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International Journal
of
Learning, Teaching
And
Educational Research
p-ISSN:
1694-2493
e-ISSN:
1694-2116
IJLTER.ORG
Vol.22 No.11
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
(IJLTER)
Vol. 22, No. 11 (November 2023)
Print version: 1694-2493
Online version: 1694-2116
IJLTER
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER)
Vol. 22, No. 11
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International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
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Foreword
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and Educational Research.
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Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to
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We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal
with this issue.
Editors of the November 2023 Issue
VOLUME 22 NUMBER 11 November 2023
Table of Contents
Improving the Reading and Writing Skills of Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: The Effectiveness of
Infographics................................................................................................................................................................................1
Sherif Adel Gaber, Sahar Farouk Allam, Maha Abdul-Moniem El-Amin, Awatif Mahmoud Hamad, Nairra Ess Elsaied
Abdel Fattah, Alia Hamed Ibrahim, Sumaia Attia Al Hasan, Omar Ahmed Al-Ali, Hanem Mostafa Alboray
Preserving and Nurturing Tausug Language: The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application Tool for Enhancing
Mother Tongue Development for Toddlers.........................................................................................................................18
Shernahar K. Tahil, Jonel T. Alibasa, Shamier – Rahman K. Tahil, Jeanor Marsin, Shanaia – Shedri K. Tahil
Challenges Facing Enforcement of University Quality Assurance Standards in Fostering Compliance in Tanzania
....................................................................................................................................................................................................36
Daudi Mrema, Irénée Ndayambaje, Philothère Ntawiha, Eugene Ndabaga
Teachers’ Perceptions of the DBR-CPD Program as a Change in Pedagogical Practice in the Professional
Development of EFL Teachers...............................................................................................................................................59
Hasan Mohsen Al-Wadi
Teacher Professional Development through the Teacher Education Program (PPG) at Islamic Education
Institutions................................................................................................................................................................................80
Mardhiah Mardhiah, Awaliah Musgamy, Mukhlis Lubis
Proficiency Preparedness in Defence Workforce: A Survey of Cadet Officers’ English Language Needs................96
Nur Khadirah Ab. Rahman, Melor Md Yunus, Nurfaradilla Mohamad Nasri, Emily Abd Rahman
Exploring the Augmented and Alternative Communication (AAC) for Promoting Independence in Daily Skills of
Students with Learning Disabilities....................................................................................................................................116
Rozniza Zaharudin, Nurul Ashikin Izhar, Deekha Lai Hwa
Potential Implications of Task-Based Language Teaching on Developing EFL Learners' Oral Fluency................. 130
Eulices Cordoba Zúñiga, Esteban Mayorga, Nancy Ruiz
Constructing a Teaching-Ability Evaluation System for Chinese Student Teachers using Delphi and Analytical
Hierarchical Process Methods............................................................................................................................................. 150
Liyuan Chen, Qian Liu
Awareness and Confidence of Vietnamese Primary School Teachers towards STEM-Integrated Teaching
Approach................................................................................................................................................................................ 170
The Hung Anh Mai, Thi Thanh Hoi Phan, Duc Duy Phan, Thi Thuy Trang Nguyen
Effects of Cognitively Guided Instruction on Senior Secondary School Students’ Attitude towards Physics........188
Uchenna Kingsley Okeke, Sam Ramaila, Edidiong E Ukoh
Quality Improvement in Inclusive Education for Support Systems and Attitudes - Evidence form the Sichuan
Province of China.................................................................................................................................................................. 212
She Wan bin, Pong Horadal, Sombat Teekasap, Guo Ling
Relationship between Pedagogical Leadership and Teachers' Job Performance as Mediated by Organizational
Commitment.......................................................................................................................................................................... 243
Kelemu Zelalem Berhanu
Utilization of Writing Assistance Tools in Research in Selected Higher Learning Institutions in the Philippines: A
Text Mining Analysis............................................................................................................................................................259
Cereneo Jr Sailog Santiago, Steve Inting Embang, Ricky B Acanto, Kem Warren P Ambojia, Maico Demi P Aperocho,
Benedicto B Balilo Jr, Erwin Lanceta Cahapin, Marjohn Thomas N Conlu, Samson Mahidlawon Lausa, Ester Young Laput,
Beverly Ambagan Malabag, Jerby J Paderes, Joan Katherine N Romasanta
Academics’ Perspectives on the Nature and Tradition of Appointments of University Leaders at a Cameroonian
University............................................................................................................................................................................... 285
Novel Lena Folabit, Sarasvathie Reddy, Loyiso Currell Jita
Promoting Multicultural Education in the Middle East: Perception and Practice...................................................... 303
Nahla M. Moussa, Moustafa M. Abdelmawla, Jehad Mousa
Integrated Leadership Effect on Teacher Satisfaction: Mediating Effects of Teacher Collaboration and Professional
Development.......................................................................................................................................................................... 321
Fiskia Rera Baharuddin, Amiruddin Amiruddin, A. Muhammad Idkhan
Digital Competences: Early Childhood Teachers’ Beliefs and Perceptions of ChatGPT Application in Teaching
English as a Second Language (ESL).................................................................................................................................. 343
Sabha Hakim Allehyani, Mohammed Abdullah Algamdi
Construction of Measurement and Investigation of the Role of Classroom Climate on Students' Knowledge and
Attitudes in the Learning Process....................................................................................................................................... 364
Usep Soepudin, Dasim Budimansyah, Mupid Hidayat, Momod Abdul Somad
Online Interaction Techniques Used at a Rural-Based University: Implications for Online Pedagogy...................384
Cosmas Maphosa, Geesje van den Berg
Implementing Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge from the Social Studies Learning
Management Perspective..................................................................................................................................................... 401
Ruth Sriana Umbase
Notes of Digital Refugees: Understanding the Plight of Senior Faculty in Online Teaching.................................... 419
Ruth Ladip Ladwingon, Zorayda Calaycay Gavino, Angeline Badong Valdez, Rodemelia Bustamante Bangat
Analyzing Essential Aspects of Developing English Paragraphs Based on Comparing Levels Five and Nine of
EFL Students...........................................................................................................................................................................436
Mashael Abdullah Alnefaie
The Mediating Role of Dynamic Leadership Towards the Relationship Between Knowledge-Sharing Behaviour
and Innovation Performance in Higher Education.......................................................................................................... 466
Masduki Asbari, John Tampil Purba, Evo Sampetua Hariandja, Niko Sudibjo
1
©Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0
International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 22, No. 11, pp. 1-17, November 2023
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.11.1
Received Sep 24, 2023; Revised Nov 5, 2023; Accepted Nov 14, 2023
Improving the Reading and Writing Skills of
Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: The
Effectiveness of Infographics
Sherif Adel Gaber*
Faculty of Education, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Sahar Farouk Allam
Faculty of Education, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Faculty of Women, Ain Shams University, Egypt
Maha Abdul-Moniem El-Amin , Awatif Mahmoud Hamad ,
Nairra Ess Elsaied Abdel Fattah , Alia Hamed Ibrahim ,
Sumaia Attia Al Hasan , Omar Ahmed Al-Ali
Faculty of Education, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Hanem Mostafa Alboray
Faculty of Education, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Egypt
Abstract. Infographics are considered an effective educational tool to
simplify complex information and make it more understandable and
absorbable. However, applying this technology to teaching students with
an intellectual disability (ID) may be challenging. The current research
aimed to verify the effectiveness of the three types of infographics (static,
motion and interactive) in improving the reading and writing skills of a
sample of 48 students aged 7-10 with mild ID (MID) in an intellectual
education programme attached to general education schools in Al-Ahsa
in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A quasi-experimental design was taken,
in which the research sample was divided into four groups of equal
numbers, namely, three experimental groups and a control group. The
researchers prepared a reading and writing skills scale (RWSC), verified
its validity and reliability, and applied it to the three research groups
before and after implementing the three training programmes. The
results of the research showed the effectiveness of the three types of
infographics (interactive, motion, and static) in developing the reading
and writing skills of the research sample. The study suggests using three
types of infographics to teach reading and writing to students with MID.
*
Corresponding author: Sherif Adel Gaber; Email: sagahmed@kfu.edu.sa
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It suggests further exploration of interactive infographics in future
research to improve their skills. The use of these educational infographics
in academic subjects saves teachers time and effort, while using them in
textbooks helps students retain and understand information more easily.
Further research is needed to explore the use of interactive infographics
as a teaching tool.
Keywords: infographics; reading skills; writing skills; intellectual
disability
1. Background of the Study
Countries, institutions and individuals have joined forces at all levels to achieve
the best learning outcomes as possible. Given the available capabilities and
circumstances, among education sectors, guidance, entertainment, and other
programmes targeting persons with disabilities and their families, enhancing
learning outcomes is feasible. Implementing such initiatives is an indication of
national civilisation and represents the realisation of noble human and
civilisational principles that preserve the rights of persons. Empowering
individuals with disabilities in society to fulfil their roles and contribute to their
countries’ development is a fundamental principle.
The Education Strategy 2016–2020 in Saudi Arabia aimed to provide equitable
quality education in the least restrictive environments, enhancing lifelong
opportunities for all individuals, including students with disabilities, across all
regions (Saudi Ministry of Education, 2023). To ensure effective education,
societies must access advanced methods, techniques and modern technology.
Education improves students’ knowledge and skills, allowing them to apply them
in various life situations. Technology, in turn, brings about significant changes in
students’ levels and provides greater opportunities for information acquisition
(Ahmed, 2019; Tony, 2017).
Among the modern technological means used to simplify the educational process
are infographics, an artistic method of transforming complex information, data,
and concepts into images and drawings that students can understand and
assimilate in an easy-to-understand and attractive way (Hassouna, 2014;
Smiciklas, 2012). Infographics generally have a combination of linguistic and non-
linguistic aspects and bring together texts, images, symbols, charts and graphs to
present data visually. This combination contributes greatly to drawing students’
attention to the educational content, leading them to view and think about each
of its elements, and to communicating a large amount of information in simple,
attractive and interesting forms. For these reasons, this technology has become
widespread in educational environments (Lankow et al., 2012; Locoro, 2017;
Yildirim, 2016).
Infographics must adhere to specific standards, including defining the goal,
providing a clear title, achieving it throughout the design, ensuring sequential
and consistent information, developing a visual layout and ensuring it is
appropriate for the design size. Teachers and parents have a crucial responsibility
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to understand and address educational disabilities that affect students’ education
(Al-Faramawi & Al-Nassaj, 2010; Yildirim, 2016).
One such disability is ID, which has received great attention from scholars and
researchers in the field of special education because of the vast differences that
exist among persons with ID and the heterogeneity of their aptitudes and
shortcomings (Hawsawi & Al-Maliki, 2022). It is difficult to determine the
characteristics of students with ID because the severity of the disability varies
from one student to another and across age groups as well as according to the
quality of care provided to them by special education programmes or their
families (Al-Maliki & Al-Harthy, 2020).
Students with mild ID (MID) represent 8% of all those suffering from ID. MID
students face difficulties in learning reading and writing skills, need care in the
first years of school, and tend to encounter further difficulties in the final years of
school. They can follow regular curricula, but they can learn to some degree if
they are provided with special educational services consistent with readiness
within the appropriate educational environment. Moreover, they often cannot
begin to acquire reading, writing, and spelling skills before the age of 8 or even 11
(Al-Quraiti, 2012; Hamouda, 2013).
The educational literature related to the topic of the current research provides
scientific evidence of the effectiveness of the infographic technique in improving
the reading and writing skills of students with ID, which can be useful to teachers,
families and policymakers. This research encourages further research and
exploration and underlines the important role played by infographics in the field
of special education. It shows that various types of infographics improve
educational outcomes for students with MID, helping them improve their chances
of academic success and personal development by realising their potential. The
research also examines the impact of this technology on the reading and writing
skills of students with MID and thus provides insight into how to improve these
skills through the use of innovative educational tools. The research also
contributes to the development of a new and effective educational strategy
targeting students with MID and can provide evidence on the best ways to teach
these students and improve their skills.
The current research is to verify the effectiveness of using the three types of
infographics—static, motion and interactive—to improve the reading and writing
skills of students with MID. Literacy skills are essential for academic success and
effective communication in the community. However, students with MID face
difficulties in developing these skills. The current researchers believe that using
infographics in their various forms may have a positive impact on improving the
reading and writing skills of these students. The literature in the field of special
education lacks detailed studies evaluating the effectiveness of using infographics
in this context. Although using infographics can be beneficial for moderate, severe
and very severe ID, the majority of research on evidence-based therapies for
children with ID has concentrated on those with moderate to severe ID rather than
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those with MID (Bouck & Bone, 2018). Hence, the current research seeks to answer
the following questions:
Q.1. Is there a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the
first experimental group (which was subjected to the static infographic
intervention) and the mean ranks of the control group (which followed the
regular programme) in the post-test on the reading and writing skills scale
(RWSC)?
Q.2. Is there a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the
second experimental group (which was subjected to the motion infographic
intervention) and the mean ranks of the control group in the post-test on the
RWSC?
Q.3. Is there a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the
third experimental group (which was subjected to the interactive infographic
intervention) and the mean ranks of the control group in the post-test on the
RWSC?
Q.4. Is there a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the
scores of the three experimental groups for the infographic programmes (static,
motion and interactive) in the post-test on the RWSC?
2. Literature Review
Infographics are considered an effective tool in education and communication, as
they help students improve their understanding and remembering (Borkin et al.,
2013). Research has shown that students can remember up to 80% of what they
see and do, compared to only 20% of what they read (Medina, 2008). However,
infographics should be used with caution. Charts and images can be misleading
if not designed properly (Cairo, 2013). Therefore, designers must ensure that the
data they provide is accurate and reliable and that graphs and images correctly
reflect the information they are trying to convey (Kirk, 2016).
In terms of presentation, there are three types of infographics. Static infographics
are static designs whose content is chosen by the teacher and present information
about a specific topic in the form of pictures or drawings that are easy to
understand. This type of infographic can be printed and published on Internet
pages. Motion infographics are directed scripts that take into account the
presentation of explanatory information that appears in the final version of a
motion video to show certain facts and concepts. Motion infographics are divided
into two subtypes: (a) regular videos that contain infographics and (b) motion
design (motion graphics). Interactive infographics are those where the student
uses certain control tools, such as buttons, and a specific programme (code), which
is the subject. Hence, some parts of this type of infographic must be designed and
programmed in such a way that students can control them easily and they are
easy to repurpose (Khalil, 2016; Shaltout, 2018).
ID is a mental impairment affecting general abilities like thinking, problem-
solving, planning and academic learning. It can lead to impaired adaptive
behaviour and failure to meet personal independence and social responsibility
standards in daily life, including communication and academic performance
(VandenBos, 2015). ID also arises during the developmental period, which is
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identified as before the age of 22, and is one of several conditions collectively
known as “developmental disabilities”. The prevalence of ID is approximately 10
per 1,000 individuals. However, international prevalence of intellectual and
developmental disabilities varies by country, level of development and age, with
middle-income countries having 16 per 1,000 and high-income countries having
9 per 1,000 (American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
[AAIDD], 2023; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2022). One way to
measure intellectual functional performance is an intelligence test, and an
intelligence quotient (IQ) test score of about 70 or 75 indicates the presence of
significant limitations in intellectual functioning. Students with ID are classified
into four levels according to their IQ (Al-Mawla, 2015). The first level is mild,
represented by an IQ in the range 55–70; the second is moderate, represented by
an IQ in the range 40–54; the third is severe, represented by an IQ in the range 25–
39; and the last is very severe (dependence), represented by an IQ of less than 25
(Liao et al., 2019).
Multiple Arab and foreign researchers have considered infographics in the field
of special education, especially for students with ID and autism spectrum
disorder (ASD). Among studies in this area, a paper by Darwish and Al-Dakhni
(2015) presented static and motion infographics via the web and investigated their
effects on developing visual thinking skills among a sample of students with ASD
in Egypt and their attitudes toward the use of such infographics. The results
showed the effectiveness of both static and motion infographic styles in
developing visual thinking and attitudes among this population. Khalil (2016)
also studied the impact of static, dynamic, and interactive educational
infographics on the achievement and efficiency of learning mathematics among
primary school students with MID in Egypt. The results indicated the
effectiveness of teaching using infographics on academic achievement, and what
the size of the effectiveness and of the effect were, respectively (interactive
infographics, motion infographics, and static infographics) in the educational
process.
Tsai et al. (2020) found that a motion infographic system, which combines
continuous pictures and information simplification, can improve learning
outcomes in a resource class. The study found that the experimental group
improved academic success and comprehension of visual forms more than the
control group, indicating the motion infographic system may increase learning
outcomes in a resource class.
