching strategies. In the validation process, the validators used instruments that had been prepared in the previous stage with the main assessment criteria being the suitability of the strategy to the current conditions, the suitability of media technology for the teaching process and the compatibility of the media as well as the material in the product developed, namely the teaching model, with the needs of analysis results and the conditions of the educational institution that was the subject of the research. The details of the teaching models as a result of this research can be seen in Table 1: Table 1:The construction of teaching model of blended learning for full online learning Meeting Activity Teaching-Learning Media 1 Introduction of the course with face-to-face virtual meeting Zoom/Google Meet 2 Delivery a lecture & giving some contextual examples related to the learning topic YouTube/Instagram 3 Group discussion about specific topic and giving individual project WhatsApp group/ Telegram 4 Continuing the group discussion and project reflection WhatsApp group/ Telegram/online academic campus portal 5 Face-to-face virtual meeting and project review Zoom/Google Meet 6 Holding quizes by maximizing features on Google Classroom WhatsApp group/ Telegram/Google Classroom 7 Group discussion WhatsApp group/ Telegram 8 Mid- Test Google Classroom/ Zoom/Google Forms 9 Delivering a lecture about general topic YouTube channel/ Instagram 10 Face-to-face meeting and mid-test feedback Zoom/Google Meet 11 Deep discussion related to specific topic and giving a group project WhatsApp group/ Telegram
  • 17. 10 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 12 Holding quizes by maximizing features on Yahoo Yahoo website 13 Group discussion about specific topic and group project reflection WhatsApp group/ Telegram 14 Continue the group discussion about specific topic and group project review WhatsApp group/ Telegram 15 Virtual face to face meeting and all topics review Google Classroom/ Zoom 16 Final Test Google Classroom/ Zoom/Google Forms Utilizing technology The fourth stage of the research process relates to the use of technology in the research development process. Based on the needs analysis, the objective of this research was to develop a product in the form of a teaching model that could be applied during learning in the COVID-19 pandemic. From first-hand experience it has been established that technology is the main supporting element on which online teaching and learning are based (Mariano-Dolesh et al., 2022). The use of technology in the research process of developing this product was thus imperative. In developing this teaching model, the technology used included Zoom, WhatsApp, Google Classroom, the YouTube channel and the academic system (SIAKAD). These applications were the most suitable options for the online teaching and learning process during the COVID-19 pandemic. Requiring learners' participation During the next phase, the lecturers applied the teaching model in their respective classes. They included several important aspects related to the field notes. This process is essential for establishing the actual conditions and serves as input for the next step of the research (Weng et al., 2022). After the completion of the trial process, five lecturers and 25 students as representatives of the trial participants were interviewed. The interviews were related to the suitability of applying the teaching model for seven meetings, the level of difficulty, activity steps, learning variations and the application of online learning applications, and the effect on their motivation and understanding of the material being taught.
  • 18. 11 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Figure 1: The result of preliminary analysis from students and lecturers After conducting interviews with the students, it was unanimously agreed that the teaching model created was highly appealing. This was because the teaching and learning methods used by the lecturers was not only focused on one strategy or application but included a variety. The teaching and learning process thus felt more real even though they were using a full online system. This view was also expressed by the five lecturers who had participated in the trial process, namely that the attractiveness of the teaching model that had been developed was impressive. They claimed that this teaching model had introduced new variations to the teaching process and had been proven to increase the participation of the students during classes. On the aspect of the level of difficulty in applying the teaching model to teaching and learning activities, the lecturers stated that the teaching model that had been developed was not too difficult to implement and relatively easy to follow. However, when the researchers asked whether there were parts that had been e difficult to apply during the trial process, the lecturers stated that in some ways they felt they had to be more active and busier than in face-to-face classes. Nevertheless, they understood that it was essential to pay more attention to the students. The students also expressed the same view when asked about the level of difficulty of this teaching model. However, they were not really concerned as they benefitted from more attention from the lecturers. Despite the online learning, they nevertheless experienced a learning atmosphere that closely resembled the face-to-face teaching and learning process. However, some had previously felt the lectures were too monotonous and not varied enough; therefore the online learning process seemed more rigid and they missed the face-to-face learning process. Regarding the instructional steps and learning variations in the teaching model, the lecturers indicated that the activities and organization of the model were well-designed, with logical and coherent sequencing of steps, and the utilization of various platforms and applications to support the learning process. Similarly, none of the students reported any dissatisfaction with the steps or organization of the teaching model. This indicates that the researchers were successful in 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Attractiveness of the teaching model (Impressive/ Very good) the level of difficulty Easy to follow) Activity steps (Different Atmosphere) Learning variations (Really nice) Instructional Online Steps & Learning Variations (Familiar… Lecturers Students
