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IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020

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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.

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International Journal
of
Learning, Teaching
And
Educational Research
p-ISSN:
1694-2493
e-ISSN:
1694-2116
IJLTER.ORG
Vol.19 No.4
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
(IJLTER)
Vol. 19, No. 4 (April 2020)
Print version: 1694-2493
Online version: 1694-2116
IJLTER
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER)
Vol. 19, No. 4
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part
of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations,
broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks.
Society for Research and Knowledge Management
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been
established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the
fields of learning, teaching and educational research.
Aims and Objectives
The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators,
teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the
world to present the results of their research activities in the following
fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment;
multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education;
knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning;
virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education;
digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e-
tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom
management issues, educational case studies, etc.
Indexing and Abstracting
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in
Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned
a unique DOI number.
Foreword
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and Educational Research.
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to
publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions
may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to
problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational
organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website
http://www.ijlter.org.
We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board
and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue.
We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration.
The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the
world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers.
We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal
with this issue.
Editors of the April 2020 Issue
VOLUME 19 NUMBER 4 April 2020
Table of Contents
Addressing Domestic Abuse and Violence via a Non-Formal Environment Seen as a Pedagogical Tool at
University ................................................................................................................................................................................1
Ivanna I. Parfanovich, Andrii Ya. Parfanovich, Vitalii G. Panok, Larysa V. Zdanevych and Liudmila I. Romanovska
Towards De-Colonial Agitations in University Classrooms: The Quest for Afrocentric Pedagogy.......................... 14
Bunmi Isaiah Omodan and Bekithemba Dube
Restructuring the Teacher Education System in Vietnam............................................................................................... 29
Quang Hong Pham and Nam Danh Nguyen
Factors Influencing the Sustainability of Quality Performance from the Viewpoint of Teaching Staff: An Applied
Study at the University of Petra.......................................................................................................................................... 44
Maram Fouad Abu Al-Nadi and Dina Mohamed Said Qarashay
Teachers’ Instructional Components of Warm-up Rehearsal in Elementary School Chorus in South Korea .......... 62
Seungyoun Hong
Intercultural Competence Development of German Nursing Personnel via Advanced Training Projects .............. 78
Natalya Bidyuk, Halyna Oleskova and Vitaliy Tretko
Comparative Study on the Use of the Educational Resources of PeruEduca by Teachers from Arequipa and
Moquegua.............................................................................................................................................................................. 94
Anyela Bejarano, Steve Pareja, Marco Córdova, Teresa Ramos-Quispe, Antonio Silva Sprock and Klinge Orlando Villalba-
Condori
Leadership Types and Digital Leadership in Higher Education: Behavioural Data Analysis from University of
Patras in Greece................................................................................................................................................................... 110
Hera Antonopoulou, Constantinos Halkiopoulos, Olympia Barlou and Grigorios N. Beligiannis
Formation of Lifelong Learning Competences in the Process of Professional Training of Future Lawyers........... 130
Uliana Z. Koruts, Valerii P. Petkov, Ehor S. Nazymko, Tetiana A. Denysova and Uliana M. Oliinyk
Strategies for Facilitating Listening Skills among Foreign Language Learners in US Universities ......................... 150