Al-Shalawi and Gaber (2021) validated the usefulness of an infographic-based
training programme to develop self-protection skills (risks of poisoning,
suffocation, and falling) among a sample of ASD children at home. The results
indicated the effectiveness of the training programme in developing self-
protection skills among these students. Haksiz et al. (2021) indicated the
effectiveness of infographics in teaching traffic rules to students with ID through
tablet devices, as direct teaching with this technology gave students the necessary
skills to use traffic signals and pedestrian crossings and observe traffic rules. Al-
Samadi (2022) aimed to determine the extent of the knowledge of infographic
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skills and difficulties encountered by pre-service teachers (specialising in ID) in
teaching students with ID in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The author concluded
that the degree of the concept of infographics as perceived by teachers was
between high and medium, and they had a high level of infographic skills.
Reading and writing are fundamental abilities that open up educational,
vocational and social opportunities. However, little is known about how best to
serve the literacy needs of students with ID when the reading skills gap between
this group and those with average development develops (McIntyre et al., 2022).
Students with ID struggle with reading and writing, necessitating research-based
therapies. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs have
explored the impact of reading and writing therapies, but more research is needed
(Bakken et al., 2021). Moreover, the majority of students with ID struggle to apply
concepts learned in controlled circumstances to different settings or conditions.
For example, a student may display proficiency when reading isolated words on
index cards yet fail to recognise the same words when they occur in linked text.
Similarly, a student may automatically read single-syllable words yet be unable
to decipher a compound word made up of two recognised syllables (Whitbread
et al., 2021). Effective learning and classroom engagement are dependent on
students’ reading abilities. Reading is, in essence, the foundation of academic
achievement. As a result, functional literacy improves learners’ capacities
regardless of their intellectual aptitude. Students with ID will be better able to
grasp and apply what they have learned in real-life settings. Consequently, it is
necessary to devise and implement training for professionals who assist students
with ID on the benefits of using suitable instructional techniques to build reading
skills in this population (Jacob & Pillay, 2022).
Despite mounting evidence that students with ID may benefit from phonics-based
reading training, most research and education in this field has concentrated on
single-skill sight-word reading (Roberts-Tyler et al., 2020). Multicomponent
reading interventions have been linked to improved reading skills across multiple
reading components for general education students, and students with ID
exposed to multicomponent reading programmes have similarly made significant
improvements in reading skills compared to both their own previous reading
performance and in comparison to their peers with ID who received traditional
sight-word instruction (Afacan et al., 2018). Students with ID are increasingly
being included in mainstream contexts. To enhance success in these situations,
instructors must help students with reading comprehension (Shelton et al., 2019).
Among studies that focused on studying the reading and writing skills of students
with MID, Hafez (2016) sought to verify the effectiveness of a proposed strategy
in developing certain reading and writing skills among primary school students
in special education institutes and programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed strategy in developing the
skills required by the research sample. Al-Majzoub and Bakhit (2019) aimed to
design a training programme to improve the reading and writing skills of
students with MID and to verify its effectiveness in improving their reading and
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writing skills. The study concluded that the training programme was effective in
improving the reading and writing skills of these students.
Pezzino et al. (2019) reviewed literature on reading acquisition in students with
ID and identified factors contributing to reading difficulties, including cognitive
efficiency, perceptual capacities, oral language development, phonological
processing and memory.
Abdel-Muttalib et al. (2020) aimed to identify the effectiveness of a programme
based on the theory of information organisation and processing in developing
reading and writing skills for students with integrated ID in Egypt. The results of
their research confirmed that strengthening the teacher and the teacher’s
continuous encouragement of the participation of integrated students with ID led
to assistance in developing their reading and writing skills. Bazkari and Jazouli
(2021) revealed the difficulties in reading and writing from which students with
MID suffer from the point of view of their teachers. The results from reading
indicators demonstrated that the students appeared nervous, fidgety and
frowned nervously when they read, at a rate of 70%. As regards writing
indicators, the percentage was 65% due to the difficulty of finding a general idea
of the text.
Güler Bülbül and Özmen (2021) demonstrated the efficacy of teaching story-
writing skills to students with ID and their non-disabled counterparts. All
participants’ tales increased in length, elements and quality. Students used their
newly learned abilities to write personal narratives. The comments from
participants revealed that they thought the method was beneficial. Panopoulos et
al. (2021) emphasised the significance of educational interventions based on
Bronfenbrenner’s ecosystem theory. They showed that students with ID
improved their reading abilities. According to Bronfenbrenner’s ecosystem
theory, the results highlight the elements that affect and form educational
interventions for reading abilities in students with ID.
Stevens and Burns (2021) investigated the extent to which children with ID
improved their word recognition, reading fluency and comprehension by
practicing keywords. For a large proportion of the taught words, practising
keywords resulted in improved later in-text recognition and generalisation. There
was also a strong experimental control for gains in reading fluency. There was no
discernible impact on reading comprehension. The research and practical
implications were explored. According to Wang et al. (2022), research on the
impact of the home literacy environment (HLE) on the literacy development of
students with ID was limited, with conflicting results. The findings showed that
the HLE had a substantial impact on the literacy development of students with
ID, and that reading interest partially mediated this effect. The parent-student
connection favourably influenced the regression association between the HLE and
reading desire in this mediating mechanism.
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3. Methodology
3.1 Research design and participants
The researchers used the quasi-experimental method, which measures the effect
of the independent variable on the dependent variable. The main independent
variable was the infographic (static, motion and interactive), applied in three
training programmes to three experimental groups. The fourth group, namely,
the control, followed the regular programme. The dependent variable in this
research was improving the reading and writing skills of students with MID. The
research population was all students with MID enrolled in intellectual education
programmes attached to general education schools in the city of Hofuf in Al-Ahsa
Governorate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the third semester (2022–2023),
estimated to comprise 334 students (189 male and 145 female). The researchers
investigated primary school students with MID who suffered from difficulties in
reading and writing. The research sample consisted of 48 students diagnosed with
MID who were diagnosed through the official scale developed by the Ministry of
Education, who ranged in age from 7 to 10 years (mean 8.58, standard deviation
±1.62).
The research sample was distributed as follows: (1) The control group consisted
of 12 students to whom the regular programme was applied; (2) the first
experimental group consisted of 12 students to whom a training programme
based on static infographics was applied; (3) the second experimental group
consisted of 12 students to whom a training programme based on motion
infographics was applied; and (4) the third experimental group consisted of 12
students to whom a training programme based on interactive infographics was
applied. Equivalence was applied between the three research groups through the
variables chronological age, IQ and RWSC using the Kruskal-Wallis test for
unrelated groups to verify the equality of the three groups. The researchers
obtained scientific research ethics approval from the Deanship of Scientific
Research at King Faisal University before applying the research tools.
3.3 Research Tools and Data Collection
3.3.1 Reading and writing skills scale (RWSC)
The researchers developed the RWSC. The RWSC aims to evaluate the level of
basic reading and writing skills among primary school students with MID. In its
final form, the RWSC consists of 30 statements and is divided into two
dimensions: reading skills (14 statements) and writing skills (12 statements). The
teacher answers the scale statements by choosing one of three options, namely,
applies (3), sometimes applies (2), or does not apply (1). The students’ total scores
are calculated by summing the scores they obtain on the scale. The maximum
score is 90, the average score is 60, and the minimum score is 30. Scoring above
the mean is considered to indicate an increase in the student’s level of reading and
writing skills, while scoring below the mean indicates a low level in the student’s
level of reading and writing skills.
The researchers verified the psychometric efficiency of the scale by presenting it
in its initial form, consisting of 36 statements, to a group of arbitrators specialising
in the fields of special education, curricula and methods of teaching the Arabic
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language. The statements that the arbitrators decided were invalid were excluded,
and those that were valid remained. The agreement rate was 90%. Four statements
were deleted; hence, before the internal consistency of the scale was checked, there
were 32 statements. The researchers then checked the internal consistency of the
scale and found that the correlation coefficients for each statement with the
dimension to which it belonged ranged between 0.541 and 0.739. Two statements
were then excluded. The results for the internal consistency of the scale
dimensions and total score were 0.726 for reading skills and 0.713 for writing
skills, and both these coefficients were significant at 0.01. Thus, the number of
statements in the scale dropped to 30, as the researchers calculated the reliability
coefficient for the scale using the Cronbach Alpha method. The Cronbach Alpha
coefficient for reading skills was 0.719 and for writing skills 0.701, which indicates
that all reliability coefficients are acceptable. Hence, the scale generally has high
psychometric efficiency.
3.3.2 Training programmes
The research applied three training programmes based on different types of
infographics to improve the reading and writing skills of a sample of students
with MID. The first training programme used the static infographic, the second
used a motion infographic, and the third used an interactive infographic. The
programmes were built based on a number of studies, including those of Darwish
and Al-Dakhni (2015), Hafez (2016), Khalil (2016), Al-Shalawi and Gaber (2020),
Panopoulos and Drossinou-Korea (2020), and Bakken et al. (2021).
In total, 72 sessions were carried out across the three training programmes, at 24
sessions each. The sessions in each programme lasted between 30 and 45 minutes,
depending on which of the three stages of the programme they belonged to. The
introductory stage consisted of two sessions (1–2), each lasting 40 minutes; the
training phase consisted of 22 sessions (3–22), each lasting 30 minutes; and the
evaluation phase consisted of two sessions (23–24), each lasting 45 minutes. These
sessions were applied to groups. The experiment were conducted at the same
time, over two months, with three sessions per week. The programmes included
reading and writing skills that were presented to the three infographic
experimental groups (static, motion and interactive). In the three experimental
groups, the reading and writing skills were divided as follows:
Reading skills: Students were trained to recognise the shape of all the letters of the
Arabic alphabet in their single form; to read the sounds of these letters correctly;
to recognise the shape of these letters in words consisting of 2–5 letters; to match
words consisting of 2–5 letters; to analyse words consisting of 2–5 letters; to read
words consisting of 2–5 letters; to match sentences consisting of 2–5 words; and
to understand the meaning of sentences consisting of 2–5 words.
Writing skills: Students were trained to write all the letters of the Arabic alphabet;
to complete words with missing letters; to analyse words consisting of 2–5 letters;
to copy words consisting of 2–5 letters; and to write sentences consisting of 2–5
words.
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3.3.3 Data analysis
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 22. The Mann-Whitney test
was used to indicate the difference between the mean ranks between the
independent groups in the pre- and post-tests. An analysis of variance was also
conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis test to indicate the differences between the
means ranks for the three experimental groups in the post-tests.
4. Results
The collected data were analysed using Mann-Whitney test, a test of two
independent sample, and the Kruskal-Wallis test, for the test of significant
differences. The results of the data analysis are shown in the subsequent sections
4.1 to 4.4.
4.1. Difference between the mean ranks of the first experimental group (to
which the static infographic was applied) and the mean ranks of the control
group (which followed the regular programme) in the RWSC post-test
Table 1: Results of the Mann-Whitney test for the significance of the difference
between the EG1 and CG in the RWSC post-test
Note. ** p < 0.01.
The results of Table 1 show that the Z value for the scale as a whole is -4.224 and
the p-value is <0.001, which is a value less than 0.01, indicating that there is a
statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the EG1 and CG in
the post-test on the RWSC in favour of the EG1.
4.2. Difference between the mean ranks of the second experimental group (to
which the motion infographic was applied) and the mean ranks of the control
group (which followed the regular programme) in the RWSC post-test
Table 2: Results of the Mann-Whitney test for the significance of the difference
between the EG2 and CG in the RWSC post-test.
Note. ** p < 0.01.
Scale Group N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Z P
Reading
skills
EG1 12 18.50 222
-4.208 >0.001**
CG 12 6.50 78
Writing
skills
EG1 12 18.50 222
-4.227 >0.001**
CG 12 6.50 78
Total
EG1 12 18.50 222
-4.223 >0.001**
CG 12 6.50 78
Scale Group N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Z P
Reading
skills
EG2 12 18.50 222
-4.211 >0.001**
CG 12 6.50 78
Writing
skills
EG2 12 18.50 222
-4.208 >0.001**
CG 12 6.50 78
Total
EG2 12 18.50 222
-4.181 >0.001**
CG 12 6.50 78
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The results of Table 2 show that the Z value for the scale as a whole is -4.182 and
the p-value is <0.001, which is a value less than 0.01, indicating that there is a
statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the EG2 and CG in
the post-test on the RWSC in favour of the EG2.
4.3. Difference between the mean ranks of the third experimental group (to
which the interactive infographic was applied) and the mean ranks of the
control group (which followed the regular programme) in the RWSC post-test
Table 3: Results of the Mann-Whitney test for the significance of the difference
between the EG3 and CG in the RWSC post-test
Note. ** p < 0.01.
The results of Table 3 show that the Z value for the scale as a whole is -4.177, and
the p-value is < 0.001, which is a value less than 0.01, indicating that there is a
statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the EG3 and CG in
the post-test on the RWSC in favour of the EG3.
4.4. Difference between the mean ranks of the three experimental groups for
the infographic programmes (static, motion and interactive) in the RWSC the
post-test
Table 4: Results of the analysis of variance using the Kruskal-Wallis test for the
significance of the differences between the EG1, EG2 and EG3 and their significance in
the RWSC post-test
Note. ** p < 0.01.
Scale Group N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Z P
Reading
skills
EG3 12 18.50 222
-4.194 >0.001**
CG 12 6.50 78
Writing
skills
EG3 12 18.50 222
-4.181 >0.001**
CG 12 6.50 78
Total
EG3 12 18.50 222
-4.176 >0.001**
CG 12 6.50 78
Scale Group N
Mean
Rank
df X2 P
Reading
skills
EG1 12 6.50
2 31.459 >0.001**
EG2 12 18.50
EG3 12 30.50
Writing
skills
EG1 12 6.50
2
31.451 >0.001**
EG2 12 18.50
EG3 12 30.50
Total
EG1 12 6.50
2
31.553 >0.001**
EG2 12 18.50
EG3 12 30.50
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The results of Table 4 show that among the mean ranks of the three experimental
groups for the infographic programmes (static, motion and interactive) in the
post-test on the RWSC, the three groups were ranked highest to lowest in terms
of effectiveness in the following order: interactive infographic, motion
infographic and static infographic. The highest mean ranks were for the EG3,
while the lowest mean ranks were for the EG1.
5. Discussion
An abundance of information has led to the emergence of various types of
infographics as technological alternatives to traditional teaching methods. This
technology plays an effective role in simplifying information and presenting it to
students in an attractive and interesting way during the educational process,
which has led to its widespread use in various educational environments. The
results of the current research indicate the effectiveness of the three types of
infographics (static, motion and interactive) in improving the reading and writing
skills of students with MID, demonstrating that this technology is effectively
capable of converting complex information and concepts into pictures and
drawings in an easy, smooth and clear way. It is attractive and exciting for
students with MID, making it easier for them to understand and assimilate
information and concepts.
The results showed that there was a difference between the mean ranks of the first
experimental group (to which static infographics were applied) in the pre- and
post-tests on the RWSC. This result is consistent with the studies of Smiciklas,
(2012), Borkin et al. (2013), Cairo (2013), Hassouna, (2014), Kirk (2016), and Haksiz
et al. (2021). These results can be explained by the fact that the static infographics
feature images, drawings and colours have significance for and an influence on
students with MID; thus, these features attract their attention for longer than
traditional learning methods. There is a difference between the mean ranks of the
second experimental group (to which motion infographics were applied) in the
pre- and post-tests on the RWSC. This result is consistent with Darwish and Al-
Dakhni (2015), Al-Shalawi and Gaber (2020) and Tsai et al. (2020). The researchers
ascribe this result to the fact that motion infographics consist of 3D images,
ensuring the participation of students with MID and attracting their attention for
longer than static infographics. There is a difference between the mean ranks of
the third experimental group (to which interactive infographics were applied) in
the pre- and post-tests on the RWSC. This result is consistent with Khalil (2016),
and the researchers explain this result as being because users of interactive
infographics have greater control over its elements than in the other two types of
infographics, which makes it more attractive to students.
As can be seen from the results outlined above, the third experimental group (to
which interactive infographics were applied) outperformed the first (static
infographics) and second (motion infographics) experimental group, as also
found by Hafez (2016), Khalil (2016), Shaltout (2018), Al-Majzoub and Bakhit
(2019) and Abdel-Muttalib (2020). The researchers believe that interactive
infographics are a means which allows students with MID to participate in the
educational content provided to them, ensuring that their attention is maintained.
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In addition, their concentration is sustained for longer periods, which is what
distinguishes the interactive infographic from the other two types, especially
motion infographics. Although static infographics are easier to design and less
expensive than motion and interactive infographics and are easy to repurpose and
share, they are less effective than the other two types in terms of allowing the
participation for students with MID and less effective in terms of achieving appeal
and excitement. For these students, motion infographics, whether with 2D or 3D
drawings, attracts their attention longer than static infographics. Likewise, static
infographics are less interactive compared to motion and interactive infographics.
The researchers in general explain these results in terms of the fundamental and
critical role played by infographics in developing the skills of students with MID,
which has resulted in significant benefits for these students as this type of
technology is distinguished by application possibilities.