  • 19. 12 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter meeting the needs and expectations of both lecturers and students, as identified through the needs analysis conducted. In terms of applying online learning applications and their effect on students' learning motivation, the lecturers and students responded well. Because the lecturers themselves admitted that previously they had mostly only focused on using one or two online platforms in teaching classes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The main reason was that there was no official online learning process guide or standardization applied by the institution. As a result, most lecturers followed the same teaching and learning process during the COVID- 19 pandemic, making only a few adjustments. Therefore, when using the model developed in this study, the lecturers felt that their teaching methods were more varied by using a combination of several platforms such as Zoom, Google Classroom, WhatsApp, the YouTube channel and YouTube, without reducing the essence of the learning process. On the other hand, the students indicated that they appreciated the lecturers using this teaching model because it increase their motivation in learning and enhanced their understanding of the teaching material presented. They expressed the hope that the lecturers would continue to use the same teaching model until the end of the semester. Evaluating and revising The final stage of the study involved both formative and summative evaluations. Formative evaluation took place during the development stage of the teaching model, while summative evaluation occurred at the end of the development process using the ASSURE stage, as described by Aktas and Ozmen (2020). As part of the evaluation, a validation process was conducted to assess the feasibility and construction of the developed product. Validators, who were experts in the fields of curriculum as well as the development of teaching materials, and technology in teaching English, were asked to provide an assessment of the learning model's feasibility and offer suggestions and comments on the design. This would serve as a benchmark for revisions and improvements to the final product. The validation process was carried out through virtual meetings with the expert validators, and the data obtained from the model evaluation results were analyzed to determine the validity of the teaching model, as suggested by Asiyah et al. (2018). The instruments used for evaluation and validation included a checklist and a suggestion column. The teaching model's content, design, and context were the three main aspects that were validated by the expert validators. The researchers collaborated closely with the expert validators to ensure that the teaching material modules were adjusted based on their recommendations before they were validated. The results of the expert validation assessment regarding the contents of the development module can be seen in Tables 2 -7:
  • 20. 13 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Table 2: Teaching model content validation instrument No Indicator Assessment Remarks 5 4 3 2 1 1 The reasonableness between instructing substance and standard as well as fundamental capability.  Acceptable 2 The reasonableness between the instructing demonstrates substance and the study goals that will be accomplished.  Incredible 3 The reasonableness between the title and the fabric talked about.  Acceptable 4 Potential definition of the substantial ?  5 Chronological and efficient course of activity of the teaching appear ?  Incredible 6 The instructing show can encourage students' comprehension of education.  Acceptable 7 Precision in utilizing terms.  Neutral 8 Precision in utilizing innovation.  Acceptable 9 The educating demonstrate can encourage understudies in Internet based-education.  Acceptable 10 The instructional approach can promote face-to-face online meeting between lecturers and learners.  Acceptable 11 The instructional approach can encourage interaction between lecturers and learners in a virtual education process.  Acceptable 12 There is input within the assessment displayed.  Acceptable 13 The reasonableness of the curriculum and instructing model.  Acceptable Total 10 40 3 Incredible Percentage 81, 54 % (Adapted from Asiyah, 2019) Table 3: Data analysis results from model validation Validator Total Item Optimal Score Result % Qualification Additional 1 13 65 53 81,54 Incredible Have to be changed Based on the results of the development that was carried out, the validation result of the blended learning teaching model during the COVID-19 pandemic was 81.54%. Therefore, from the results of the validation, it can be concluded that the teaching model developed during this research is feasible to use and try out on students during the teaching and learning process (Sartono et al., 2022).
  • 21. 14 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter The second expert validation process is related to the design of the teaching model that has been developed. The detailed results of the validation carried out by expert validators can be seen in Table 4: Table 4: Result of the teaching model design validation design validation process by expert validator No Standard Assessment Remarks 5 4 3 2 1 1 The appeal of the pedagogical approach.  Acceptable 2 The lucidity of the instructions for utilizing the teaching methodology.  Acceptable 3 The appeal of the packaging of the teaching model.  Incredible 4 The visual appeal of the instructional approach model presented.  Acceptable 5 The instructional model empowers students to conduct self-evaluation.  Incredible 6 The instructional approach embodies the intended outcomes of the syllabus.  Incredible 7 The numerical values employed in every educational task.  Acceptable 8 The teaching model is amenable to self- directed study.  Acceptable 9 The simplicity of operating the teaching model (intuitive).  Acceptable 10 The instructional approach can serve as autonomous learning materials.  Incredible 11 The pedagogical approach offers the objective of the instructional process.  Incredible 12 The pedagogical approach offers comprehensive educational prospects (autonomous).  Acceptable 13 The pedagogical approach is in line with the advancement of science and technological development (flexible).  Acceptable 14 The pedagogical approach can enhance the virtual instructional process.  Incredible Total 30 32 Incredible Percentage 91, 43 % (Adapted from Asiyah, 2019) Table 5: Result of data analysis from teaching model design validation Validator Total Item Optimal Score Result % Qualification Additional 2 14 70 63 91,43 Incredible Have to be changed