Dishari Chattaraj
The Effectiveness of Using Three-Dimensional Visualization Tools to Improve Students’ Understanding of
Medicinal Chemistry and Advanced Drug Design Concepts....................................................................................... 170
Heba ِAbdel-Halim
Probing the Differences Caused by Cognitive Variables on LET Performance: An Embedded Mixed Method
Study..................................................................................................................................................................................... 188
Michael B. Cahapay
Cognitive Domain Performance for Non-Laboratory Embedded and Laboratory Embedded Course .................. 206
Rohaya Alias, Noraida Mohd Saim, Nur Asmaliza Mohd Noor and Siti Hawa Rosli
A Correspondence Analysis of Fifty-Five Japanese Historical First-to Fifth-Year English-as-a-Foreign-Language
Textbooks............................................................................................................................................................................. 223
Tomoo Asai, Ryohei Honda, Kiyomi Watanabe and Toshiaki Ozasa
The Place of Creativity in EFL Omani Syllabus: A Content Analysis of Grade 12 Students’ and Teachers’ Books
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 248
Mariam Said Al Jabri, Fawzia Al Seyabi, Salma Al Humaidi and Abdulhamid Hasan
An Analysis of Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in the Learning of Economics.............................................. 268
Ari Saptono, Suparno Suparno, Agus Wibowo, Eeng Ahman, Ismiyati Ismiyati and Deni Sukayugi
Correcting Misconceptions in Fractions Using Interactive Technological Learning Activities................................ 291
Mohammad Ahmad Alkhateeb
Experimental and Research Verification of the Methodology of Forming the High School Students’ Artistic Taste
for the Vocal Heritage (Late XIX-Early XX Century) ..................................................................................................... 309
Yuliia V. Merezhko, Dmytro A. Lievit, Oksana P. Petrykova, Svitlana V. Gmyrina and Mariia S. Kasianchuk
Islamic Spirituality, Resilience and Achievement Motivation of Yemeni Refugee Students: A Proposed
Conceptual Framework...................................................................................................................................................... 322
Manal Ali Ahmed, Sahabuddin Hashim and Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob
Creative Teaching Strategy to Reduce Bullying in Schools........................................................................................... 343
Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrum, Norwaliza Abdul Wahab and Haryanto Haryanto
Preferential Admission Policies for Ethnic Minority Students in Yunnan: Help or Hindrance ............................... 356
Dongyuan Deng, Seepho Sirinthorn and Andrew Lian

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IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020

  • 1. International Journal of Learning, Teaching And Educational Research p-ISSN: 1694-2493 e-ISSN: 1694-2116 IJLTER.ORG Vol.19 No.4
  • 2. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 19, No. 4 (April 2020) Print version: 1694-2493 Online version: 1694-2116 IJLTER International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 19, No. 4 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks. Society for Research and Knowledge Management
  • 3. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of learning, teaching and educational research. Aims and Objectives The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators, teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the world to present the results of their research activities in the following fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment; multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education; knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning; virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education; digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e- tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom management issues, educational case studies, etc. Indexing and Abstracting The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned a unique DOI number.
  • 4. Foreword We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue. Editors of the April 2020 Issue