The researchers also attribute the improvement of the reading and writing skills
of the three experimental groups to the impressive ability of this technology to
attract students’ attention through interactive activities, in addition to directing
use according to their needs and abilities and providing an environment
conducive and supportive to achieving the desired goals.
The researchers also explain these results due to the use of techniques that have a
direct impact on students with MID, such as modelling, indoctrination, feedback
and reinforcement, all of which helped attract students’ attention for the longest
possible period.
6. Limitations
A specific sample of students with MID was selected to participate in the study,
and it may not have been adequate or representative of the wider population. It
may also be difficult to provide the necessary resources to design and implement
infographics effectively, as doing so may require time, money and technical skills.
Reliable and effective measurement tools must be used to evaluate the impact of
infographics on reading and writing skills, and comprehensively applying these
tools to students with MID may be challenging. External factors, such as the
school environment, home support and personal motivation, may affect the
effectiveness of infographics in enhancing the reading and writing skills of
students with MID, and these factors must be taken into account when analysing
the results.
7. Conclusion and Recommendations
The research aimed to verify the effectiveness of three types of infographics (static,
motion and interactive) in improving the reading and writing skills of students
with MID. The results showed the effectiveness of this technique on the reading
and writing skills of the research sample. Through these results, several
recommendations can be made. These include applying the three types of
infographics in teaching curricula for students with MID, as well as analysing the
courses taught to students with MID and identifying the characteristics of those
courses to design technology-based curricula using infographics in different
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styles. The results of this research can also be beneficial for practitioners,
especially if future research supports them. It should also be possible to conduct
similar research on different educational content taught to primary school
students with MID. The results of future research may differ from those of the
current research according to the degree of interest, inclinations and
defensiveness of the students toward the topics assigned to them. This research
can also be used to provide the educational literature with a new experimental
study that may be useful in developing a theoretical framework for infographics
as an effective technology and electronic control tool for use with students with
MID. A study could also be conducted using the same three types of infographics
with various students with MID who can deal with each category. Likewise, these
three types can be used to develop the advanced linguistic skills of these students.
The attention of special education teachers can also be directed toward the
conditions for effective infographic design from concept to production and to the
use of the three types of educational infographics in various courses offered to
students with MID who have difficulty understanding these courses. Training
courses could be held for teachers on the use of modern and effective technologies,
including various types of infographics, in teaching reading and writing to
persons with MID.
Acknowledgements
The researchers acknowledge the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Faisal,
Saudi Arabia for obtaining financial support for research, authorship, and the
publication of research (GRANT5079).
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©Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0
International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 22, No. 11, pp. 18-35, November 2023
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.11.2
Received Sep 24, 2023; Revised Nov 5, 2023; Accepted Nov 14, 2023
Preserving and Nurturing Tausug Language:
The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application
Tool for Enhancing Mother Tongue
Development for Toddlers
Shernahar K. Tahil , Jonel T. Alibasa , Shamier – Rahman K. Tahil ,
Jeanor Marsin
College of Computer Studies
Mindanao State University – Sulu, Philippines
Shanaia – Shedri K. Tahil
College of Arts and Science
Mindanao State University – Sulu, Philippines
Abstract. In the fast-paced modern world, English and other commonly
spoken languages have become prevalent even in Tausug households.
This shift towards these languages presents difficulties in preserving
and advancing the Tausug language. Therefore, it is essential to discover
effective methods to cultivate language foundations and encourage the
development of the mother tongue among Tausug toddlers. One
hundred and sixty toddlers and 160 parents from eight Barangay in Jolo,
Sulu, participated in a study. It was to investigate the effect between
Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Applications and traditional teaching
methods in enhancing mother tongue development for toddlers. The
results indicated high significance in favor of the Bahasa Sug Mobile
Learning Application over the traditional teaching method, as shown by
a t-test with a p-value of 0.05. The parents noted Bahasa Sug Mobile
Apps' significant value in increasing their children's learning. Bahasa
Sug, mobile learning applications, have become valuable tools for
nurturing and preserving mother tongues in toddlers. These
applications provide engaging and interactive experiences that align
with children's natural learning processes. They can create an immersive
and interactive environment for toddlers to develop and preserve their
mother tongue. By embracing this mobile learning application, it can
ensure the continuity and vitality of native languages, allowing children
to maintain a strong connection with their cultural heritage and
linguistic identity.
Keywords: Tausug Language; Bahasa Sug; Mobile Learning
Application; Mother Tongue; Cultural Identity; Child Development
19
1. Background of the Study
There has been no previous study regarding Preserving and Nurturing Tausug
Language. The Tausug people are an indigenous Muslim group residing in the
Sulu Archipelago of the southern Philippines (Britannica, 2016), particularly in
East Mindanao (Jubilado et al., 2015). They have a distinct culture and language
called Bahasa Sug, their primary means of communication. The term "Bahasa
Sug" is derived from "Bahasa," which means "language" in many Asian
languages, and "Sug," which can refer to "Sulu" or "current." According to Cowie
(1893), all natives of Sulu and Tawi-Tawi spoke the Sulu Language or Bahasa
Sug. It is appropriate to refer to the language spoken by the people of Sulu as
Bahasa Sug (Bangahan, 2015). To uphold the cultural heritage of the Tausug
tribe, it is vital to conserve and foster their unique language as the role of
language in preserving cultural identity and nurturing language roots among
communities is critical: for many communities, their mother tongue is vital to
their heritage, traditions, and collective memory.
It is important to encourage the use of one's native language as research suggests
it positively impacts cognitive development. Studies have demonstrated that
proficiency in one's mother tongue can also improve language learning ability.
Scientific evidence indicates that children who are skilled in their native
language are more likely to exhibit superior cognitive skills such as critical
thinking, problem-solving, and memory retention. Using one's native language
for self-expression helps in expressing thoughts, emotions, and experiences
more effectively, leading to enhanced cognitive development.
Piaget's (1971) cognitive development theory states that children undergo
different stages of cognitive growth, each with unique characteristics. This
theory places significant emphasis on providing toddlers with a supportive and
intellectually stimulating learning environment, enabling them to engage in
language acquisition actively. The use of mobile learning applications provides
youngsters with the opportunity to leverage their innate strengths, promoting
cognitive progress and supporting the enhancement of their linguistic aptitude.
The acquisition of language and literacy abilities in children starts before their
preschool enrollment and factors such as ethnicity, home language, and parental
education are crucial in shaping their abilities. Numerous studies have
demonstrated that, when children receive education in their native language,
they exhibit enhanced language proficiency, expanded vocabulary, and
improved literacy competencies (Grunewald, 2016). Recognizing the significance
of using language children are most comfortable and familiar with is crucial, as
it greatly enhances their understanding, communication, and engagement in the
educational process.
Vygotsky's (1978) sociocultural theory emphasizes social interactions and
cultural environment in language development. Children learn by actively
participating in social interactions and collaborating with experts like parents,
teachers, and peers. Mobile learning apps like Lingokids use Vygotsky's theory
to encourage parent-child language acquisition through interactive activities.
The sociocultural method fosters language development by creating a
20
supportive and participatory environment that mimics children's normal social
interactions.
Likewise, Skinner (1963) emphasizes the role of reinforcement and rewards in
shaping behavior. According to him, the infant replicates the linguistic patterns
exhibited by their parents and those in their immediate environment. When an
adult acknowledges a child's words, they frequently praise them, encouraging
positive reinforcement. Language learning tools such as Rosetta Stone Kids
Lingo Word Builder employ behaviorist ideas by offering positive reinforcement
and rewards to young children as they interact with their native language. These
apps use visual cues, games, and interactive exercises to reinforce correct
language usage and encourage continuous practice. With these techniques,
toddlers are motivated to actively participate in language learning, leading to
improved retention and proficiency in their mother tongue.
The popularity of mobile learning has witnessed a significant rise owing to the
widespread adoption of smartphones and other personal devices and, as such,
utilizing mobile devices in personalized learning has emerged as an ongoing
trend, one which presents innovative possibilities for the advancement and
promotion of language acquisition and is increasingly gaining recognition
worldwide. Using language learning applications for mother tongue
development has now proven advantageous. Firstly, these apps offer a
personalized and engaging learning experience tailored to toddlers' needs and
preferences. The interactive features, visual aids, and gamification elements keep
children motivated and enthusiastic about learning their mother tongue.
Secondly, language learning apps provide a convenient and accessible platform,
allowing toddlers to learn at their own pace, whenever and wherever they like.
This flexibility enables consistent exposure to the mother tongue, facilitating a
deep and lasting connection to their cultural heritage. Finally, language learning
apps foster a positive and nurturing environment, promoting self-confidence
and pride in one's cultural identity. By preserving and nurturing the mother
tongue, these apps empower toddlers to embrace their linguistic heritage and
actively contribute to preserving their cultural diversity (Konstantakis et al.,
2022).
Research has indicated that a child's mother tongue plays a significant role in
their educational success. Studies indicate that students taught in their original
language will likely have superior academic performance, higher literacy rates,
and enhanced learning outcomes (Benson & Kosonen, 2013). A study conducted
by UNESCO in 2016 suggests that teaching young children in their mother
tongue as the primary language can aid in their understanding of concepts and
facilitate learning other languages later on.
Mother Tongue refers to one's original language, representing culture and
identity. A child's mother tongue is the first language they learn and often
consider their native language. Learning in our mother tongue is essential as it
improves cognitive skills, helps us acquire a second language, and develops our
literacy abilities. Using one's native language also contributes to language and
literacy skills. Research indicates that a firm understanding of one's native
language can facilitate the acquisition of other languages (UNESCO, 2016).
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Although the English language holds significant global importance and is
regarded as a fundamental aspect of human existence (Abidin, 2012), and has
gained prominence over native languages in numerous countries (Rao, 2019),
including Tausug households, native languages or mother tongue should still
play an essential role in early child development. Teaching children in their
mother tongue during their early years can improve their language skills,
cognitive development, and emotional stability. Feldman (2019) links good long-
term results in school, work, and social life to a solid base in language skills. It
impacts familial and social relationships, personal identity, the
socioeconomic world, cognitive abilities, and academic success (Triebold,
2020). Facilitating toddlers' learning process can improve through effective
mother tongue communication between parents and teachers. This approach has
consistently resulted in positive outcomes, increasing achievement and success
for these young learners. Collaboration fosters the creation of a conducive and
intellectually stimulating environment.
Furthermore, preserving a child's native language can help build a positive self-
image, boost confidence, and encourage cultural appreciation among young
children. Retaining their linguistic heritage helps children feel more connected to
their cultural origins, improving emotional and social well-being. However, the
Tausug language, the mother tongue of Tausug, encountered obstacles due to
the increasing prominence of English as a widely utilized language. Therefore,
exploring effective methods to encourage the preservation of Tausug mother
tongue development and foster linguistic roots among Tausug children is
essential. As such, this study investigated the effects and relationship between
Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Applications and traditional teaching methods in
enhancing mother tongue development for Tausug toddlers.
2. Literature
2.1 Cultural Identity and Heritage
Language is essential to human culture and identity, allowing communication
and expression. Preserving and nurturing a language is crucial for maintaining
the identity and heritage of a person's culture. In the current era of globalization,
many native languages are at risk of being forgotten due to assimilation into
Western culture and language. However, language learning applications like
Duolingo and Rosetta Stone offer a promising solution for promoting the
advancement of mother tongue in early childhood education. This mobile app
offers an excellent opportunity for children to enhance their proficiency in their
native language in a fun and convenient way. The application enhances
language proficiency, improving linguistic competence (Carreon et al., 2019).
The dominance of English and other common languages has led to changes in
language preferences and usage patterns, including within families.
Unfortunately, this change presents challenges in developing and preserving
mother tongues, such as Bahasa Sug, spoken by the Tausug community.
Preserving the mother tongue is crucial for maintaining linguistic and cultural
diversity, as it helps individuals stay connected to their heritage, traditions, and
values. García and Wei (2014) emphasize that maintaining one's native language
is vital to passing cultural knowledge to future generations while Li (2018)
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argues that advocating for one's native language positively affects self-identity,
self-esteem, and community inclusion. It is essential to explore our cultural
identity and heritage. Doing so allows us to acquire a deeper comprehension of
our identity and our place in the world. Studying our heritage gives us a more
extensive understanding and cultivates our overall knowledge.
2.2 Cognitive Approaches to Learning with Digital Materials
It is crucial to incorporate cognitive strategies to maximize the effectiveness and
efficiency of digital learning materials. It is imperative to maintain the original
meaning of the content and preserve all significant details. To achieve the best
outcome, upholding the same professionalism and formality as the original text
is crucial. These strategies will deliver the best outcomes in digital learning
materials. Earlier studies have established that digital entertainment media
contributes significantly to the cognitive growth of children during a crucial
stage (Linuwih & Trihastutie, 2020). Children exposed to English-based digital
media, including songs and nursery rhymes, enhance their grammar,
vocabulary, and proficiency in English pronunciation (Alefeshat, 2019). In a
study released by the Cognitive Impacts of Digital Media Workgroup, Anderson
and Subrahmanyam (2017) found that there is a lack of evidence regarding the
effects of digital screen device usage on young children in recent studies. Thus,
the current research on digital technology usage and learning outcomes among
children under five through screen interfaces requires revision. Hence, it is
imperative to expand the existing knowledge base concerning the overall impact
of digital technology and the specific impacts of using digital screens on
children's development.
According to the cognitive load hypothesis, the working memory system
processes information in digital learning material during the learning process
and transfers it to long-term memory (Sweller et al., 2019). Learning changes the
permanent memory system, which has a limitless capacity. Information
processing influences learning by increasing cognitive burden. The number of
elements acting simultaneously in working memory is called element
interactivity. Learning domain-specific previous knowledge is the second factor
and the third is the effort required to construct and automate new mental
models. Schneider et al. (2022) suggest that intrinsic cognitive strain arises from
high-element interactivity, lack of domain-specific prior knowledge, and the
need to construct and automate new mental models. The ease or challenge of
processing the information in digital learning materials affects the amount of
"extraneous cognitive load," also known as "learning-irrelevant cognitive load."
This is because the ease or difficulty of processing the information depends on
how the learning material is presented or designed.
The concept of multimedia education (Mayer, 2014a) holds immense importance
in digital media education, along with Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT). This
theory presents a comprehensive model for the learning process, grounded in
three fundamental assumptions. The theories proposed by Paivio (1986) and
Baddeley (1992) serve as the foundation for the first proposition, which states
that information processing happens through two distinct cognitive channels.
Additionally, it acknowledges the constrained capabilities of the working
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memory system, as posited by Baddeley's working memory model. Finally, it
underscores the importance of learners engaging in active cognitive processes to
create meaningful mental representations and models. The Cognitive Theory of
Multimedia Learning (CTML) framework identifies and describes five distinct
cognitive processes that engage learners during digital learning. These processes
encompass the act of carefully choosing appropriate words and visuals,
arranging them in a logical manner, and merging mental frameworks with
previous knowledge in order to establish coherence. Mayer (2014a) observed the
aforementioned cognitive processes in all sectors of multimedia communication.
2.3 Learning in the Digital Age
A study about the impact of gadget usage on cognitive development shows it is
imperative to closely monitor the gadget facilities offered by parents for early
childhood to mitigate any potential adverse effects that may impede children's
cognitive development. According to Siregar et al. (2022), parents have the
potential to utilize gadgets as engaging educational tools to enhance their
children's cognitive abilities. Sowmya et al. (2019) examined the application of
Chomsky's theory regarding the presence of a 'Language acquisition device'
(LAD) in every child and experts believe that this device ingrains the
fundamental principles and grammatical structures of a language into a child's
brain. The study found that using gadgets has a beneficial effect on children's
language development. Exposing children to various educational programs,
videos, rhymes, and similar media sources can facilitate the acquisition of new
vocabulary and enhance their language proficiency.
Sundqvist et al. (2021) conducted a study that established a correlation between
some aspects of a 2-year-old's digital media environment and linguistic
development. Increased exposure to T.V. content, whether on a large screen or
tablet, is linked to negative impacts on language development. Similarly, the
likelihood of parents incorporating digital media into everyday child routines
shows a negative association with language development. However, positive
parenting strategies, such as engaging in interactive conversations, joint media
engagement (JME), and reading books, positively correlate with a child's
language development.
2.4 Interactive and Engaging Learning Experience
Through today’s integration of digital technologies into our everyday routines,
toddlers are increasingly engaging in digital gaming activities, surpassing the
levels observed in earlier generations. Consequently, the field of education is
undergoing corresponding transformations. Digital game-based learning has
shown remarkable growth during the past decade and, according to Greipl et al.
(2020), there is a growing preference for a learning environment that is both
interactive and visually engaging.
Integrating mobile learning apps into students' education can positively impact
their learning habits and outcomes. Its potential to transform education is
immense as it enhances student engagement and elevates language skills in
language education. Research has demonstrated that incorporating technology
into education not only enhances pupils' learning behaviors and results (Hwang
& Tsai, 2011) but also holds the potential to revolutionize education by
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captivating students' attention (Kukulska-Hulme & Traxler, 2013) and modern
mobile language learning apps have the potential to dramatically revolutionize
how people learn new languages (Heil et al., 2016).