  • 22. 15 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter The second characteristic that was evaluated and validated was the teaching model design (Dwijayani, 2019). The percentage of validation results carried out by design expert validators for blended learning teaching models during the COVID-19 pandemic was 91.43%. Thus, based on the results, it can be concluded that the developed model is feasible to use for experimentation on learners during their educational journey. Table 6: Context appropriate validation of teaching models No Standard Assessment Remarks 5 4 3 2 1 1 Clarity of instructions  Acceptable 2 The adherence to language conventions  Acceptable 3 The efficacy of sentences  Acceptable 4 The ability to convey messages  Acceptable 5 The utilization of terminology and icons  Acceptable 6 The comprehensibility of queries in the collaborative project section and personal practice drills  Acceptable 7 The comprehensibility of visuals presented in every web-based study action  Acceptable 8 The comprehensibility of the recapitulation, queries, and discourse  Acceptable 9 The appropriateness for the students' academic level  Neutral 10 The appropriateness for the students' emotional maturity  Acceptable 11 The precision in the application of punctuation  Neutral 12 The uniformity in the use of the term ‘clarity of instructions’  Incredible Total 5 36 6 Acceptable Percentage 78, 33 % (Adapted from Asiyah, 2019) Table 7: Data analysis of the context suitability validation process Validator Total Item Optimal Score Result % Qualification Additional 3 12 60 47 78,33 Acceptable Have to be changed The final stage in the validation process comprised evaluating the suitability of the context of the teaching model resulting from the development research. Based on the data above, the percentage of suitability context validation from expert validators was 78.33%. In this case, an expert validator stated that the suitability of the context offered in the teaching model resulting from the development research was generally good. Therefore, it was believed that there was no suggestion that was over-emphasized in this section. Based on the results of validation, evaluation, and input from three expert validators, it was
  • 23. 16 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter necessary to make revisions based on corrections and suggestions from the three experts so that the final product of this research would be much improved. Revising product development results After the validation process by the students, lecturers and experts had been completed, the teaching model was revised based on the corrections and suggestions from the experts. This stage was important in order to ensure a quality final product of the development research (Zalazar et al., 2021). Revisions made by the researchers relate to changes in teaching models that were not in accordance with the needs of the students and lecturers, spelling errors, structures that are not in accordance with the applicable curriculum, and suggestions to use more familiar platforms in teaching online. They stated that the aim of these revisions to the teaching model that had been developed were to ensure its efficacy and that it would meet the required standards in accordance with the objectives of this research. The model was intended as a guide for the learning process in English language study programs in particular and for all lecturers within the Islamic religious and other public universities in Indonesia in general. Furthermore, all suggestions from the experts such as revising the context, exercises and level of difficulty of the final product were very useful in improving the learning model to develop a better quality product. After passing all these stages, the teaching model was ready to be tested by lecturers in the actual learning process of the students of the English Education Departments of the Indonesian Islamic religious universities. Final Product The last stage in this study was to revise the blended learning teaching model over the pandemic or full online learning period as a result of development research. This was compiled based on some comments and inputs given by lecturers and students’ representatives during the trial process to produce teaching material products in the form of teaching models. This was considered to be a good solution for the full online learning system during the pandemic. This was also conveyed by three expert validators who recommended the process of improving this teaching model after trials had been carried out so that this teaching model would be excellent in terms of content. Hence, the authors are optimistic that the instructional model resulting from this advancement investigation would be beneficial not only to students in the English Education Departments at Indonesian Islamic religious universities, but also to a wider range of students enrolled in all universities throughout Indonesia.
  • 24. 17 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Figure 2: Stages of the blended learning teaching model for the full online learning system during the pandemic in the English Tadris Study Program 5. Conclusion This research activity was focussed on lecturers and students of the English Education Departments of five Islamic religious universities in Indonesia. The output of this study is in the form of a teaching model that is intended as a standardization and benchmark for lecturers in the teaching and learning process in fully online classes during the pandemic. The product of development research in the form of a teaching model was developed using the ASSURE method. In addition, the study suggests that the fully online learning process in the English language study program in the Islamic religious universities in Indonesia during a pandemic needs to be re-constructed. Clear learning models and guidelines would facilitate the teaching and learning process for lecturers and students, respectively. Therefore, blended learning is a solution and plays a major role in the reconstruction of this teaching model. However, what needs to be understood is that blended learning, known as a direct face-to-face learning process, has been interpreted as virtual face-to-face learning during a pandemic. Hence, the value of blended learning applied to this teaching model is that it is a virtual face-to-face medium. In addition, the maximum use of technological devices has been utilized as the main support system in the entire teaching process that is also supported by connectivist theory. Therefore the product of this research is expected to be able to make a contribution as an alternative teaching model that