  • 5. VOLUME 19 NUMBER 4 April 2020 Table of Contents Addressing Domestic Abuse and Violence via a Non-Formal Environment Seen as a Pedagogical Tool at University ................................................................................................................................................................................1 Ivanna I. Parfanovich, Andrii Ya. Parfanovich, Vitalii G. Panok, Larysa V. Zdanevych and Liudmila I. Romanovska Towards De-Colonial Agitations in University Classrooms: The Quest for Afrocentric Pedagogy.......................... 14 Bunmi Isaiah Omodan and Bekithemba Dube Restructuring the Teacher Education System in Vietnam............................................................................................... 29 Quang Hong Pham and Nam Danh Nguyen Factors Influencing the Sustainability of Quality Performance from the Viewpoint of Teaching Staff: An Applied Study at the University of Petra.......................................................................................................................................... 44 Maram Fouad Abu Al-Nadi and Dina Mohamed Said Qarashay Teachers’ Instructional Components of Warm-up Rehearsal in Elementary School Chorus in South Korea .......... 62 Seungyoun Hong Intercultural Competence Development of German Nursing Personnel via Advanced Training Projects .............. 78 Natalya Bidyuk, Halyna Oleskova and Vitaliy Tretko Comparative Study on the Use of the Educational Resources of PeruEduca by Teachers from Arequipa and Moquegua.............................................................................................................................................................................. 94 Anyela Bejarano, Steve Pareja, Marco Córdova, Teresa Ramos-Quispe, Antonio Silva Sprock and Klinge Orlando Villalba- Condori Leadership Types and Digital Leadership in Higher Education: Behavioural Data Analysis from University of Patras in Greece................................................................................................................................................................... 110 Hera Antonopoulou, Constantinos Halkiopoulos, Olympia Barlou and Grigorios N. Beligiannis Formation of Lifelong Learning Competences in the Process of Professional Training of Future Lawyers........... 130 Uliana Z. Koruts, Valerii P. Petkov, Ehor S. Nazymko, Tetiana A. Denysova and Uliana M. Oliinyk Strategies for Facilitating Listening Skills among Foreign Language Learners in US Universities ......................... 150 Dishari Chattaraj
  • 6. The Effectiveness of Using Three-Dimensional Visualization Tools to Improve Students’ Understanding of Medicinal Chemistry and Advanced Drug Design Concepts....................................................................................... 170 Heba ِAbdel-Halim Probing the Differences Caused by Cognitive Variables on LET Performance: An Embedded Mixed Method Study..................................................................................................................................................................................... 188 Michael B. Cahapay Cognitive Domain Performance for Non-Laboratory Embedded and Laboratory Embedded Course .................. 206 Rohaya Alias, Noraida Mohd Saim, Nur Asmaliza Mohd Noor and Siti Hawa Rosli A Correspondence Analysis of Fifty-Five Japanese Historical First-to Fifth-Year English-as-a-Foreign-Language Textbooks............................................................................................................................................................................. 223 Tomoo Asai, Ryohei Honda, Kiyomi Watanabe and Toshiaki Ozasa The Place of Creativity in EFL Omani Syllabus: A Content Analysis of Grade 12 Students’ and Teachers’ Books ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 248 Mariam Said Al Jabri, Fawzia Al Seyabi, Salma Al Humaidi and Abdulhamid Hasan An Analysis of Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in the Learning of Economics.............................................. 268 Ari Saptono, Suparno Suparno, Agus Wibowo, Eeng Ahman, Ismiyati Ismiyati and Deni Sukayugi Correcting Misconceptions in Fractions Using Interactive Technological Learning Activities................................ 291 Mohammad Ahmad Alkhateeb Experimental and Research Verification of the Methodology of Forming the High School Students’ Artistic Taste for the Vocal Heritage (Late XIX-Early XX Century) ..................................................................................................... 309 Yuliia V. Merezhko, Dmytro A. Lievit, Oksana P. Petrykova, Svitlana V. Gmyrina and Mariia S. Kasianchuk Islamic Spirituality, Resilience and Achievement Motivation of Yemeni Refugee Students: A Proposed Conceptual Framework...................................................................................................................................................... 322 Manal Ali Ahmed, Sahabuddin Hashim and Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob Creative Teaching Strategy to Reduce Bullying in Schools........................................................................................... 343 Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrum, Norwaliza Abdul Wahab and Haryanto Haryanto Preferential Admission Policies for Ethnic Minority Students in Yunnan: Help or Hindrance ............................... 356 Dongyuan Deng, Seepho Sirinthorn and Andrew Lian