According to numerous studies (Crompton & Burke, 2018), mobile learning (m-
learning) substantially impacts the teaching and learning processes. The unique
ability of m-learning to provide students with greater flexibility and access to
innovative learning opportunities sets it apart from conventional learning
methods. Mobile learning devices have gained popularity among students and
educators due to their convenience and flexibility. As a result, there has been a
rise in research and experimentation on educational mobile learning efficiency,
as demonstrated in the work of Al-Shehri (2012). Mobile learning applications
for mother tongue education have emerged as a promising approach to
enhancing language learning experiences. These applications offer various
interactive features and accessibility options that cater to the unique needs of
learners. Research has highlighted the advantages of mobile educational apps in
preserving and nurturing the mother tongue among diverse populations.
Mobile learning apps provide convenient and flexible access to language
learning resources, breaking geographical barriers. Users can learn a language
anytime and anywhere, fitting it into their busy schedules. The availability of
offline capabilities ensures continued access to learning materials even in areas
with limited internet connectivity. These applications offer various interactive
language learning features, including gamification elements, quizzes, challenges,
and multimedia content (Gikandi et al., 2011). Gamification elements motivate
and engage learners, making language learning enjoyable and rewarding, while
adaptive learning techniques personalize the learning experience, tailoring
content and activities to individual learners' needs. It also promotes user-created
content and community engagement, fostering collaboration among language
learners (Godwin-Jones, 2019). Users can contribute their language resources,
share cultural knowledge, and engage in peer-to-peer learning. This
collaborative approach enhances language acquisition and creates a sense of
ownership and community among learners.
Furthermore, mobile learning apps facilitate language proficiency assessment
and tracking of learning outcomes (Kuimova et al., 2018). They provide
opportunities for self-assessment, progress monitoring, and feedback, which
promote learner motivation and goal setting. Additionally, some apps integrate
certification options or badges to recognize and validate language proficiency.
2.5 Toddlers and Interactive Mobile Learning Apps
The influence of mobile educational applications on toddler development is how
such apps can help promote cognitive, social, and emotional growth among
young children. By engaging in interactive and educational content on their
mobile devices, toddlers can enhance their language and communication skills,
fine motor abilities, problem-solving abilities, and overall understanding of the
world around them. Additionally, mobile apps can provide a safe and controlled
environment for toddlers to explore new ideas, learn from mistakes, and build
resilience, all while having fun and staying engaged. Ultimately, the effective
25
use of mobile learning apps can help parents and caregivers support the
development and growth of a child in a meaningful and impactful way.
Mobile learning applications have shown the capacity to positively impact the
advancement of toddlers by offering interactive and engaging educational
experiences. These applications, specifically designed for young children,
provide various benefits that support their cognitive, language, motor, and
socio-emotional development. Featuring educational games, puzzles, and
exercises that improve problem-solving, critical thinking, and memory, research
has highlighted the positive impact of such mobile learning applications on
toddlers' cognitive development. The main benefits are facilitating education,
creating an interactive learning environment, and supporting children's learning
and development. Mobile apps' interactive element enhances toddlers' curiosity
and cognitive capacities (Nikolopoulou, 2021). Mobile learning applications
improve children's cognitive development with age-appropriate information
and exciting experiences.
The utilization of mobile media devices and apps by young children presents an
opportunity to leverage the distinctive qualities of these devices in order to
enhance their learning experiences and outcomes. While there are problems
associated with utilizing mobile devices for educational purposes, the offer the
potential benefits of aiding children in developing crucial abilities According to
Judge et al. (2015), utilizing assistive technology and implementing best
practices in Universal Design for Learning offers a feasible approach to
customization and personalization for young children with disabilities to
effectively utilize emerging and advanced technologies.
The field of child psychology recognizes the positive impact of mother tongue
mobile learning applications on children's language development, cognitive
skills, and socio-emotional well-being. These applications cater to children's
specific developmental needs and provide a supportive learning environment
that enhances their engagement and progress in language learning. According to
a study conducted by Xie et al. (2020), engaging in certain activities can
positively impact the development of preschoolers. Studies have also shown that
engaging in these activities can improve attention, memory, imagination, and
proficiency while promoting discipline.
Mother tongue mobile learning applications contribute significantly to children's
language development. Research shows that exposing children to educational
content in their mother tongue promotes vocabulary acquisition,
comprehension, and fluency (Kukulska-Hulme et al., 2018). By engaging
children in interactive language activities, such as word games, storytelling, and
pronunciation exercises, these applications facilitate the development of
linguistic skills specific to their mother tongue. This targeted language learning
experience helps children build a strong foundation in their mother tongue,
leading to improved language abilities and self-confidence.
Mother tongue mobile learning applications also have a good effect on cognitive
skills. These apps often incorporate educational games and problem-solving
activities that stimulate critical thinking, memory, and cognitive flexibility.
26
Mobile learning apps enhance children's executive functions, attention span, and
logical reasoning abilities by engaging them in these cognitive challenges.
Furthermore, these interactive and engaging applications facilitate active
engagement and deepen children's cognitive processing during learning (Wu et
al., 2012).
Regarding socio-emotional well-being, mother tongue mobile learning
applications can positively impact children's self-esteem, cultural identity, and
feelings of belonging. Children using mobile apps designed specifically for their
mother tongue reinforces their cultural heritage and fosters a positive attitude
toward their language and culture. This recognition and affirmation of their
mother tongue contributes to a robust feeling of identity, pride, and cultural
continuity.
3. Methodology
3.1 Research Design
This study utilized an experimental design with a mixed-methods strategy that
incorporates both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. In the quantitative
approach, data were gathered through the identification in both the pre-test and
post-test phases from a sample of toddlers. The question about how the apps
help the language development of toddlers was qualitative. The quantitative
aspect was the questions regarding the perception of parents on the Bahas Sug
Mobile Apps. The sample was selected via purposive sampling, drawing from
eight barangays within the Jolo Municipality. The participants were asked to
identify a number (umbul) from 1 (isa), 2 (duwa), 3 (tu), 4 (upat), 5 (lima), 6
(unum), 7 (pitu), 8 (walu) 9 (siyam) and 10 (hangpu’); 8 shapes (hantang) such as
circle (lingkung), square (Pasagi’), rectangle (mustatil), oblong (pahaba), star
(bituunun), heart (jantung), diamond (lumaduun) and triangle (lungigi’) and
ten colors, such as red (pula), blue (bilu), yellow (biyaning), violet (taluk),
orange (kulit), green (gaddung), brown (kawsun), black (itum), pink (kalas),
white (puti’) in Bahasa Sug for pre-test using the flashcards. The Bahasa Sug
Mobile Learning app was installed in their parents’ cellphones. The following
week's post-test was conducted to ask to identify a number from 1-10, eight
shapes, and 10 colors with the application of mobile apps. Flashcards were still
used to identify the items of their answers and were recorded immediately.
Then, the number of correct answers on the pre-test were compared to the
number of correct answers on the post-test.
3.2. Participants and Locale of the Study
The study selected participants through purposive sampling and obtained data
from eight barangays within the Jolo Municipality. In each barangay, 20 toddlers
with their respective parents/guardians were randomly selected. A total of 160
participants were among the toddlers and 160 parents. The toddlers' age ranged
from 2 to 5 years old, 2-3 years, 40 %, and 4-5 years, 60% of 160, respectively. The
toddlers' gender distribution was equal, with 50% females and 50% males out of
160. The respective parents of the toddlers had an educational background of
college level, 27%, 58% were college graduates, 12% had a master's degree, and
3% had a doctorate. The preferred communication language of toddlers and
27
parents was a combination of mother tongue and English. The frequency of
exposure to the Bahasa Sug language outside the application was less frequent.
3.3. Research Instruments
The research instrument used flashcards on toddlers to assess their level of
learning in terms of shapes, numbers, and colors. In addition to flashcards,
questionnaires were utilized to assess the efficiency of the Bahasa Sug Mobile
learning application from the parents’ perspective. The questionnaire consisted
of two parts. Part I gathered the demographic information about the toddlers
and their parents' educational background and the language often used in
communication with toddlers. Part II was used to gather language proficiency,
cultural connection/implication, engagement and participation, and parent
perceptions. The researchers designed the instruments, and four peers were
asked to validate them. The questionnaires were utilized to measure the
perception of parents related to learning.
3.4. Data Collection Procedures.
The researchers asked for permission from the Barangay Captain to conduct the
study. Once the permission was granted, the researchers selected the houses
with an interval of five. Every count of five would be selected as respondents. If
there were no available toddlers, the next house would be selected. Then, it
returned to count from one to five until the required number of respondents was
completed.
3.5. Data Analysis.
The statistical tool used to analyze data was the t-test, which was used to
compare the traditional teaching method (control groups) and the Bahasa Sug
Mobile Learning apps (experimental groups) based on how well the toddlers did
on the pre-test and post-test.
4. Results and Discussions
4.1. Effects of Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Applications.
The effects of the Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Applications were measured
according to language proficiency outcome, cultural connection outcome,
engagement and participation, parent perception of the Bahasa Sug mobile
learning application, and the pre and post-test performance of the toddlers, as
shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Pre-test Evaluation, During the Learning Process, and Post-test Evaluation
28
Table 1. Language Proficiency Outcome
Language Proficiency
Strongly
Agree
(5)
Agree
(4)
Neutral
(3)
Disagree
(2)
Strongly
Disagree
(1)
1.The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning
Application helped my child recognize
and name shapes accurately in Bahasa Sug.
45% 22% 11% 15% 7%
2.The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning
Application helped my child understand
and use numbers in Bahasa Sug.
32% 40% 10% 11% 8%
3.The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning
Application helped my child identify and
name colors correctly in Bahasa Sug.
54.4% 26.1% 10% 6.2% 3.3%
4.My child's overall language proficiency in
the Tausug language has improved after
using the application.
41.3% 28.0% 18.7% 10.0% 2.0%
5.Application provided appropriate and
effective language learning activities for
my child.
38.0% 33.2% 18.5% 7.6% 2.7%
Table 1 shows how the respondents thought their children did in terms of
language skills: For ‘The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application helped my
child recognize and name shapes accurately in Bahasa Sug’, 45% highly agree
and 22% agree. For ‘The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application helped my
child understand and use numbers in Bahasa Sug32% strongly agreed and 40%
agree. For ‘The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application helped my child
identify and name colors correctly in Bahasa Sug’, 54% highly agreed and 26%
agreed. For the statement ‘My child's overall language proficiency in the Tausug
language has improved after using the application’, 41.3% of people strongly
agreed and 28% agreed. Also, 38% of people strongly agreed and 33.2% agreed
that the application ‘provided appropriate and effective language learning
activities for my child’. In relation to Piaget (1971), children exhibit heightened
curiosity that provides a strong desire to explore their environment. This theory
significantly emphasizes providing toddlers with a supportive and intellectually
stimulating learning environment, enabling them to engage in language
acquisition actively. The utilization of mobile learning applications offers
children the chance to harness their inherent capabilities, fostering cognitive
advancement and the growth of their language skills. Before entering preschool,
children begin to improve their language and reading skills.
The study conducted by Sowmya et al. (2019) examined the application of
Chomsky's theory regarding the presence of a 'Language acquisition device'
(LAD) in every child. This device is believed to encode a language's fundamental
principles and grammatical structures into the child's brain. The study's findings
indicate that the utilization of gadgets has a positive impact on the language
development of children. Exposing children to various educational programs,
videos, rhymes, and similar media sources can facilitate the acquisition of new
vocabulary and enhance their language proficiency.
29
Furthermore, mobile learning apps facilitate language proficiency assessment
and tracking of learning outcomes (Kuimova et al., 2018). Embracing this mobile
learning application can ensure the continuity and vitality of native languages,
allowing children to maintain a strong connection with their cultural heritage
and linguistic identity.
Using language learning applications for mother tongue development is now
proven advantageous. Firstly, these apps offer a personalized and engaging
learning experience tailored to toddlers' needs and preferences. The interactive
features, visual aids, and gamification elements keep children motivated and
enthusiastic about learning their mother tongue. Secondly, language learning
apps provide a convenient and accessible platform, allowing toddlers to learn at
their own pace, whenever and whenever they like. This flexibility enables
consistent exposure to the mother tongue, facilitating a deep and lasting
connection to their cultural heritage. Finally, language learning apps foster a
positive and nurturing environment, promoting self-confidence and pride in
one's cultural identity. By preserving and nurturing the mother tongue, these
apps empower toddlers to embrace their linguistic heritage and actively
contribute to preserving their cultural diversity (Konstantakis et al., 2022).
Furthermore, preserving a child's native language can help build a positive self-
image, boost confidence, and encourage cultural appreciation among young
children. Retaining their linguistic heritage helps children feel more connected to
their cultural origins, leading to improved emotional and social well-being. The
mother tongue provides a deep and lasting connection to cultural heritage. Table
2 shows how the parents of toddlers perceived the interrelationship between
mother tongue and culture.
Table 2. Cultural Connection Outcome
Cultural Connection
Strongly
Agree
(5)
Agree
(4)
Neutral
(3)
Disagree
(2)
Strongly
Disagree
(1)
1. The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning
Application helped my child
understand the cultural significance
of shapes, numbers, and colors in the
Tausug culture more than the
traditional teaching methods.
54.0% 32.0% 11.0% 2.0% 1.0%
2. My child demonstrates a stronger
connection to the Tausug cultural
heritage after using the application.
50.0% 36.2% 11.0% 1.9% 1.0%
3. The application effectively incorporated
Tausug cultural elements related to
shapes, numbers, and colors.
51.7% 34.4% 11.4% 1.9% 0.6%
4. The application fostered a sense of pride
and appreciation for the Tausug
cultural identity in my child.
46.0% 22.0% 11.0% 14.0% 7.0%
5. My child actively engaged with the
application's cultural content and
activities related to shapes, numbers,
and colors.
40.0% 39.0% 7.0% 7.0% 7.0%
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ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 11 November 2023

  • 1. International Journal of Learning, Teaching And Educational Research p-ISSN: 1694-2493 e-ISSN: 1694-2116 IJLTER.ORG Vol.22 No.11
  • 2. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 22, No. 11 (November 2023) Print version: 1694-2493 Online version: 1694-2116 IJLTER International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 22, No. 11 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks. Society for Research and Knowledge Management
  • 3. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of learning, teaching and educational research. Aims and Objectives The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators, teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the world to present the results of their research activities in the following fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment; multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education; knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning; virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education; digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e- tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom management issues, educational case studies, etc. Indexing and Abstracting The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned a unique DOI number.