  • 25. 18 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter can be applied by lecturers in teaching and learning at Islamic religious universities, especially in the English Education Departments, when faced with a fully online learning situation as experienced during the previous pandemic. 6. References Adnan, N. I., Abidin, M. J. Z., & Hakim, M. A. R. (2020). Improving Malaysian working adults’ confidence concerning willingness to communicate (WTC) in English using OCS module. TEST Engineering and Management, 82, 10190-10200. Aktaş, İ., & Özmen, H. (2020). Investigating the impact of TPACK development course on pre-service science teachers’ performances. Asia Pacific Education Review, 21(4), 667-682. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-020-09653-x Affandi, M., Dalimunthe, A., & Suryanto, E. (2022, May). Microprocessor practicum module development using ASSURE model. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Science Education in Industrial Revolution 4.0, ICONSEIR 2021, December 21st, 2021, Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia. http://dx.doi.org/10.4108/eai.21-12-2021.2317341 Asiyah, A., Syafri, F., & Hakim, M. A. R. (2018). PengembanganMateri Ajar Animasi Bahasa InggrisBagiUsia Dini di Kota Bengkulu [Development of English animation teaching materials for early ages in Bengkulu City]. AWLADY: Jurnal Pendidikan Anak, 4(1), 30-49. https://doi.org.10.24235/awlady.v4i1.2063 Asiyah, A. (2019). Pengembangan Modul PembelajaranMatakuliahIlmuAlamiah Dasar Terintegrasi Nilai-Nilai Islam Di FakultasTarbiyah dan TadrisInstitut Agama Islam Negeri Bengkulu [Development of learning modules for integrated basic natural sciences course of Islamic values at the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Tadris State Islamic Institute of Bengkulu] [Doctoral dissertation, IAIN Bengkulu]. Bruggeman, B., Tondeur, J., Struyven, K., Pynoo, B., Garone, A., & Vanslambrouck, S. (2021). Experts speaking: Crucial teacher attributes for implementing blended learning in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 48, 100772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2020.100772 Cancino, M., & Capredoni, R. (2020). Assessing pre-service EFL teachers' perceptions regarding an online student response system. Taiwan Journal of TESOL, 17(2), 91- 118. https://doi.org/10.30397/TJTESOL.202010_17(2).0004 Chang, M., Walimuni, A. C., Kim, M. C., & Lim, H. S. (2022). Acceptance of tourism blockchain based on UTAUT and connectivism theory. Technology in Society, 71, 102027. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2022.102027 Contreras, C. P., Picazo, D., Cordero-Hidalgo, A., & Chaparro-Medina, P. M. (2021). Challenges of virtual education during the COVID-19 pandemic: Experiences of Mexican university professors and students. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 20(3), 188-204.doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.20.3.12 Daghigh, J., & Rahim, A. (2021). Neoliberalism in ELT textbooks: An analysis of locally developed and imported textbooks used in Malaysia. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 29(3), 493-512. https://doi.org/10.1080/14681366.2020.1755888 Dwijayani, N. M. (2019, October). Development of circle learning media to improve student learning outcomes. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1321 (2) 022099. IOP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1080/14681366.2020.1755888doi.org/10.1088/1742- 6596/1321/2/022099 Fauzi, R. A., & Asri, Y. (2021, March). Barriers and solutions in online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, Indonesian language education students at the Riau Islamic University. In Ninth International Conference on Language and Arts (ICLA 2020) (pp. 14-18). Atlantis Press.
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  • 27. 20 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter mathematics teachers in an online learning environment. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 21(6), 18-33. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.21.6.2 Munastiwi, E., & Puryono, S. (2021). Unprepared management decreases education performance in kindergartens during COVID-19 pandemic. Heliyon, 7(5), e07138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07138 Natow, R. S. (2020). The use of triangulation in qualitative studies employing elite interviews. Qualitative Research, 20(2), 160-173. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794119830 Sartono, E., Sekarwangi, T., & Herwin, H. (2022). Interactive multimedia based on cultural diversity to improve the understanding of civic concepts and learning motivation. World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues, 14(2), 356-368. https://doi.org/10.18844/wjet.v14i2.6909 Sileyew, K. J. (2019). Research design and methodology IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.8573 Smith, K., & Hill, J. (2019). Defining the nature of blended learning through its depiction in current research. Higher Education Research & Development, 38(2), 383-397. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2018.1517732 Subbarao, S. S., & Kadali, R. (2022). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on the public transportation system and strategic plans to improve PT ridership: A review. Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 7, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062-021-00693-9 Yunus, S., Mariyudi, M., & Abubakar, M. B. (2023). Strategies for optimizing learning activities during the pandemic and new normal. Cogent Social Sciences, 9(1), 2175491. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2023.2175491 Walsh, S., & Mann, S. (Eds.). (2019). The Routledge handbook of English language teacher education. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315659824 Weng, X., Cui, Z., Ng, O. L., Jong, M. S., & Chiu, T. K. (2022). Characterizing students’ 4C skills development during problem-based digital making. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 31(3), 372-385. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-022- 09961-4 Zalazar-Jaime, M. F., Moretti, L. S., García-Batista, Z. E., & Medrano, L. A. (2021). Evaluation of an academic satisfaction model in E-learning education contexts. Interactive Learning Environments, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2021.1979047 Zubaedi, Hakim, M. A. R., & Asiyah. (2020). The use of the ASSURE model in developing animation video as English teaching materials for Islamic kindergarten students. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 11(10), 1-19.