  • 7. 1 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 1-13, April 2020 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.4.1 Addressing Domestic Abuse and Violence via a Non-Formal Environment Seen as a Pedagogical Tool at University Ivanna I. Parfanovich Department of Social Pedagogy and Social Work, Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ternopil, Ukraine Andrii Ya. Parfanovich Department of Social Pedagogy and Social Work, Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ternopil, Ukraine Vitalii G. Panok Ukrainian Scientific-Methodological Center of Applied Psychology and Social Work, National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine Larysa V. Zdanevych Department of Pre-School Pedagogy, Psychology and Professional Methods, Khmelnytskyi Humanitarian-Pedagogical Academy, Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine Liudmila I. Romanovska Department of Social work and Pedagogics, Khmelnytskyi National University, Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine Abstract. The purpose of the study was to identify how family abuse and violence could be addressed via a non-formal educational environment seen as a pedagogical tool at university. The study utilised an exploratory case study design. Quantitative and qualitative data were drawn from observations of sampled students’ performance in the programme entitled “Legal and Psychological Domains of Domestic Abuse and Violence” and through the interview. The Attitudes towards Domestic Violence Questionnaire (ADV), the quiz entitled “Dimensions and dynamics of family violence” was administered to measure the impact of the domestic abuse and violence on the students’ awareness of legal and psychological consequences. IBM SPSS Statistics software was used to process the above data. MS Office Excel Software was used to consolidated and process the data drawn from the interview. The study showed that non-formal university settings have the potential to enrich pedagogic tools for addressing domestic abuse and violence. The prevention intervention had a positive impact on students’ awareness of legal and psychological aspects of domestic abuse and violence, students’ perceptions of committing abusive and/or violent actions by men and
  • 8. 2 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. women in family settings. It was validated by measurements, observations, and students’ feedbacks. The experiment raised some implications like attracting experts, raising funds, finding sufficient evidence, and cases to fill the programme content. Further research is needed in developing methodology and instruments of evaluation of the effectiveness of such intervention programmes. Keywords: university education; pedagogic tools of non-formal settings; educational intervention programme; domestic abuse and violence 1. Introduction Domestic abuse and violence have been a social, legal, and psychological (psychiatric) problem for many generations (Barnett, Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 2010; Ghafournia, 2017; Odenbring, Johansson, Lunneblad & Hammarén, 2015). According to the annual police reports, in Ukraine, the figures for the issue-related cases are increasing by approximately 3% a year (111 cases in 2017, 115 cases in 2018, and 121 cases in 2019) (ZIK, 2020). This suggests that current measures do not resolve the issue and additional targeted preventive interventions are required (Stanley, Ellis, Farrelly, Hollinghurst & Downe, 2015). University student youth seems to be a reasonable target audience because they are classified as exposed current or former victims of domestic or peer abuse and violence (Odenbring et al., 2015) and their experience can be used to change their own beliefs and behaviour. Moreover, educational interventions are becoming standard pedagogic tools that are mostly aimed at the legal and psychological dimensions of the issue (Lloyd, 2018). They are widely used in both institutional and community settings and have proven to be effective to deal with young individuals’ life crisis and to prepare the latter for ‘violence-free relationships’ in the future (Adelman, Rosenberg & Hobart, 2016; Gabriel et al., 2018; Heaven- Oakland, n./d.; Owen, Antle & Quirk, 2017). 1.1. Literature review The literature review found that the issue has been a widely discussed and multifaceted legal, psychological, medical and scientific (educational dimension) problem for over the last decades (Crowther-Dowey, Gillespie & Hopkins, 2016; Parkinson & Rogers, 2019). The targeted domestic abuse prevention education programmes are run either at secondary schools (World Health Organization, 2019) or by public organisations (European Union, n./d.). They are aimed at cultivating a new culture of interpersonal relationships at schools and raise public awareness of domestic abuse and violence (Lloyd, 2018; Wagner, Jones, Tsaroucha & Cumbers, 2019; McKibbin & Humphreys, 2020). There are still debates in the literature concerning whether the domestic abuse and violence prevention education interventions should be based on a gendered approach (Stanley, Ellis & Bell, 2011; Fenton & Mott, 2017). As it was found, those programmes are delivered in conventional educational settings and using conventional pedagogical tools. For example, the “Safe to Learn” initiative intends to train children’s life skills through the organised activities ‘to shape their attitudes and norms’ at schools (World Health Organization, 2019). The Master’s degree course entitled “Abuse and gender violence: an interdisciplinary vision” also used