  • 4. Foreword We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue. Editors of the November 2023 Issue
  • 5. VOLUME 22 NUMBER 11 November 2023 Table of Contents Improving the Reading and Writing Skills of Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: The Effectiveness of Infographics................................................................................................................................................................................1 Sherif Adel Gaber, Sahar Farouk Allam, Maha Abdul-Moniem El-Amin, Awatif Mahmoud Hamad, Nairra Ess Elsaied Abdel Fattah, Alia Hamed Ibrahim, Sumaia Attia Al Hasan, Omar Ahmed Al-Ali, Hanem Mostafa Alboray Preserving and Nurturing Tausug Language: The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application Tool for Enhancing Mother Tongue Development for Toddlers.........................................................................................................................18 Shernahar K. Tahil, Jonel T. Alibasa, Shamier – Rahman K. Tahil, Jeanor Marsin, Shanaia – Shedri K. Tahil Challenges Facing Enforcement of University Quality Assurance Standards in Fostering Compliance in Tanzania ....................................................................................................................................................................................................36 Daudi Mrema, Irénée Ndayambaje, Philothère Ntawiha, Eugene Ndabaga Teachers’ Perceptions of the DBR-CPD Program as a Change in Pedagogical Practice in the Professional Development of EFL Teachers...............................................................................................................................................59 Hasan Mohsen Al-Wadi Teacher Professional Development through the Teacher Education Program (PPG) at Islamic Education Institutions................................................................................................................................................................................80 Mardhiah Mardhiah, Awaliah Musgamy, Mukhlis Lubis Proficiency Preparedness in Defence Workforce: A Survey of Cadet Officers’ English Language Needs................96 Nur Khadirah Ab. Rahman, Melor Md Yunus, Nurfaradilla Mohamad Nasri, Emily Abd Rahman Exploring the Augmented and Alternative Communication (AAC) for Promoting Independence in Daily Skills of Students with Learning Disabilities....................................................................................................................................116 Rozniza Zaharudin, Nurul Ashikin Izhar, Deekha Lai Hwa Potential Implications of Task-Based Language Teaching on Developing EFL Learners' Oral Fluency................. 130 Eulices Cordoba Zúñiga, Esteban Mayorga, Nancy Ruiz Constructing a Teaching-Ability Evaluation System for Chinese Student Teachers using Delphi and Analytical Hierarchical Process Methods............................................................................................................................................. 150 Liyuan Chen, Qian Liu Awareness and Confidence of Vietnamese Primary School Teachers towards STEM-Integrated Teaching Approach................................................................................................................................................................................ 170 The Hung Anh Mai, Thi Thanh Hoi Phan, Duc Duy Phan, Thi Thuy Trang Nguyen Effects of Cognitively Guided Instruction on Senior Secondary School Students’ Attitude towards Physics........188 Uchenna Kingsley Okeke, Sam Ramaila, Edidiong E Ukoh Quality Improvement in Inclusive Education for Support Systems and Attitudes - Evidence form the Sichuan Province of China.................................................................................................................................................................. 212
  • 6. She Wan bin, Pong Horadal, Sombat Teekasap, Guo Ling Relationship between Pedagogical Leadership and Teachers' Job Performance as Mediated by Organizational Commitment.......................................................................................................................................................................... 243 Kelemu Zelalem Berhanu Utilization of Writing Assistance Tools in Research in Selected Higher Learning Institutions in the Philippines: A Text Mining Analysis............................................................................................................................................................259 Cereneo Jr Sailog Santiago, Steve Inting Embang, Ricky B Acanto, Kem Warren P Ambojia, Maico Demi P Aperocho, Benedicto B Balilo Jr, Erwin Lanceta Cahapin, Marjohn Thomas N Conlu, Samson Mahidlawon Lausa, Ester Young Laput, Beverly Ambagan Malabag, Jerby J Paderes, Joan Katherine N Romasanta Academics’ Perspectives on the Nature and Tradition of Appointments of University Leaders at a Cameroonian University............................................................................................................................................................................... 285 Novel Lena Folabit, Sarasvathie Reddy, Loyiso Currell Jita Promoting Multicultural Education in the Middle East: Perception and Practice...................................................... 303 Nahla M. Moussa, Moustafa M. Abdelmawla, Jehad Mousa Integrated Leadership Effect on Teacher Satisfaction: Mediating Effects of Teacher Collaboration and Professional Development.......................................................................................................................................................................... 321 Fiskia Rera Baharuddin, Amiruddin Amiruddin, A. Muhammad Idkhan Digital Competences: Early Childhood Teachers’ Beliefs and Perceptions of ChatGPT Application in Teaching English as a Second Language (ESL).................................................................................................................................. 343 Sabha Hakim Allehyani, Mohammed Abdullah Algamdi Construction of Measurement and Investigation of the Role of Classroom Climate on Students' Knowledge and Attitudes in the Learning Process....................................................................................................................................... 364 Usep Soepudin, Dasim Budimansyah, Mupid Hidayat, Momod Abdul Somad Online Interaction Techniques Used at a Rural-Based University: Implications for Online Pedagogy...................384 Cosmas Maphosa, Geesje van den Berg Implementing Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge from the Social Studies Learning Management Perspective..................................................................................................................................................... 401 Ruth Sriana Umbase Notes of Digital Refugees: Understanding the Plight of Senior Faculty in Online Teaching.................................... 419 Ruth Ladip Ladwingon, Zorayda Calaycay Gavino, Angeline Badong Valdez, Rodemelia Bustamante Bangat Analyzing Essential Aspects of Developing English Paragraphs Based on Comparing Levels Five and Nine of EFL Students...........................................................................................................................................................................436 Mashael Abdullah Alnefaie The Mediating Role of Dynamic Leadership Towards the Relationship Between Knowledge-Sharing Behaviour and Innovation Performance in Higher Education.......................................................................................................... 466 Masduki Asbari, John Tampil Purba, Evo Sampetua Hariandja, Niko Sudibjo
  • 7. 1 ©Authors This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 11, pp. 1-17, November 2023 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.11.1 Received Sep 24, 2023; Revised Nov 5, 2023; Accepted Nov 14, 2023 Improving the Reading and Writing Skills of Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: The Effectiveness of Infographics Sherif Adel Gaber* Faculty of Education, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia Sahar Farouk Allam Faculty of Education, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia Faculty of Women, Ain Shams University, Egypt Maha Abdul-Moniem El-Amin , Awatif Mahmoud Hamad , Nairra Ess Elsaied Abdel Fattah , Alia Hamed Ibrahim , Sumaia Attia Al Hasan , Omar Ahmed Al-Ali Faculty of Education, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia Hanem Mostafa Alboray Faculty of Education, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Egypt Abstract. Infographics are considered an effective educational tool to simplify complex information and make it more understandable and absorbable. However, applying this technology to teaching students with an intellectual disability (ID) may be challenging. The current research aimed to verify the effectiveness of the three types of infographics (static, motion and interactive) in improving the reading and writing skills of a sample of 48 students aged 7-10 with mild ID (MID) in an intellectual education programme attached to general education schools in Al-Ahsa in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A quasi-experimental design was taken, in which the research sample was divided into four groups of equal numbers, namely, three experimental groups and a control group. The researchers prepared a reading and writing skills scale (RWSC), verified its validity and reliability, and applied it to the three research groups before and after implementing the three training programmes. The results of the research showed the effectiveness of the three types of infographics (interactive, motion, and static) in developing the reading and writing skills of the research sample. The study suggests using three types of infographics to teach reading and writing to students with MID. * Corresponding author: Sherif Adel Gaber; Email: sagahmed@kfu.edu.sa
  • 8. 2 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter It suggests further exploration of interactive infographics in future research to improve their skills. The use of these educational infographics in academic subjects saves teachers time and effort, while using them in textbooks helps students retain and understand information more easily. Further research is needed to explore the use of interactive infographics as a teaching tool. Keywords: infographics; reading skills; writing skills; intellectual disability 1. Background of the Study Countries, institutions and individuals have joined forces at all levels to achieve the best learning outcomes as possible. Given the available capabilities and circumstances, among education sectors, guidance, entertainment, and other programmes targeting persons with disabilities and their families, enhancing learning outcomes is feasible. Implementing such initiatives is an indication of national civilisation and represents the realisation of noble human and civilisational principles that preserve the rights of persons. Empowering individuals with disabilities in society to fulfil their roles and contribute to their countries’ development is a fundamental principle. The Education Strategy 2016–2020 in Saudi Arabia aimed to provide equitable quality education in the least restrictive environments, enhancing lifelong opportunities for all individuals, including students with disabilities, across all regions (Saudi Ministry of Education, 2023). To ensure effective education, societies must access advanced methods, techniques and modern technology. Education improves students’ knowledge and skills, allowing them to apply them in various life situations. Technology, in turn, brings about significant changes in students’ levels and provides greater opportunities for information acquisition (Ahmed, 2019; Tony, 2017). Among the modern technological means used to simplify the educational process are infographics, an artistic method of transforming complex information, data, and concepts into images and drawings that students can understand and assimilate in an easy-to-understand and attractive way (Hassouna, 2014; Smiciklas, 2012). Infographics generally have a combination of linguistic and non- linguistic aspects and bring together texts, images, symbols, charts and graphs to present data visually. This combination contributes greatly to drawing students’ attention to the educational content, leading them to view and think about each of its elements, and to communicating a large amount of information in simple, attractive and interesting forms. For these reasons, this technology has become widespread in educational environments (Lankow et al., 2012; Locoro, 2017; Yildirim, 2016). Infographics must adhere to specific standards, including defining the goal, providing a clear title, achieving it throughout the design, ensuring sequential and consistent information, developing a visual layout and ensuring it is appropriate for the design size. Teachers and parents have a crucial responsibility
  • 9. 3 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter to understand and address educational disabilities that affect students’ education (Al-Faramawi & Al-Nassaj, 2010; Yildirim, 2016). One such disability is ID, which has received great attention from scholars and researchers in the field of special education because of the vast differences that exist among persons with ID and the heterogeneity of their aptitudes and shortcomings (Hawsawi & Al-Maliki, 2022). It is difficult to determine the characteristics of students with ID because the severity of the disability varies from one student to another and across age groups as well as according to the quality of care provided to them by special education programmes or their families (Al-Maliki & Al-Harthy, 2020). Students with mild ID (MID) represent 8% of all those suffering from ID. MID students face difficulties in learning reading and writing skills, need care in the first years of school, and tend to encounter further difficulties in the final years of school. They can follow regular curricula, but they can learn to some degree if they are provided with special educational services consistent with readiness within the appropriate educational environment. Moreover, they often cannot begin to acquire reading, writing, and spelling skills before the age of 8 or even 11 (Al-Quraiti, 2012; Hamouda, 2013). The educational literature related to the topic of the current research provides scientific evidence of the effectiveness of the infographic technique in improving the reading and writing skills of students with ID, which can be useful to teachers, families and policymakers. This research encourages further research and exploration and underlines the important role played by infographics in the field of special education. It shows that various types of infographics improve educational outcomes for students with MID, helping them improve their chances of academic success and personal development by realising their potential. The research also examines the impact of this technology on the reading and writing skills of students with MID and thus provides insight into how to improve these skills through the use of innovative educational tools. The research also contributes to the development of a new and effective educational strategy targeting students with MID and can provide evidence on the best ways to teach these students and improve their skills. The current research is to verify the effectiveness of using the three types of infographics—static, motion and interactive—to improve the reading and writing skills of students with MID. Literacy skills are essential for academic success and effective communication in the community. However, students with MID face difficulties in developing these skills. The current researchers believe that using infographics in their various forms may have a positive impact on improving the reading and writing skills of these students. The literature in the field of special education lacks detailed studies evaluating the effectiveness of using infographics in this context. Although using infographics can be beneficial for moderate, severe and very severe ID, the majority of research on evidence-based therapies for children with ID has concentrated on those with moderate to severe ID rather than
  • 10. 4 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter those with MID (Bouck & Bone, 2018). Hence, the current research seeks to answer the following questions: Q.1. Is there a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the first experimental group (which was subjected to the static infographic intervention) and the mean ranks of the control group (which followed the regular programme) in the post-test on the reading and writing skills scale (RWSC)? Q.2. Is there a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the second experimental group (which was subjected to the motion infographic intervention) and the mean ranks of the control group in the post-test on the RWSC? Q.3. Is there a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the third experimental group (which was subjected to the interactive infographic intervention) and the mean ranks of the control group in the post-test on the RWSC? Q.4. Is there a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the scores of the three experimental groups for the infographic programmes (static, motion and interactive) in the post-test on the RWSC? 2. Literature Review Infographics are considered an effective tool in education and communication, as they help students improve their understanding and remembering (Borkin et al., 2013). Research has shown that students can remember up to 80% of what they see and do, compared to only 20% of what they read (Medina, 2008). However, infographics should be used with caution. Charts and images can be misleading if not designed properly (Cairo, 2013). Therefore, designers must ensure that the data they provide is accurate and reliable and that graphs and images correctly reflect the information they are trying to convey (Kirk, 2016). In terms of presentation, there are three types of infographics. Static infographics are static designs whose content is chosen by the teacher and present information about a specific topic in the form of pictures or drawings that are easy to understand. This type of infographic can be printed and published on Internet pages. Motion infographics are directed scripts that take into account the presentation of explanatory information that appears in the final version of a motion video to show certain facts and concepts. Motion infographics are divided into two subtypes: (a) regular videos that contain infographics and (b) motion design (motion graphics). Interactive infographics are those where the student uses certain control tools, such as buttons, and a specific programme (code), which is the subject. Hence, some parts of this type of infographic must be designed and programmed in such a way that students can control them easily and they are easy to repurpose (Khalil, 2016; Shaltout, 2018). ID is a mental impairment affecting general abilities like thinking, problem- solving, planning and academic learning. It can lead to impaired adaptive behaviour and failure to meet personal independence and social responsibility standards in daily life, including communication and academic performance (VandenBos, 2015). ID also arises during the developmental period, which is
  • 11. 5 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter identified as before the age of 22, and is one of several conditions collectively known as “developmental disabilities”. The prevalence of ID is approximately 10 per 1,000 individuals. However, international prevalence of intellectual and developmental disabilities varies by country, level of development and age, with middle-income countries having 16 per 1,000 and high-income countries having 9 per 1,000 (American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. [AAIDD], 2023; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2022). One way to measure intellectual functional performance is an intelligence test, and an intelligence quotient (IQ) test score of about 70 or 75 indicates the presence of significant limitations in intellectual functioning. Students with ID are classified into four levels according to their IQ (Al-Mawla, 2015). The first level is mild, represented by an IQ in the range 55–70; the second is moderate, represented by an IQ in the range 40–54; the third is severe, represented by an IQ in the range 25– 39; and the last is very severe (dependence), represented by an IQ of less than 25 (Liao et al., 2019). Multiple Arab and foreign researchers have considered infographics in the field of special education, especially for students with ID and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Among studies in this area, a paper by Darwish and Al-Dakhni (2015) presented static and motion infographics via the web and investigated their effects on developing visual thinking skills among a sample of students with ASD in Egypt and their attitudes toward the use of such infographics. The results showed the effectiveness of both static and motion infographic styles in developing visual thinking and attitudes among this population. Khalil (2016) also studied the impact of static, dynamic, and interactive educational infographics on the achievement and efficiency of learning mathematics among primary school students with MID in Egypt. The results indicated the effectiveness of teaching using infographics on academic achievement, and what the size of the effectiveness and of the effect were, respectively (interactive infographics, motion infographics, and static infographics) in the educational process. Tsai et al. (2020) found that a motion infographic system, which combines continuous pictures and information simplification, can improve learning outcomes in a resource class. The study found that the experimental group improved academic success and comprehension of visual forms more than the control group, indicating the motion infographic system may increase learning outcomes in a resource class. Al-Shalawi and Gaber (2021) validated the usefulness of an infographic-based training programme to develop self-protection skills (risks of poisoning, suffocation, and falling) among a sample of ASD children at home. The results indicated the effectiveness of the training programme in developing self- protection skills among these students. Haksiz et al. (2021) indicated the effectiveness of infographics in teaching traffic rules to students with ID through tablet devices, as direct teaching with this technology gave students the necessary skills to use traffic signals and pedestrian crossings and observe traffic rules. Al- Samadi (2022) aimed to determine the extent of the knowledge of infographic
  • 12. 6 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter skills and difficulties encountered by pre-service teachers (specialising in ID) in teaching students with ID in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The author concluded that the degree of the concept of infographics as perceived by teachers was between high and medium, and they had a high level of infographic skills. Reading and writing are fundamental abilities that open up educational, vocational and social opportunities. However, little is known about how best to serve the literacy needs of students with ID when the reading skills gap between this group and those with average development develops (McIntyre et al., 2022). Students with ID struggle with reading and writing, necessitating research-based therapies. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs have explored the impact of reading and writing therapies, but more research is needed (Bakken et al., 2021). Moreover, the majority of students with ID struggle to apply concepts learned in controlled circumstances to different settings or conditions. For example, a student may display proficiency when reading isolated words on index cards yet fail to recognise the same words when they occur in linked text. Similarly, a student may automatically read single-syllable words yet be unable to decipher a compound word made up of two recognised syllables (Whitbread et al., 2021). Effective learning and classroom engagement are dependent on students’ reading abilities. Reading is, in essence, the foundation of academic achievement. As a result, functional literacy improves learners’ capacities regardless of their intellectual aptitude. Students with ID will be better able to grasp and apply what they have learned in real-life settings. Consequently, it is necessary to devise and implement training for professionals who assist students with ID on the benefits of using suitable instructional techniques to build reading skills in this population (Jacob & Pillay, 2022). Despite mounting evidence that students with ID may benefit from phonics-based reading training, most research and education in this field has concentrated on single-skill sight-word reading (Roberts-Tyler et al., 2020). Multicomponent reading interventions have been linked to improved reading skills across multiple reading components for general education students, and students with ID exposed to multicomponent reading programmes have similarly made significant improvements in reading skills compared to both their own previous reading performance and in comparison to their peers with ID who received traditional sight-word instruction (Afacan et al., 2018). Students with ID are increasingly being included in mainstream contexts. To enhance success in these situations, instructors must help students with reading comprehension (Shelton et al., 2019). Among studies that focused on studying the reading and writing skills of students with MID, Hafez (2016) sought to verify the effectiveness of a proposed strategy in developing certain reading and writing skills among primary school students in special education institutes and programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed strategy in developing the skills required by the research sample. Al-Majzoub and Bakhit (2019) aimed to design a training programme to improve the reading and writing skills of students with MID and to verify its effectiveness in improving their reading and
  • 13. 7 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter writing skills. The study concluded that the training programme was effective in improving the reading and writing skills of these students. Pezzino et al. (2019) reviewed literature on reading acquisition in students with ID and identified factors contributing to reading difficulties, including cognitive efficiency, perceptual capacities, oral language development, phonological processing and memory. Abdel-Muttalib et al. (2020) aimed to identify the effectiveness of a programme based on the theory of information organisation and processing in developing reading and writing skills for students with integrated ID in Egypt. The results of their research confirmed that strengthening the teacher and the teacher’s continuous encouragement of the participation of integrated students with ID led to assistance in developing their reading and writing skills. Bazkari and Jazouli (2021) revealed the difficulties in reading and writing from which students with MID suffer from the point of view of their teachers. The results from reading indicators demonstrated that the students appeared nervous, fidgety and frowned nervously when they read, at a rate of 70%. As regards writing indicators, the percentage was 65% due to the difficulty of finding a general idea of the text. Güler Bülbül and Özmen (2021) demonstrated the efficacy of teaching story- writing skills to students with ID and their non-disabled counterparts. All participants’ tales increased in length, elements and quality. Students used their newly learned abilities to write personal narratives. The comments from participants revealed that they thought the method was beneficial. Panopoulos et al. (2021) emphasised the significance of educational interventions based on Bronfenbrenner’s ecosystem theory. They showed that students with ID improved their reading abilities. According to Bronfenbrenner’s ecosystem theory, the results highlight the elements that affect and form educational interventions for reading abilities in students with ID. Stevens and Burns (2021) investigated the extent to which children with ID improved their word recognition, reading fluency and comprehension by practicing keywords. For a large proportion of the taught words, practising keywords resulted in improved later in-text recognition and generalisation. There was also a strong experimental control for gains in reading fluency. There was no discernible impact on reading comprehension. The research and practical implications were explored. According to Wang et al. (2022), research on the impact of the home literacy environment (HLE) on the literacy development of students with ID was limited, with conflicting results. The findings showed that the HLE had a substantial impact on the literacy development of students with ID, and that reading interest partially mediated this effect. The parent-student connection favourably influenced the regression association between the HLE and reading desire in this mediating mechanism.