  • 28. 21 ©Authors This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 21-35, April 2023 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.4.2 Received Feb 27, 2023; Revised Apr 10, 2023; Accepted Apr 22, 2023 The Impact of Online Self-Assessment on Learning Outcomes and Self-Assessment Skills Among Grade 11 Students in Vietnam Tran Thi Ngoc Anh* University of Education, Hue University, Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam Nhi Thi Nguyen Vinh University, Nghe An, Vietnam An Thi Tan Nguyen University of Education, Hue University, Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam Abstract. The application of information technology to self-assessment has received a lot of attention in recent years. Several previous studies have discovered a positive relationship between online self-assessment and academic performance. This study aimed to confirm the relationship between online self-assessment and learning outcomes and self- assessment skills among grade 11 students in Vietnam. With a total of 160 students, this research had been designed as quasi-experimental. The two groups did the self-assessment in different ways over the six weeks of impact implementation. To perform an online self-assessment, the intervention group employed interactive online exercises that delivered instant feedback on Liveworksheets. Throughout this period, the control group engaged in traditional self-assessment. The study found that the intervention group’s final test scores (7.7) were higher than the control group’s (6.3), and their self-assessment skills were more developed at the end of the study. The study confirms the positive relationship between online self-assessment and learning outcomes and self-assessment skills among grade 11 students in Vietnam. The findings suggest that online interactive exercises with immediate feedback can improve learning outcomes and that regular online self-assessment can enhance students’ self-assessment skills. Conceptually, this study contributes to the growing body of research on the application of information technology in education and gives insight into the potential of online self-assessment as a promising tool to promote student learning and development. The results of this study can serve as early data to investigate the effectiveness of online self-assessment in diverse educational settings. * Corresponding author: Tran Thi Ngoc Anh, tranthingocanh@dhsphue.edu.vn & tranthingocanh@hueuni.edu.vn
  • 29. http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 22 Keywords: interactive online exercises; learning outcomes; online self- assessment; self-assessment; skill 1. Introduction Self-assessment plays a crucial role in self-regulated learning (Andrade, 2019; Garrido Astray et al., 2019; Yan, 2020). While not a new concept, self- assessment has been identified in numerous previous studies as the learners’ ability to plan, monitor, and control their thoughts, feelings, and actions (Hadwin et al., 2015; Karmaker, 2020; Punhagui & De Souza, 2013; Schumacher et al., 2013; Steuber et al., 2017; Wolters & Benzon, 2013). In education, self- assessment refers to learners’ capacity to evaluate and monitor their understanding of a specific subject area (Boud et al., 2015). Alternatively, self- assessment is defined as a cyclical process that enhances learners’ skills by detecting the gap between present ability and desired ability (Yew et al., 2016). A critical aspect of the learning journey is the process of self-assessment, in which individuals engage in a reflective evaluation of their learning, abilities, and skills to determine their areas of proficiency, as well as limitations, and establish objectives for personal growth and improvement. It not only promotes better self-awareness in learners but also enables them to take charge of their academic advancement. As a result, self-assessment is extremely important as an integral element of the learning process since it allows students to get a full awareness of their cognitive capacities and take responsibility for their growth and development. Several studies have found that self-assessment empowers students to become owners of their learning (Azar & Tanggaraju, 2020; Luo et al., 2021; Mäenpää et al., 2020; Oh et al., 2021; Rini et al., 2020; Rizk, 2016; Wiliam & Leahy, 2020); other studies describe it as making learners co-owners of the learning process by having them critically reflect on their learning while addressing the needs of the learning task (Fletcher, 2016; Muñoz-Escalona et al., 2018). This process allows learners to review previous course content, assess their knowledge, and identify their weak points (Elkhatat et al., 2021), motivating them to learn actively (Styers et al., 2018) and influencing their self-regulated learning (Papanthymou & Darra, 2018). Whether the student is a “owner” or a “co-owner”, self-assessment requires that learners be aware of the goals of a task and monitor their own progress toward them. The act of self-assessment, that is, engaging in a self-reflective process that enables individuals to discern their own unique learning styles, preferences and needs, is a crucial aspect of the pedagogical journey. Through self-reflection, learners can gain a more profound comprehension of their own cognitive faculties, enabling them to identify the modalities and approaches that are most efficacious for their learning. Consequently, the process of self-assessment becomes an invaluable tool for learners, providing them with the ability to optimize their academic output and achieve their goals in a more expeditious manner. Additionally, by engaging in self-assessment, students are better equipped to identify their areas of difficulty, enabling them
  • 30. http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 23 to seek out the necessary assistance from their instructors or peers, and ultimately overcoming any obstacles that may hinder their academic success. Therefore, self-assessment is an indispensable component of the learning process, contributing to the growth and development of learners, and promoting a culture of self-directed and autonomous learning. As a result, learners must develop the ability to analyze task requirements, set learning goals, and track their understanding, as they actively participate in the learning process (Meusen-Beekman et al., 2016; Ratminingsih et al., 2018; Tur et al., 2019; Wallin & Adawi, 2018; Wanner & Palmer, 2018). Self-assessment can also help students develop critical thinking skills, as they learn to evaluate their own work and identify areas for improvement. By setting goals and tracking their progress, students can become more motivated and engaged in the learning process. The role of self-assessment in the learning process is to provide students with a tool to evaluate their own learning and identify areas where they need to improve. Self-assessment can also help teachers identify areas where students may be struggling, and provide targeted support to help them overcome those challenges (Alseddiqi et al., 2012; Childress et al., 2020; Ishikawa et al., 2021; Rick & Phlypo, 2019). In order to be effective, self-assessment should be an ongoing process that is integrated into the learning environment. Students should be taught how to self-assess and given opportunities to practice and refine their skills. Teachers can also provide feedback and support to help students develop their self-assessment skills. Overall, self-assessment is a valuable tool for students to take control of their own learning, identify areas where they need to improve, and set goals for future growth and success. With the trend of incorporating information technology into teaching, self- assessment is not insusceptible to this influence (Borg & Edmett, 2019; Chang & Wu, 2018; Christensen & Knezek, 2017). The transition from traditional paper-based self-assessments to online self-assessments on mobile devices is taking place (Ching-Ter et al., 2017; Scherer et al., 2015; Valtins et al., 2020). Online self-assessment has been shown to be an effective self-regulated learning method in a variety of subjects (Fan et al., 2021; Koehler & Meech, 2022; Lawson et al., 2012). Online self-assessments can be accessed anytime and anywhere, making it easier for students to complete them. Students can complete assessments on their own devices, reducing the need for paper-based assessments and making it easier to keep track of their progress. Automatic scoring of online self- assessments reduces the time and resources required to grade assessments manually. This can also provide students with immediate feedback, allowing them to address areas of weakness more quickly. Many studies show that online self-assessment has a positive impact on student learning and motivation (Nikou & Economides, 2016). Additionally, online self-assessments can be more engaging than traditional paper-based assessments. Multimedia elements, such as videos, images, and interactive activities, for example, can be incorporated into online assessments
  • 31. http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 24 to make them more visually appealing and interactive. Therefore, students are less stressed as a result of taking online self-assessments (Stančić, 2021). When students feel at ease taking an assessment, their participation in the assessment process increases, which promotes self-efficacy (Seifert & Feliks, 2019). Furthermore, it is used to increase student motivation in a variety of learning contexts, such as flipped classroom courses or online courses (Broadbent et al., 2021; Cacciamani et al., 2021; Lock et al., 2021). Learners can easily communicate with classmates and teachers through social networks and communities at any time and from any location in order to assess their knowledge and receive immediate feedback using the online assessment system (Lesage et al., 2015; Y. N. Lin et al., 2019). Online self-assessments can provide valuable data for teachers to analyze. Teachers can use this data to identify trends and patterns in student performance, and to adjust their teaching strategies accordingly. As a result, teachers can focus more on activities that require students to interact physically while teaching in the classroom. Academic performance, student motivation, and engagement in blended learning and online learning have piqued the interest of researchers in recent years (Azizan et al., 2014; X. Chen et al., 2020; Lo et al., 2020; Paniagua & Simpson, 2018; Tsai et al., 2020). Students in Vietnam have had little experience with online self-assessment, even though, previous to the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of information technology in teaching and assessment was widespread across many schools and subjects (Anh et al., 2021). However, it was not until the post-COVID-19, normal period that synchronous and widespread digital transformation in teaching activities was implemented. The current literature on the impact of online self-assessment on academic performance and self-assessment skills lacks research conducted in Vietnam. Existing findings may not be applicable, as the country’s educational system and cultural values differ from those of other countries where similar studies have been conducted. As a result, the goal of this study was to create an online self-assessment tool for grade 11 physics students and to investigate the impact of online self-assessment outside of classroom hours. Given the potential benefits of online self-assessment, it is important to investigate whether it can improve students’ learning outcomes and self- assessment skills in the Vietnamese context. Therefore, this study aims to address the following research questions: 1. What is the relationship between online self-assessment and learning outcomes among grade 11 students in Vietnam? 2. Can online interactive exercises with immediate feedback improve learning outcomes compared to traditional self-assessment methods? 3. Does regular online self-assessment enhance students’ self-assessment skills? Liveworksheets is a platform designed to assist teachers in creating interactive worksheets that can be completed by students online (Bārdule, 2021). These worksheets incorporate various question types commonly used in self-
  • 32. http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 25 assessments, such as multiple choice, drag and drop, pairing, fill in the gaps, and others. The platform is a tool for producing interactive worksheets that present material in different formats and question styles (Rudenko et al., 2021). Liveworksheets provides various customization options, including the integration of multimedia elements, such as audio, videos, and images, that can enhance the engagement of students during self-assessments. Additionally, the platform allows teachers to effortlessly share the worksheets with their students via email, messaging apps, or a learning management system. By using Liveworksheets, teachers can create interactive exercises that offer a more dynamic and engaging self-assessment experience for students. The ability to personalize the worksheets with multimedia elements and the ease of sharing them make Liveworksheets a valuable tool for educators seeking to facilitate student learning and self-assessment. With Liveworksheets, teachers can input conventional exercises in the form of PDF or Word files and transform them into interactive online exercises in several formats. This application simplifies the process