  • 14. 8 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 3. Methodology 3.1 Research design and participants The researchers used the quasi-experimental method, which measures the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. The main independent variable was the infographic (static, motion and interactive), applied in three training programmes to three experimental groups. The fourth group, namely, the control, followed the regular programme. The dependent variable in this research was improving the reading and writing skills of students with MID. The research population was all students with MID enrolled in intellectual education programmes attached to general education schools in the city of Hofuf in Al-Ahsa Governorate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the third semester (2022–2023), estimated to comprise 334 students (189 male and 145 female). The researchers investigated primary school students with MID who suffered from difficulties in reading and writing. The research sample consisted of 48 students diagnosed with MID who were diagnosed through the official scale developed by the Ministry of Education, who ranged in age from 7 to 10 years (mean 8.58, standard deviation ±1.62). The research sample was distributed as follows: (1) The control group consisted of 12 students to whom the regular programme was applied; (2) the first experimental group consisted of 12 students to whom a training programme based on static infographics was applied; (3) the second experimental group consisted of 12 students to whom a training programme based on motion infographics was applied; and (4) the third experimental group consisted of 12 students to whom a training programme based on interactive infographics was applied. Equivalence was applied between the three research groups through the variables chronological age, IQ and RWSC using the Kruskal-Wallis test for unrelated groups to verify the equality of the three groups. The researchers obtained scientific research ethics approval from the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Faisal University before applying the research tools. 3.3 Research Tools and Data Collection 3.3.1 Reading and writing skills scale (RWSC) The researchers developed the RWSC. The RWSC aims to evaluate the level of basic reading and writing skills among primary school students with MID. In its final form, the RWSC consists of 30 statements and is divided into two dimensions: reading skills (14 statements) and writing skills (12 statements). The teacher answers the scale statements by choosing one of three options, namely, applies (3), sometimes applies (2), or does not apply (1). The students’ total scores are calculated by summing the scores they obtain on the scale. The maximum score is 90, the average score is 60, and the minimum score is 30. Scoring above the mean is considered to indicate an increase in the student’s level of reading and writing skills, while scoring below the mean indicates a low level in the student’s level of reading and writing skills. The researchers verified the psychometric efficiency of the scale by presenting it in its initial form, consisting of 36 statements, to a group of arbitrators specialising in the fields of special education, curricula and methods of teaching the Arabic
  • 15. 9 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter language. The statements that the arbitrators decided were invalid were excluded, and those that were valid remained. The agreement rate was 90%. Four statements were deleted; hence, before the internal consistency of the scale was checked, there were 32 statements. The researchers then checked the internal consistency of the scale and found that the correlation coefficients for each statement with the dimension to which it belonged ranged between 0.541 and 0.739. Two statements were then excluded. The results for the internal consistency of the scale dimensions and total score were 0.726 for reading skills and 0.713 for writing skills, and both these coefficients were significant at 0.01. Thus, the number of statements in the scale dropped to 30, as the researchers calculated the reliability coefficient for the scale using the Cronbach Alpha method. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient for reading skills was 0.719 and for writing skills 0.701, which indicates that all reliability coefficients are acceptable. Hence, the scale generally has high psychometric efficiency. 3.3.2 Training programmes The research applied three training programmes based on different types of infographics to improve the reading and writing skills of a sample of students with MID. The first training programme used the static infographic, the second used a motion infographic, and the third used an interactive infographic. The programmes were built based on a number of studies, including those of Darwish and Al-Dakhni (2015), Hafez (2016), Khalil (2016), Al-Shalawi and Gaber (2020), Panopoulos and Drossinou-Korea (2020), and Bakken et al. (2021). In total, 72 sessions were carried out across the three training programmes, at 24 sessions each. The sessions in each programme lasted between 30 and 45 minutes, depending on which of the three stages of the programme they belonged to. The introductory stage consisted of two sessions (1–2), each lasting 40 minutes; the training phase consisted of 22 sessions (3–22), each lasting 30 minutes; and the evaluation phase consisted of two sessions (23–24), each lasting 45 minutes. These sessions were applied to groups. The experiment were conducted at the same time, over two months, with three sessions per week. The programmes included reading and writing skills that were presented to the three infographic experimental groups (static, motion and interactive). In the three experimental groups, the reading and writing skills were divided as follows: Reading skills: Students were trained to recognise the shape of all the letters of the Arabic alphabet in their single form; to read the sounds of these letters correctly; to recognise the shape of these letters in words consisting of 2–5 letters; to match words consisting of 2–5 letters; to analyse words consisting of 2–5 letters; to read words consisting of 2–5 letters; to match sentences consisting of 2–5 words; and to understand the meaning of sentences consisting of 2–5 words. Writing skills: Students were trained to write all the letters of the Arabic alphabet; to complete words with missing letters; to analyse words consisting of 2–5 letters; to copy words consisting of 2–5 letters; and to write sentences consisting of 2–5 words.
  • 16. 10 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 3.3.3 Data analysis Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 22. The Mann-Whitney test was used to indicate the difference between the mean ranks between the independent groups in the pre- and post-tests. An analysis of variance was also conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis test to indicate the differences between the means ranks for the three experimental groups in the post-tests. 4. Results The collected data were analysed using Mann-Whitney test, a test of two independent sample, and the Kruskal-Wallis test, for the test of significant differences. The results of the data analysis are shown in the subsequent sections 4.1 to 4.4. 4.1. Difference between the mean ranks of the first experimental group (to which the static infographic was applied) and the mean ranks of the control group (which followed the regular programme) in the RWSC post-test Table 1: Results of the Mann-Whitney test for the significance of the difference between the EG1 and CG in the RWSC post-test Note. ** p < 0.01. The results of Table 1 show that the Z value for the scale as a whole is -4.224 and the p-value is <0.001, which is a value less than 0.01, indicating that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the EG1 and CG in the post-test on the RWSC in favour of the EG1. 4.2. Difference between the mean ranks of the second experimental group (to which the motion infographic was applied) and the mean ranks of the control group (which followed the regular programme) in the RWSC post-test Table 2: Results of the Mann-Whitney test for the significance of the difference between the EG2 and CG in the RWSC post-test. Note. ** p < 0.01. Scale Group N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Z P Reading skills EG1 12 18.50 222 -4.208 >0.001** CG 12 6.50 78 Writing skills EG1 12 18.50 222 -4.227 >0.001** CG 12 6.50 78 Total EG1 12 18.50 222 -4.223 >0.001** CG 12 6.50 78 Scale Group N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Z P Reading skills EG2 12 18.50 222 -4.211 >0.001** CG 12 6.50 78 Writing skills EG2 12 18.50 222 -4.208 >0.001** CG 12 6.50 78 Total EG2 12 18.50 222 -4.181 >0.001** CG 12 6.50 78
  • 17. 11 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter The results of Table 2 show that the Z value for the scale as a whole is -4.182 and the p-value is <0.001, which is a value less than 0.01, indicating that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the EG2 and CG in the post-test on the RWSC in favour of the EG2. 4.3. Difference between the mean ranks of the third experimental group (to which the interactive infographic was applied) and the mean ranks of the control group (which followed the regular programme) in the RWSC post-test Table 3: Results of the Mann-Whitney test for the significance of the difference between the EG3 and CG in the RWSC post-test Note. ** p < 0.01. The results of Table 3 show that the Z value for the scale as a whole is -4.177, and the p-value is < 0.001, which is a value less than 0.01, indicating that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of the EG3 and CG in the post-test on the RWSC in favour of the EG3. 4.4. Difference between the mean ranks of the three experimental groups for the infographic programmes (static, motion and interactive) in the RWSC the post-test Table 4: Results of the analysis of variance using the Kruskal-Wallis test for the significance of the differences between the EG1, EG2 and EG3 and their significance in the RWSC post-test Note. ** p < 0.01. Scale Group N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Z P Reading skills EG3 12 18.50 222 -4.194 >0.001** CG 12 6.50 78 Writing skills EG3 12 18.50 222 -4.181 >0.001** CG 12 6.50 78 Total EG3 12 18.50 222 -4.176 >0.001** CG 12 6.50 78 Scale Group N Mean Rank df X2 P Reading skills EG1 12 6.50 2 31.459 >0.001** EG2 12 18.50 EG3 12 30.50 Writing skills EG1 12 6.50 2 31.451 >0.001** EG2 12 18.50 EG3 12 30.50 Total EG1 12 6.50 2 31.553 >0.001** EG2 12 18.50 EG3 12 30.50
  • 18. 12 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter The results of Table 4 show that among the mean ranks of the three experimental groups for the infographic programmes (static, motion and interactive) in the post-test on the RWSC, the three groups were ranked highest to lowest in terms of effectiveness in the following order: interactive infographic, motion infographic and static infographic. The highest mean ranks were for the EG3, while the lowest mean ranks were for the EG1. 5. Discussion An abundance of information has led to the emergence of various types of infographics as technological alternatives to traditional teaching methods. This technology plays an effective role in simplifying information and presenting it to students in an attractive and interesting way during the educational process, which has led to its widespread use in various educational environments. The results of the current research indicate the effectiveness of the three types of infographics (static, motion and interactive) in improving the reading and writing skills of students with MID, demonstrating that this technology is effectively capable of converting complex information and concepts into pictures and drawings in an easy, smooth and clear way. It is attractive and exciting for students with MID, making it easier for them to understand and assimilate information and concepts. The results showed that there was a difference between the mean ranks of the first experimental group (to which static infographics were applied) in the pre- and post-tests on the RWSC. This result is consistent with the studies of Smiciklas, (2012), Borkin et al. (2013), Cairo (2013), Hassouna, (2014), Kirk (2016), and Haksiz et al. (2021). These results can be explained by the fact that the static infographics feature images, drawings and colours have significance for and an influence on students with MID; thus, these features attract their attention for longer than traditional learning methods. There is a difference between the mean ranks of the second experimental group (to which motion infographics were applied) in the pre- and post-tests on the RWSC. This result is consistent with Darwish and Al- Dakhni (2015), Al-Shalawi and Gaber (2020) and Tsai et al. (2020). The researchers ascribe this result to the fact that motion infographics consist of 3D images, ensuring the participation of students with MID and attracting their attention for longer than static infographics. There is a difference between the mean ranks of the third experimental group (to which interactive infographics were applied) in the pre- and post-tests on the RWSC. This result is consistent with Khalil (2016), and the researchers explain this result as being because users of interactive infographics have greater control over its elements than in the other two types of infographics, which makes it more attractive to students. As can be seen from the results outlined above, the third experimental group (to which interactive infographics were applied) outperformed the first (static infographics) and second (motion infographics) experimental group, as also found by Hafez (2016), Khalil (2016), Shaltout (2018), Al-Majzoub and Bakhit (2019) and Abdel-Muttalib (2020). The researchers believe that interactive infographics are a means which allows students with MID to participate in the educational content provided to them, ensuring that their attention is maintained.
  • 19. 13 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter In addition, their concentration is sustained for longer periods, which is what distinguishes the interactive infographic from the other two types, especially motion infographics. Although static infographics are easier to design and less expensive than motion and interactive infographics and are easy to repurpose and share, they are less effective than the other two types in terms of allowing the participation for students with MID and less effective in terms of achieving appeal and excitement. For these students, motion infographics, whether with 2D or 3D drawings, attracts their attention longer than static infographics. Likewise, static infographics are less interactive compared to motion and interactive infographics. The researchers in general explain these results in terms of the fundamental and critical role played by infographics in developing the skills of students with MID, which has resulted in significant benefits for these students as this type of technology is distinguished by application possibilities. The researchers also attribute the improvement of the reading and writing skills of the three experimental groups to the impressive ability of this technology to attract students’ attention through interactive activities, in addition to directing use according to their needs and abilities and providing an environment conducive and supportive to achieving the desired goals. The researchers also explain these results due to the use of techniques that have a direct impact on students with MID, such as modelling, indoctrination, feedback and reinforcement, all of which helped attract students’ attention for the longest possible period. 6. Limitations A specific sample of students with MID was selected to participate in the study, and it may not have been adequate or representative of the wider population. It may also be difficult to provide the necessary resources to design and implement infographics effectively, as doing so may require time, money and technical skills. Reliable and effective measurement tools must be used to evaluate the impact of infographics on reading and writing skills, and comprehensively applying these tools to students with MID may be challenging. External factors, such as the school environment, home support and personal motivation, may affect the effectiveness of infographics in enhancing the reading and writing skills of students with MID, and these factors must be taken into account when analysing the results. 7. Conclusion and Recommendations The research aimed to verify the effectiveness of three types of infographics (static, motion and interactive) in improving the reading and writing skills of students with MID. The results showed the effectiveness of this technique on the reading and writing skills of the research sample. Through these results, several recommendations can be made. These include applying the three types of infographics in teaching curricula for students with MID, as well as analysing the courses taught to students with MID and identifying the characteristics of those courses to design technology-based curricula using infographics in different
  • 20. 14 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter styles. The results of this research can also be beneficial for practitioners, especially if future research supports them. It should also be possible to conduct similar research on different educational content taught to primary school students with MID. The results of future research may differ from those of the current research according to the degree of interest, inclinations and defensiveness of the students toward the topics assigned to them. This research can also be used to provide the educational literature with a new experimental study that may be useful in developing a theoretical framework for infographics as an effective technology and electronic control tool for use with students with MID. A study could also be conducted using the same three types of infographics with various students with MID who can deal with each category. Likewise, these three types can be used to develop the advanced linguistic skills of these students. The attention of special education teachers can also be directed toward the conditions for effective infographic design from concept to production and to the use of the three types of educational infographics in various courses offered to students with MID who have difficulty understanding these courses. Training courses could be held for teachers on the use of modern and effective technologies, including various types of infographics, in teaching reading and writing to persons with MID. Acknowledgements The researchers acknowledge the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Faisal, Saudi Arabia for obtaining financial support for research, authorship, and the publication of research (GRANT5079). 8. References Abdel-Muttalib, A., Badawi, M., Al-Najjar, S., & Abdel-Halim, M. (2020). The effectiveness of a program based on the theory of information organization and processing in developing some language skills, reading and writing skills for integrated children with mental disability. International Journal of Educational and Psychological Sciences, (38), 52-105. Afacan, K., Wilkerson, K., & Ruppar, A. (2018). Multicomponent reading interventions for students with intellectual disability. Remedial and Special Education, 39(4), 229- 242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0741932517702444 Ahmed, R. (2019). The degree of use of modern technology in teaching life sciences from the point of view of secondary school teachers in Zarqa schools [Master’s thesis]. Middle East University. Al-Faramawi, H., & Al-Nassaj, W. (2010). Intellectual disability: Cognitive and emotional disorders. Dar Safaa. Al-Majzoub, H., & Bakhit, S. (2019). The effectiveness of a training program to improve the reading and writing skills of students with mild mental disabilities who are capable of learning at Al-Ahbab Center for Multiple Mental Disabilities - Sudan. Journal of Economic and Social Studies, (9), 206-237. Al-Maliki, N., & Al-Harthi, B. (2020). The importance of using assistive technologies with students with intellectual disability in comprehensive education schools. International Journal of Educational Research, 44(2), 266-298. Al-Mawla, A. (2015). Moderate mental disability: trainable. Al-Mutanabbi Library. Al-Quraiti, A. (2012). Psychology and education of persons with special needs (5th ed.). Anglo- Egyptian Library. Al-Samadi, A. (2022). The level of pre-service teachers’ possession of e-learning skills based on infographic technology in teaching students with mental disability. Journal of Special Education, 41, 24-60.