of creating engaging and interactive exercises that can aid in student learning and self-assessment. The use of Liveworksheets is an innovative approach to online learning. It allows for real-time feedback and interaction between the students and the teacher, which can improve the effectiveness of the learning process. In this study, we used Liveworksheets, an online platform that provides interactive activities and immediate feedback to students. Liveworksheets is effective in promoting student engagement, motivation, and learning outcomes in previous studies (Daher et al., 2022). The use of Liveworksheets in this study represents a novel approach to online self-assessment in Vietnam. This study’s focus on grade 11 students and their self-assessment skills adds to the existing literature by examining a specific age group that has received limited attention in the literature. Furthermore, the study’s use of the quasi- experimental method, with a control group, helps address the limitations of previous studies in this area. Finally, this study’s findings can provide valuable insights for educators and policymakers on the potential benefits of online self- assessment in promoting student learning outcomes and self-assessment skills in Vietnam and other similar contexts. 2. Material and Methods The study utilized a quasi-experimental design that involved two groups: an intervention group and a control group. The study’s population consisted of grade 11 students in Vietnam, and the sample size was 160. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling technique to ensure that they met the inclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria included being a student in grade 11, having access to a computer with an internet connection, and giving informed consent to participate in the study. All students were informed that their Liveworksheets online self-assessments and academic results would be recorded, and that their personal information would be anonymized for research purposes. This policy was accepted by all participants.
  • 33. http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 26 The two groups were then randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. After each lesson, both the control and intervention groups completed self-assessment exercises related to the week’s content outside of class time. The intervention group received interactive online exercises that delivered instant feedback on Liveworksheets based on the links or QR codes provided by the teacher, while the control group engaged in traditional self- assessment. During the online self-assessment, students carried out different assignments as required and obtained instant feedback on their responses upon completing each task. At the same time, the teacher received email notification of the outcomes. We explicitly stated that students’ performance on the online self-assessments would not impact their final test scores to discourage any attempts to cheat or seek answers from study materials during the assessment. At the end of the six weeks, both groups completed a post-test to assess their learning outcomes and self-assessment skills. To measure students’ learning outcomes, a pre-test, and a post-test were administered to both groups. The test comprised of multiple-choice questions that assessed the students’ understanding of the topics covered in the self- assessment. The test was scored out of 10, and the student’s scores were recorded for analysis. To measure the students’ self-assessment skills, a self-assessment rubric was developed. The self-assessment skills of students in the intervention group were compared before and after participating in the intervention. The self- assessment skills’ scale consisted of eight criteria, which were as follows: 1. Recognizing assessment and self-assessing learning outcomes. 2. Collecting and processing information on learning outcomes. 3. Establishing learning objectives and tasks. 4. Comparing learning outcomes with established objectives and tasks. 5. Creating and revising study plans. 6. Implementing the proposed study plan. 7. Reflecting on personal strengths and weaknesses. 8. Developing a plan for personal capacity enhancement. Each criterion was scored on a scale of 1 to 3, with 1 representing the lowest and 3 representing the highest level of attainment. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics, such as means and standard deviations, were used to summarize the data. Inferential statistics, such as independent samples t-test was used to compare the final test scores between the intervention and control groups, and ANOVA was used to compare the pre- and post-intervention self- assessment skills of the intervention group. The p-value was set at 0.05, and all statistical tests were two-tailed. Overall, the study’s quasi-experimental design was robust and allowed for a thorough investigation of the relationship between online self-assessment and learning outcomes and self-assessment skills among grade 11 students in Vietnam. The selection of participants, the random assignment of participants
  • 34. http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 27 to groups, and the use of pre- and post-tests and a self-assessment rubric all contributed to the validity and reliability of the study’s findings. 3. Results The study aimed to confirm the relationship between online self-assessment and learning outcomes and self-assessment skills among grade 11 students in Vietnam. The study involved 160 students and was conducted over six weeks. The intervention group employed interactive online exercises that delivered immediate feedback on Liveworksheets for online self-assessment. The control group, in contrast, engaged in traditional self-assessment. The statistical analysis conducted to support these findings included the use of the t-test and ANOVA. SPSS software was used to analyze and compare the learning outcomes of the control and intervention group. Table 1 shows the results of the statistical test of the difference between the intervention and control groups’ final test scores. Table 1: A summary of the test’s average statistical parameters Group n M SD Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances Sig. (2- tailed) F Sig. Intervention 80 7.7 0.28 1.824 0.161 0.005 Control 80 6.3 0.34 The results of Levene’s test for Sig = 0.161 > 0.05 show that the variance of the test mean between the intervention and control groups is not different. The test results on the difference between the two mean values of the tests between the intervention group and the control group had Sig = 0.005 < 0.05. As a result, there is a difference in the mean score of the test between the intervention and control groups. The intervention group’s mean test score was 7.7 points higher than the control group’s mean score of 6.3. This demonstrates that there is a difference in learning outcomes between the intervention and control groups after the impact of online self-assessment via Liveworksheets. It also shows a positive relationship between online self-assessment and learning outcomes. The intervention group’s self-assessment skills were analyzed and compared using pre- and post-test data. The average scores of the criteria of self- assessment skills of students in the intervention group are shown in Table 2 based on statistics of points according to the level of each criterion: Table 2: Student self-assessment skills in the intervention group Criteria Pre-test Post-test M SD M SD 1 1.48 0.64 2.49 0.68 2 1.44 0.59 2.35 0.73
  • 35. http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 28 3 1.68 0.73 2.50 0.62 4 1.54 0.64 2.15 0.64 5 1.36 0.58 2.34 0.67 6 1.38 0.58 2.25 0.72 7 1.61 0.70 2.63 0.56 8 1.50 0.57 2.44 0.74 Table 2 displays the average scores and standard deviations for each criterion of self-assessment skills for students in the intervention group in two evaluations, prior to and after the pedagogical experiment. The findings show that after six weeks of impact, students’ self-assessment skills improved in all criteria, more or less. As a whole, the study confirmed the positive relationship between online self- assessment and learning outcomes and self-assessment skills among grade 11 students in Vietnam. The findings suggest that interactive online exercises with immediate feedback can improve learning outcomes, and regular online self- assessment can enhance students’ self-assessment skills. 4. Discussion One novel finding in this study is the effectiveness of interactive online exercises with immediate feedback on Liveworksheets in improving learning outcomes and self-assessment skills among grade 11 students in Vietnam. This study builds upon previous research that has found a positive relationship between online self-assessment and learning outcomes (Prisacari & Danielson, 2017) but goes a step further by demonstrating the specific benefits of interactive online exercises with immediate feedback. This finding is particularly relevant in the current educational landscape, where many schools are turning to online and blended learning models due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of interactive online tasks with immediate feedback can help educators facilitate self-assessment and improve student learning outcomes, even in virtual environments. This finding is consistent with previous research that has shown the effectiveness of online self-assessment tools in promoting self-regulated learning and improving academic performance (Alanzi, 2021; Hsu et al., 2022; Pinto-Llorente et al., 2017). Online self-assessment allows students assess themselves whenever and wherever they want, which helps to alleviate the anxiety and pressure that some students feel when using traditional assessment methods (Tay, 2015; Yang et al., 2022). Furthermore, technology-based self-assessment tools frequently include features that encourage learners to interact with the system and motivate them to learn (Rodríguez et al., 2019). Motivation is a critical factor in student learning (Azar & Tanggaraju, 2020; Lin et al., 2017; Luo et al., 2021; Mäenpää et al., 2020; Oh et al., 2021; Rini et al., 2020; Tokan & Imakulata, 2019). Furthermore, the features of assessment tools via interactive online
  • 36. http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 29 exercises encourage students to view self-assessment as an enjoyable task that they can master. This leads to increased academic engagement and success. Because COVID-19 required many teaching activities to be conducted online, educators were looking for ways to improve student learning through the use of online tools (Katsarou & Chatzipanagiotou, 2021; Strauß & Rummel, 2020; Yusof et al., 2022). Many studies have been conducted on the use of information technology in the teaching of physics in high schools; however, very few studies have been conducted on the impact of online self-assessment on student learning outcomes in Vietnam. In most cases, self-assessment is an important learning characteristic because it allows students to accurately reflect on their work and progress. Effective self- assessment is frequently associated with high scores, which is an intriguing discovery to share. As a result, our case study on the relationship between online self-assessment, self-assessment skills, and academic performance raises critical issues for future practice and research. Nevertheless, there were several limitations to this study that should be considered. One of these limitations was the small sample size, which may limit the generalizability of the findings to other populations and contexts. Future research could replicate this study with a larger sample size to increase the external validity of the results. Additionally, this study did not control for other factors that may have influenced the development of self-assessment skills, such as prior knowledge and motivation. Further research could investigate the causal mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of Liveworksheets for promoting self-assessment skills by using intervention designs that control these factors. Furthermore, the role of the teacher in the use of Liveworksheets should also be considered. Although Liveworksheets can be an effective tool for promoting self-assessment skills, the teacher’s guidance and feedback are essential in helping students develop these skills. Teachers should provide clear instructions on how to use Liveworksheets for self-assessment, as well as timely feedback on students’ self-assessment performance. 5. Conclusion The online self-assessment on Liveworksheets is not only appropriate for improving learning efficiency but also for objectively assessing learners’ self- assessment skills. These findings are useful for learning analytics researchers and practitioners interested in using online self-assessment for learning. Using multimedia resources in conjunction with immediate feedback is an appropriate solution for creating an online self-assessment environment for learners, contributing to digital transformation in educational activities, and meeting the current trend of globalization. Despite several limitations, this study adds to the growing body of research on the effectiveness of online self-assessment tools and provides a foundation for future research in this area. It is hoped that the findings of this study will encourage educators to explore the potential benefits of using Liveworksheets
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