  • 21. 15 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Al-Shalawi, A., & Gaber, S. (2021). The effectiveness of a training program based on infographic technology in developing self-protection skills among a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, 12(40), 1-48. https://doi.org/10.21608/sero.2021.146152 American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. (2023). Defining criteria for intellectual disability. https://www.aaidd.org/intellectual- disability/definition American Psychiatric Association. (2022). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5-TR). American Psychiatric Association. Bakken, R., Naess, K., Lemons, C., & Hjetland, H. (2021). A systematic review and meta- analysis of reading and writing interventions for students with disorders of intellectual development. Education Sciences, 11(10), 638. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1318042.pdf Bazqari, N., & Gazouli, N. (2021). Difficulties in reading and writing among persons with mental disabilities who are capable of learning from the point of view of teachers. Humanization Journal of Research and Studies, 12(1), 27-40. Borkin, M., Vo, A., Bylinskii, Z., Isola, P., Sunkavalli, S., Oliva, A., & Pfister, H. (2013). What makes a visualization memorable? IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 19(12), 2306-2315. Bouck, E. & Bone, E. (2018). Interventions for students with intellectual disabilities, Obiakor, F. and Bakken, J. (Ed.) Viewpoints on interventions for learners with disabilities (pp. 55-73). Emerald Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0270- 401320180000033004 Cairo, A. (2013). The functional art: An introduction to information graphics and visualization. New Riders. Darwish, A., & Al-Dakhni, A. (2015). The two styles of presenting “static/motion” infographics via the web and their impact on developing the visual thinking skills of autistic children and their attitudes toward it. Educational Technology, 25(2), 265-364. Güler Bülbül, Ö., & Özmen, E. (2021). Effectiveness of teaching story-writing strategy to students with intellectual disabilities and their non-disabled peers. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 46(3), 204-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2019.1698286 Hafez, W. (2016). The effectiveness of a proposed strategy in developing some reading and writing skills among primary school students in intellectual education institutes and programs. Arab Studies in Education and Psychology, (80), 177-226. Haksiz, M., Akcamete, G., & Demirok, M. (2021). Effectiveness of the teaching offered through infographics in teaching traffic rules to students with intellectual disability. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 30(1), 41-50. https://doi.org/10.24205/03276716.2020.2003 Hamouda, M. (2013). Psychiatry: Psychological problems of children and adolescents and their treatment (5th ed.). Author. Hassouna, I. (2014, May 15 ). Infographics in education [working paper]. Presented to the Conference-Technology Innovations in the Information Age, Al-Aqsa University, Gaza, Palestine. Hawsawi, A., & Al-Maliki, N. (2022). Intellectual disability. In: Abdullah, A., and Ola, A. (eds.), The comprehensive encyclopedia of disability: Common disabilities (pp. 129- 273). King Salman Center for Disability Research. Jacob, U., & Pillay, J. (2022). Instructional strategies that foster reading skills of learners with intellectual disability: a scoping review. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 17(7), 2222-2234. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1350257.pdf Khalil, A. (2016). Types of educational infographics (static, motion, and interactive) and their impact on the achievement and efficiency of learning mathematics among primary school students with mild mental disability. Journal of the Faculty of Education, Al-Azhar University, 3(169), 272- 321. Kirk, A. (2016). Data visualization: A handbook for data driven design. SAGE.
  • 22. 16 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Lankow, J., Ritchie, J., & Crooks, R. (2012). Infographics: The power of visual storytelling. John Wiley & Sons. Liao, L., Chen, C., Peng, J., Wu, L., He, F., Yang, L., Zhang, C., Wang, G., Peng, P., Ma, Y., Miao, P. & Yin, F. (2019). Diagnosis of intellectual disability/global developmental delay via genetic analysis in a central region of China. Chinese Medical Journal, 132(13), 1533-1540. https://doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000295 Locoro, A., Cabitza, F., Actis-Grosso, R., & Batini, C. (2017). Static and interactive infographics in daily tasks: A value-in-use and quality of interaction user study. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 240-257 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.01.032 McIntyre, N. S., Loughran, C., & Towson, J. (2022). Reimagining assessment of literacy skills for adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A tutorial for an individualized approach. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 7(6), 1606-1618. https://doi.org/10.1044/2022_PERSP-22-00014 Medina, J. (2008). Brain rules: 12 principles for surviving and thriving at work, home, and school. Pear Press. Panopoulos, N., & Drossinou-Korea, M. (2020). Bronfenbrenner’s theory and teaching intervention: The case of student with intellectual disability. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 16(2), 537-551. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1259573.pdf Pezzino et al. (2019). Acquisition of reading and intellectual development disorder. Journal of psycholinguistic research, 48, 569-600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936- 018-9620-5 Roberts-Tyler, E., Hughes, J., & Hastings, R. (2020). Evaluating a computer‐based reading programme with children with intellectual disabilities: Feasibility and pilot research. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 20(1), 14-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-3802.12458 Saudi Ministry of Education (2023). Persons with disabilities: Equality in education for students with disabilities. https://moe.gov.sa/ar/education/generaleducation/Pages/PeopleWithSpecial Needs.aspx Shaltout, M. (2018). Infographics: from planning to production (2nd ed.). Tomorrow’s Education House. Shelton, A., Wexler, J., Silverman, R., & Stapleton, L. (2019). A synthesis of reading comprehension interventions for persons with mild intellectual disability. Review of Educational Research, 89(4), 612-651. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0034654319857041 Smiciklas, M. (2012). The power of infographics: Using pictures to communicate and connect with your audiences. Que Publishing. Stevens, M., & Burns, M. (2021). Practicing keywords to increase reading performance of students with intellectual disability. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 126(3), 230-248. https://doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558- 126.3.230 Tony, M. (2017). The relationship of the two types of infographics to the level of information awareness among university students in light of mental capacity. Journal of Research in Specific Education, 9, 51-118. Tsai, S., Huang, H. & Chang, T. (2020). Developing a motion infographic-based learning system for effective learning. Education Sciences, 10(9), 247. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090247 VandenBos, G. (2015). APA dictionary of psychology (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. Wang, Q., Ma, M., Li, M., Huang, Y., & Wang, T. (2022). Impact of home literacy environment on literacy development of children with intellectual disabilities: A moderated mediation model. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 38(2), 126-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10573569.2021.1923099
  • 23. 17 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Whitbread, K., Knapp, S., & Bengtson, M. (2021). Teaching foundational reading skills to students with intellectual disabilities. Teaching exceptional children, 53(6), 424-432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0040059920976674 Yildirim, S. (2016). Infographics for educational purposes: Their structure, properties and reader approaches. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 15(3), 98- 110. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1106376.pdf
  • 24. 18 ©Authors This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 11, pp. 18-35, November 2023 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.11.2 Received Sep 24, 2023; Revised Nov 5, 2023; Accepted Nov 14, 2023 Preserving and Nurturing Tausug Language: The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application Tool for Enhancing Mother Tongue Development for Toddlers Shernahar K. Tahil , Jonel T. Alibasa , Shamier – Rahman K. Tahil , Jeanor Marsin College of Computer Studies Mindanao State University – Sulu, Philippines Shanaia – Shedri K. Tahil College of Arts and Science Mindanao State University – Sulu, Philippines Abstract. In the fast-paced modern world, English and other commonly spoken languages have become prevalent even in Tausug households. This shift towards these languages presents difficulties in preserving and advancing the Tausug language. Therefore, it is essential to discover effective methods to cultivate language foundations and encourage the development of the mother tongue among Tausug toddlers. One hundred and sixty toddlers and 160 parents from eight Barangay in Jolo, Sulu, participated in a study. It was to investigate the effect between Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Applications and traditional teaching methods in enhancing mother tongue development for toddlers. The results indicated high significance in favor of the Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application over the traditional teaching method, as shown by a t-test with a p-value of 0.05. The parents noted Bahasa Sug Mobile Apps' significant value in increasing their children's learning. Bahasa Sug, mobile learning applications, have become valuable tools for nurturing and preserving mother tongues in toddlers. These applications provide engaging and interactive experiences that align with children's natural learning processes. They can create an immersive and interactive environment for toddlers to develop and preserve their mother tongue. By embracing this mobile learning application, it can ensure the continuity and vitality of native languages, allowing children to maintain a strong connection with their cultural heritage and linguistic identity. Keywords: Tausug Language; Bahasa Sug; Mobile Learning Application; Mother Tongue; Cultural Identity; Child Development
  • 25. 19 1. Background of the Study There has been no previous study regarding Preserving and Nurturing Tausug Language. The Tausug people are an indigenous Muslim group residing in the Sulu Archipelago of the southern Philippines (Britannica, 2016), particularly in East Mindanao (Jubilado et al., 2015). They have a distinct culture and language called Bahasa Sug, their primary means of communication. The term "Bahasa Sug" is derived from "Bahasa," which means "language" in many Asian languages, and "Sug," which can refer to "Sulu" or "current." According to Cowie (1893), all natives of Sulu and Tawi-Tawi spoke the Sulu Language or Bahasa Sug. It is appropriate to refer to the language spoken by the people of Sulu as Bahasa Sug (Bangahan, 2015). To uphold the cultural heritage of the Tausug tribe, it is vital to conserve and foster their unique language as the role of language in preserving cultural identity and nurturing language roots among communities is critical: for many communities, their mother tongue is vital to their heritage, traditions, and collective memory. It is important to encourage the use of one's native language as research suggests it positively impacts cognitive development. Studies have demonstrated that proficiency in one's mother tongue can also improve language learning ability. Scientific evidence indicates that children who are skilled in their native language are more likely to exhibit superior cognitive skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and memory retention. Using one's native language for self-expression helps in expressing thoughts, emotions, and experiences more effectively, leading to enhanced cognitive development. Piaget's (1971) cognitive development theory states that children undergo different stages of cognitive growth, each with unique characteristics. This theory places significant emphasis on providing toddlers with a supportive and intellectually stimulating learning environment, enabling them to engage in language acquisition actively. The use of mobile learning applications provides youngsters with the opportunity to leverage their innate strengths, promoting cognitive progress and supporting the enhancement of their linguistic aptitude. The acquisition of language and literacy abilities in children starts before their preschool enrollment and factors such as ethnicity, home language, and parental education are crucial in shaping their abilities. Numerous studies have demonstrated that, when children receive education in their native language, they exhibit enhanced language proficiency, expanded vocabulary, and improved literacy competencies (Grunewald, 2016). Recognizing the significance of using language children are most comfortable and familiar with is crucial, as it greatly enhances their understanding, communication, and engagement in the educational process. Vygotsky's (1978) sociocultural theory emphasizes social interactions and cultural environment in language development. Children learn by actively participating in social interactions and collaborating with experts like parents, teachers, and peers. Mobile learning apps like Lingokids use Vygotsky's theory to encourage parent-child language acquisition through interactive activities. The sociocultural method fosters language development by creating a
  • 26. 20 supportive and participatory environment that mimics children's normal social interactions. Likewise, Skinner (1963) emphasizes the role of reinforcement and rewards in shaping behavior. According to him, the infant replicates the linguistic patterns exhibited by their parents and those in their immediate environment. When an adult acknowledges a child's words, they frequently praise them, encouraging positive reinforcement. Language learning tools such as Rosetta Stone Kids Lingo Word Builder employ behaviorist ideas by offering positive reinforcement and rewards to young children as they interact with their native language. These apps use visual cues, games, and interactive exercises to reinforce correct language usage and encourage continuous practice. With these techniques, toddlers are motivated to actively participate in language learning, leading to improved retention and proficiency in their mother tongue. The popularity of mobile learning has witnessed a significant rise owing to the widespread adoption of smartphones and other personal devices and, as such, utilizing mobile devices in personalized learning has emerged as an ongoing trend, one which presents innovative possibilities for the advancement and promotion of language acquisition and is increasingly gaining recognition worldwide. Using language learning applications for mother tongue development has now proven advantageous. Firstly, these apps offer a personalized and engaging learning experience tailored to toddlers' needs and preferences. The interactive features, visual aids, and gamification elements keep children motivated and enthusiastic about learning their mother tongue. Secondly, language learning apps provide a convenient and accessible platform, allowing toddlers to learn at their own pace, whenever and wherever they like. This flexibility enables consistent exposure to the mother tongue, facilitating a deep and lasting connection to their cultural heritage. Finally, language learning apps foster a positive and nurturing environment, promoting self-confidence and pride in one's cultural identity. By preserving and nurturing the mother tongue, these apps empower toddlers to embrace their linguistic heritage and actively contribute to preserving their cultural diversity (Konstantakis et al., 2022). Research has indicated that a child's mother tongue plays a significant role in their educational success. Studies indicate that students taught in their original language will likely have superior academic performance, higher literacy rates, and enhanced learning outcomes (Benson & Kosonen, 2013). A study conducted by UNESCO in 2016 suggests that teaching young children in their mother tongue as the primary language can aid in their understanding of concepts and facilitate learning other languages later on. Mother Tongue refers to one's original language, representing culture and identity. A child's mother tongue is the first language they learn and often consider their native language. Learning in our mother tongue is essential as it improves cognitive skills, helps us acquire a second language, and develops our literacy abilities. Using one's native language also contributes to language and literacy skills. Research indicates that a firm understanding of one's native language can facilitate the acquisition of other languages (UNESCO, 2016).
  • 27. 21 Although the English language holds significant global importance and is regarded as a fundamental aspect of human existence (Abidin, 2012), and has gained prominence over native languages in numerous countries (Rao, 2019), including Tausug households, native languages or mother tongue should still play an essential role in early child development. Teaching children in their mother tongue during their early years can improve their language skills, cognitive development, and emotional stability. Feldman (2019) links good long- term results in school, work, and social life to a solid base in language skills. It impacts familial and social relationships, personal identity, the socioeconomic world, cognitive abilities, and academic success (Triebold, 2020). Facilitating toddlers' learning process can improve through effective mother tongue communication between parents and teachers. This approach has consistently resulted in positive outcomes, increasing achievement and success for these young learners. Collaboration fosters the creation of a conducive and intellectually stimulating environment. Furthermore, preserving a child's native language can help build a positive self- image, boost confidence, and encourage cultural appreciation among young children. Retaining their linguistic heritage helps children feel more connected to their cultural origins, improving emotional and social well-being. However, the Tausug language, the mother tongue of Tausug, encountered obstacles due to the increasing prominence of English as a widely utilized language. Therefore, exploring effective methods to encourage the preservation of Tausug mother tongue development and foster linguistic roots among Tausug children is essential. As such, this study investigated the effects and relationship between Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Applications and traditional teaching methods in enhancing mother tongue development for Tausug toddlers. 2. Literature 2.1 Cultural Identity and Heritage Language is essential to human culture and identity, allowing communication and expression. Preserving and nurturing a language is crucial for maintaining the identity and heritage of a person's culture. In the current era of globalization, many native languages are at risk of being forgotten due to assimilation into Western culture and language. However, language learning applications like Duolingo and Rosetta Stone offer a promising solution for promoting the advancement of mother tongue in early childhood education. This mobile app offers an excellent opportunity for children to enhance their proficiency in their native language in a fun and convenient way. The application enhances language proficiency, improving linguistic competence (Carreon et al., 2019). The dominance of English and other common languages has led to changes in language preferences and usage patterns, including within families. Unfortunately, this change presents challenges in developing and preserving mother tongues, such as Bahasa Sug, spoken by the Tausug community. Preserving the mother tongue is crucial for maintaining linguistic and cultural diversity, as it helps individuals stay connected to their heritage, traditions, and values. García and Wei (2014) emphasize that maintaining one's native language is vital to passing cultural knowledge to future generations while Li (2018)
  • 28. 22 argues that advocating for one's native language positively affects self-identity, self-esteem, and community inclusion. It is essential to explore our cultural identity and heritage. Doing so allows us to acquire a deeper comprehension of our identity and our place in the world. Studying our heritage gives us a more extensive understanding and cultivates our overall knowledge. 2.2 Cognitive Approaches to Learning with Digital Materials It is crucial to incorporate cognitive strategies to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of digital learning materials. It is imperative to maintain the original meaning of the content and preserve all significant details. To achieve the best outcome, upholding the same professionalism and formality as the original text is crucial. These strategies will deliver the best outcomes in digital learning materials. Earlier studies have established that digital entertainment media contributes significantly to the cognitive growth of children during a crucial stage (Linuwih & Trihastutie, 2020). Children exposed to English-based digital media, including songs and nursery rhymes, enhance their grammar, vocabulary, and proficiency in English pronunciation (Alefeshat, 2019). In a study released by the Cognitive Impacts of Digital Media Workgroup, Anderson and Subrahmanyam (2017) found that there is a lack of evidence regarding the effects of digital screen device usage on young children in recent studies. Thus, the current research on digital technology usage and learning outcomes among children under five through screen interfaces requires revision. Hence, it is imperative to expand the existing knowledge base concerning the overall impact of digital technology and the specific impacts of using digital screens on children's development. According to the cognitive load hypothesis, the working memory system processes information in digital learning material during the learning process and transfers it to long-term memory (Sweller et al., 2019). Learning changes the permanent memory system, which has a limitless capacity. Information processing influences learning by increasing cognitive burden. The number of elements acting simultaneously in working memory is called element interactivity. Learning domain-specific previous knowledge is the second factor and the third is the effort required to construct and automate new mental models. Schneider et al. (2022) suggest that intrinsic cognitive strain arises from high-element interactivity, lack of domain-specific prior knowledge, and the need to construct and automate new mental models. The ease or challenge of processing the information in digital learning materials affects the amount of "extraneous cognitive load," also known as "learning-irrelevant cognitive load." This is because the ease or difficulty of processing the information depends on how the learning material is presented or designed. The concept of multimedia education (Mayer, 2014a) holds immense importance in digital media education, along with Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT). This theory presents a comprehensive model for the learning process, grounded in three fundamental assumptions. The theories proposed by Paivio (1986) and Baddeley (1992) serve as the foundation for the first proposition, which states that information processing happens through two distinct cognitive channels. Additionally, it acknowledges the constrained capabilities of the working
  • 29. 23 memory system, as posited by Baddeley's working memory model. Finally, it underscores the importance of learners engaging in active cognitive processes to create meaningful mental representations and models. The Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) framework identifies and describes five distinct cognitive processes that engage learners during digital learning. These processes encompass the act of carefully choosing appropriate words and visuals, arranging them in a logical manner, and merging mental frameworks with previous knowledge in order to establish coherence. Mayer (2014a) observed the aforementioned cognitive processes in all sectors of multimedia communication. 2.3 Learning in the Digital Age A study about the impact of gadget usage on cognitive development shows it is imperative to closely monitor the gadget facilities offered by parents for early childhood to mitigate any potential adverse effects that may impede children's cognitive development. According to Siregar et al. (2022), parents have the potential to utilize gadgets as engaging educational tools to enhance their children's cognitive abilities. Sowmya et al. (2019) examined the application of Chomsky's theory regarding the presence of a 'Language acquisition device' (LAD) in every child and experts believe that this device ingrains the fundamental principles and grammatical structures of a language into a child's brain. The study found that using gadgets has a beneficial effect on children's language development. Exposing children to various educational programs, videos, rhymes, and similar media sources can facilitate the acquisition of new vocabulary and enhance their language proficiency. Sundqvist et al. (2021) conducted a study that established a correlation between some aspects of a 2-year-old's digital media environment and linguistic development. Increased exposure to T.V. content, whether on a large screen or tablet, is linked to negative impacts on language development. Similarly, the likelihood of parents incorporating digital media into everyday child routines shows a negative association with language development. However, positive parenting strategies, such as engaging in interactive conversations, joint media engagement (JME), and reading books, positively correlate with a child's language development. 2.4 Interactive and Engaging Learning Experience Through today’s integration of digital technologies into our everyday routines, toddlers are increasingly engaging in digital gaming activities, surpassing the levels observed in earlier generations. Consequently, the field of education is undergoing corresponding transformations. Digital game-based learning has shown remarkable growth during the past decade and, according to Greipl et al. (2020), there is a growing preference for a learning environment that is both interactive and visually engaging. Integrating mobile learning apps into students' education can positively impact their learning habits and outcomes. Its potential to transform education is immense as it enhances student engagement and elevates language skills in language education. Research has demonstrated that incorporating technology into education not only enhances pupils' learning behaviors and results (Hwang & Tsai, 2011) but also holds the potential to revolutionize education by
  • 30. 24 captivating students' attention (Kukulska-Hulme & Traxler, 2013) and modern mobile language learning apps have the potential to dramatically revolutionize how people learn new languages (Heil et al., 2016). According to numerous studies (Crompton & Burke, 2018), mobile learning (m- learning) substantially impacts the teaching and learning processes. The unique ability of m-learning to provide students with greater flexibility and access to innovative learning opportunities sets it apart from conventional learning methods. Mobile learning devices have gained popularity among students and educators due to their convenience and flexibility. As a result, there has been a rise in research and experimentation on educational mobile learning efficiency, as demonstrated in the work of Al-Shehri (2012). Mobile learning applications for mother tongue education have emerged as a promising approach to enhancing language learning experiences. These applications offer various interactive features and accessibility options that cater to the unique needs of learners. Research has highlighted the advantages of mobile educational apps in preserving and nurturing the mother tongue among diverse populations. Mobile learning apps provide convenient and flexible access to language learning resources, breaking geographical barriers. Users can learn a language anytime and anywhere, fitting it into their busy schedules. The availability of offline capabilities ensures continued access to learning materials even in areas with limited internet connectivity. These applications offer various interactive language learning features, including gamification elements, quizzes, challenges, and multimedia content (Gikandi et al., 2011). Gamification elements motivate and engage learners, making language learning enjoyable and rewarding, while adaptive learning techniques personalize the learning experience, tailoring content and activities to individual learners' needs. It also promotes user-created content and community engagement, fostering collaboration among language learners (Godwin-Jones, 2019). Users can contribute their language resources, share cultural knowledge, and engage in peer-to-peer learning. This collaborative approach enhances language acquisition and creates a sense of ownership and community among learners. Furthermore, mobile learning apps facilitate language proficiency assessment and tracking of learning outcomes (Kuimova et al., 2018). They provide opportunities for self-assessment, progress monitoring, and feedback, which promote learner motivation and goal setting. Additionally, some apps integrate certification options or badges to recognize and validate language proficiency. 2.5 Toddlers and Interactive Mobile Learning Apps The influence of mobile educational applications on toddler development is how such apps can help promote cognitive, social, and emotional growth among young children. By engaging in interactive and educational content on their mobile devices, toddlers can enhance their language and communication skills, fine motor abilities, problem-solving abilities, and overall understanding of the world around them. Additionally, mobile apps can provide a safe and controlled environment for toddlers to explore new ideas, learn from mistakes, and build resilience, all while having fun and staying engaged. Ultimately, the effective
  • 31. 25 use of mobile learning apps can help parents and caregivers support the development and growth of a child in a meaningful and impactful way. Mobile learning applications have shown the capacity to positively impact the advancement of toddlers by offering interactive and engaging educational experiences. These applications, specifically designed for young children, provide various benefits that support their cognitive, language, motor, and socio-emotional development. Featuring educational games, puzzles, and exercises that improve problem-solving, critical thinking, and memory, research has highlighted the positive impact of such mobile learning applications on toddlers' cognitive development. The main benefits are facilitating education, creating an interactive learning environment, and supporting children's learning and development. Mobile apps' interactive element enhances toddlers' curiosity and cognitive capacities (Nikolopoulou, 2021). Mobile learning applications improve children's cognitive development with age-appropriate information and exciting experiences. The utilization of mobile media devices and apps by young children presents an opportunity to leverage the distinctive qualities of these devices in order to enhance their learning experiences and outcomes. While there are problems associated with utilizing mobile devices for educational purposes, the offer the potential benefits of aiding children in developing crucial abilities According to Judge et al. (2015), utilizing assistive technology and implementing best practices in Universal Design for Learning offers a feasible approach to customization and personalization for young children with disabilities to effectively utilize emerging and advanced technologies. The field of child psychology recognizes the positive impact of mother tongue mobile learning applications on children's language development, cognitive skills, and socio-emotional well-being. These applications cater to children's specific developmental needs and provide a supportive learning environment that enhances their engagement and progress in language learning. According to a study conducted by Xie et al. (2020), engaging in certain activities can positively impact the development of preschoolers. Studies have also shown that engaging in these activities can improve attention, memory, imagination, and proficiency while promoting discipline. Mother tongue mobile learning applications contribute significantly to children's language development. Research shows that exposing children to educational content in their mother tongue promotes vocabulary acquisition, comprehension, and fluency (Kukulska-Hulme et al., 2018). By engaging children in interactive language activities, such as word games, storytelling, and pronunciation exercises, these applications facilitate the development of linguistic skills specific to their mother tongue. This targeted language learning experience helps children build a strong foundation in their mother tongue, leading to improved language abilities and self-confidence. Mother tongue mobile learning applications also have a good effect on cognitive skills. These apps often incorporate educational games and problem-solving activities that stimulate critical thinking, memory, and cognitive flexibility.
  • 32. 26 Mobile learning apps enhance children's executive functions, attention span, and logical reasoning abilities by engaging them in these cognitive challenges. Furthermore, these interactive and engaging applications facilitate active engagement and deepen children's cognitive processing during learning (Wu et al., 2012). Regarding socio-emotional well-being, mother tongue mobile learning applications can positively impact children's self-esteem, cultural identity, and feelings of belonging. Children using mobile apps designed specifically for their mother tongue reinforces their cultural heritage and fosters a positive attitude toward their language and culture. This recognition and affirmation of their mother tongue contributes to a robust feeling of identity, pride, and cultural continuity. 3. Methodology 3.1 Research Design This study utilized an experimental design with a mixed-methods strategy that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. In the quantitative approach, data were gathered through the identification in both the pre-test and post-test phases from a sample of toddlers. The question about how the apps help the language development of toddlers was qualitative. The quantitative aspect was the questions regarding the perception of parents on the Bahas Sug Mobile Apps. The sample was selected via purposive sampling, drawing from eight barangays within the Jolo Municipality. The participants were asked to identify a number (umbul) from 1 (isa), 2 (duwa), 3 (tu), 4 (upat), 5 (lima), 6 (unum), 7 (pitu), 8 (walu) 9 (siyam) and 10 (hangpu’); 8 shapes (hantang) such as circle (lingkung), square (Pasagi’), rectangle (mustatil), oblong (pahaba), star (bituunun), heart (jantung), diamond (lumaduun) and triangle (lungigi’) and ten colors, such as red (pula), blue (bilu), yellow (biyaning), violet (taluk), orange (kulit), green (gaddung), brown (kawsun), black (itum), pink (kalas), white (puti’) in Bahasa Sug for pre-test using the flashcards. The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning app was installed in their parents’ cellphones. The following week's post-test was conducted to ask to identify a number from 1-10, eight shapes, and 10 colors with the application of mobile apps. Flashcards were still used to identify the items of their answers and were recorded immediately. Then, the number of correct answers on the pre-test were compared to the number of correct answers on the post-test. 3.2. Participants and Locale of the Study The study selected participants through purposive sampling and obtained data from eight barangays within the Jolo Municipality. In each barangay, 20 toddlers with their respective parents/guardians were randomly selected. A total of 160 participants were among the toddlers and 160 parents. The toddlers' age ranged from 2 to 5 years old, 2-3 years, 40 %, and 4-5 years, 60% of 160, respectively. The toddlers' gender distribution was equal, with 50% females and 50% males out of 160. The respective parents of the toddlers had an educational background of college level, 27%, 58% were college graduates, 12% had a master's degree, and 3% had a doctorate. The preferred communication language of toddlers and
  • 33. 27 parents was a combination of mother tongue and English. The frequency of exposure to the Bahasa Sug language outside the application was less frequent. 3.3. Research Instruments The research instrument used flashcards on toddlers to assess their level of learning in terms of shapes, numbers, and colors. In addition to flashcards, questionnaires were utilized to assess the efficiency of the Bahasa Sug Mobile learning application from the parents’ perspective. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. Part I gathered the demographic information about the toddlers and their parents' educational background and the language often used in communication with toddlers. Part II was used to gather language proficiency, cultural connection/implication, engagement and participation, and parent perceptions. The researchers designed the instruments, and four peers were asked to validate them. The questionnaires were utilized to measure the perception of parents related to learning. 3.4. Data Collection Procedures. The researchers asked for permission from the Barangay Captain to conduct the study. Once the permission was granted, the researchers selected the houses with an interval of five. Every count of five would be selected as respondents. If there were no available toddlers, the next house would be selected. Then, it returned to count from one to five until the required number of respondents was completed. 3.5. Data Analysis. The statistical tool used to analyze data was the t-test, which was used to compare the traditional teaching method (control groups) and the Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning apps (experimental groups) based on how well the toddlers did on the pre-test and post-test. 4. Results and Discussions 4.1. Effects of Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Applications. The effects of the Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Applications were measured according to language proficiency outcome, cultural connection outcome, engagement and participation, parent perception of the Bahasa Sug mobile learning application, and the pre and post-test performance of the toddlers, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Pre-test Evaluation, During the Learning Process, and Post-test Evaluation
  • 34. 28 Table 1. Language Proficiency Outcome Language Proficiency Strongly Agree (5) Agree (4) Neutral (3) Disagree (2) Strongly Disagree (1) 1.The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application helped my child recognize and name shapes accurately in Bahasa Sug. 45% 22% 11% 15% 7% 2.The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application helped my child understand and use numbers in Bahasa Sug. 32% 40% 10% 11% 8% 3.The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application helped my child identify and name colors correctly in Bahasa Sug. 54.4% 26.1% 10% 6.2% 3.3% 4.My child's overall language proficiency in the Tausug language has improved after using the application. 41.3% 28.0% 18.7% 10.0% 2.0% 5.Application provided appropriate and effective language learning activities for my child. 38.0% 33.2% 18.5% 7.6% 2.7% Table 1 shows how the respondents thought their children did in terms of language skills: For ‘The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application helped my child recognize and name shapes accurately in Bahasa Sug’, 45% highly agree and 22% agree. For ‘The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application helped my child understand and use numbers in Bahasa Sug32% strongly agreed and 40% agree. For ‘The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application helped my child identify and name colors correctly in Bahasa Sug’, 54% highly agreed and 26% agreed. For the statement ‘My child's overall language proficiency in the Tausug language has improved after using the application’, 41.3% of people strongly agreed and 28% agreed. Also, 38% of people strongly agreed and 33.2% agreed that the application ‘provided appropriate and effective language learning activities for my child’. In relation to Piaget (1971), children exhibit heightened curiosity that provides a strong desire to explore their environment. This theory significantly emphasizes providing toddlers with a supportive and intellectually stimulating learning environment, enabling them to engage in language acquisition actively. The utilization of mobile learning applications offers children the chance to harness their inherent capabilities, fostering cognitive advancement and the growth of their language skills. Before entering preschool, children begin to improve their language and reading skills. The study conducted by Sowmya et al. (2019) examined the application of Chomsky's theory regarding the presence of a 'Language acquisition device' (LAD) in every child. This device is believed to encode a language's fundamental principles and grammatical structures into the child's brain. The study's findings indicate that the utilization of gadgets has a positive impact on the language development of children. Exposing children to various educational programs, videos, rhymes, and similar media sources can facilitate the acquisition of new vocabulary and enhance their language proficiency.
  • 35. 29 Furthermore, mobile learning apps facilitate language proficiency assessment and tracking of learning outcomes (Kuimova et al., 2018). Embracing this mobile learning application can ensure the continuity and vitality of native languages, allowing children to maintain a strong connection with their cultural heritage and linguistic identity. Using language learning applications for mother tongue development is now proven advantageous. Firstly, these apps offer a personalized and engaging learning experience tailored to toddlers' needs and preferences. The interactive features, visual aids, and gamification elements keep children motivated and enthusiastic about learning their mother tongue. Secondly, language learning apps provide a convenient and accessible platform, allowing toddlers to learn at their own pace, whenever and whenever they like. This flexibility enables consistent exposure to the mother tongue, facilitating a deep and lasting connection to their cultural heritage. Finally, language learning apps foster a positive and nurturing environment, promoting self-confidence and pride in one's cultural identity. By preserving and nurturing the mother tongue, these apps empower toddlers to embrace their linguistic heritage and actively contribute to preserving their cultural diversity (Konstantakis et al., 2022). Furthermore, preserving a child's native language can help build a positive self- image, boost confidence, and encourage cultural appreciation among young children. Retaining their linguistic heritage helps children feel more connected to their cultural origins, leading to improved emotional and social well-being. The mother tongue provides a deep and lasting connection to cultural heritage. Table 2 shows how the parents of toddlers perceived the interrelationship between mother tongue and culture. Table 2. Cultural Connection Outcome Cultural Connection Strongly Agree (5) Agree (4) Neutral (3) Disagree (2) Strongly Disagree (1) 1. The Bahasa Sug Mobile Learning Application helped my child understand the cultural significance of shapes, numbers, and colors in the Tausug culture more than the traditional teaching methods. 54.0% 32.0% 11.0% 2.0% 1.0% 2. My child demonstrates a stronger connection to the Tausug cultural heritage after using the application. 50.0% 36.2% 11.0% 1.9% 1.0% 3. The application effectively incorporated Tausug cultural elements related to shapes, numbers, and colors. 51.7% 34.4% 11.4% 1.9% 0.6% 4. The application fostered a sense of pride and appreciation for the Tausug cultural identity in my child. 46.0% 22.0% 11.0% 14.0% 7.0% 5. My child actively engaged with the application's cultural content and activities related to shapes, numbers, and colors. 40.0% 39.0% 7.0% 7.0% 7.0%