  • 9. 3 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. conventional university approach to engage students to explore the issue from different perspectives (“Master’s course in gender violence”, 2015). The specialised training and certification programmes for the professionals working in the field of domestic violence prevention and elimination are also delivered conventionally (Stover & Lent, 2014; Domestic Violence Resource Centre Victoria, n./d.). However, this approach might seem to be quite tactless in some delicate situations that are better tackled in a non-determined environment in the community-like atmosphere (Goldman, Assaraf & Shaharabani, 2013). The study found few resources on intervention programmes to have been run in non-formal settings at university and formally evaluated which created the gap for the research. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to identify how family abuse and violence could be addressed via a non-formal educational environment seen as a pedagogical tool at university. The study sought to address the research questions below: 1. How did the prevention programme entitled “Legal and Psychological Domains of Domestic Abuse and Violence” impact on students’ awareness of legal and psychological aspects of domestic abuse and violence? 2. How did the prevention programme entitled “Legal and Psychological Domains of Domestic Abuse and Violence” impact on students’ gender-related perception of committing abusive and/or violent actions by men and women in family settings? 3. What were the involved students’ perceptions of the project delivery format? 2. Materials and methods The study utilised an exploratory single-case study design based on one group pre-test and post-test data and was conducted at Volodymyr Vynnychenko Central Ukrainian State Pedagogical University. Quantitative and qualitative data were drawn from observations of sampled students’ performance in the randomised experiment and through interviews with them. The Attitudes towards Domestic Violence Questionnaire (ADV) designed by Fox and Gadd (2012) was used to explore changes in students’ perceptions of men’s and women’s behaviour in situations of conflicts. The quiz entitled “Dimensions and dynamics of family violence” (AVERT Family Violence, 2010) (the legal domain of the issue) was administered to measure the impact of the programme entitled “Legal and Psychological Domains of Domestic Abuse and Violence” on the students’ awareness of legal and psychological consequences of the domestic abuse and violence. The variables for the study were students’ awareness of legal and psychological aspects of domestic abuse and violence, students’ gender- related perception of committing abusive and/or violent actions by men and women in family settings.
  • 10. 4 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 2.1. The programme The prevention programme entitled “Legal and Psychological Domains of Domestic Abuse and Violence” was designed to train the students in dealing with conflicts and to raise students’ awareness of legal aspects of the issue (see the structure of the programme visualised in Fig. 1). The training was followed by Mock Talk Shows aimed at analysing real cases on the issues of domestic violence and abuse. Ten sessions were delivered once in two weeks throughout the period from September to the end of December of 2019 by expert practitioners and Mock Talk Shows were held by the research team members supported by invited practitioners who delivered the classes. They were domestic violence lawyers, domestic violence counsellors (psychologists and psychiatrists), and domestic violence social workers working in the field for more than ten years. Figure 1: “Legal and Psychological Domains of Domestic Abuse and Violence” programme design The topics for the sessions were related to forms of domestic abuse and violence, the ways to recognise them, legal punishments for committing them, effects of domestic abuse on a young person, victimisation and barriers to leaving, means and ways of dealing with conflicts, risks and causes for the commitment of family violence and abuse, etc (see the topics outlined in Table 1). The format for the Mock Talk Show was adapted from The Oprah Winfrey TV Show© and the cases for the ‘shows’ were borrowed from the La Strada – Ukraine (n./d.). This is the NGO that actively promotes information and provides training on prevention and social assistance, and is active in the improvement of national legislation on human trafficking, sexual exploitation of children, violence, discrimination and human rights in Ukraine. “Legal and Psychological Domains of Domestic Abuse and Violence” Mock Talk Shows Legal counselling classes Conflictology basics classes Case-studies
  • 11. 5 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Table 1: The outline of the topics distributed by session and hours dedicated to each topic # session Topic Hours 1 Forms of domestic abuse and violence. How to recognise them. 2 2 Legal punishments for committing them. Analysing cases. 2 3 Mock Talk Show. 2 4 Legal counselling basics. Building up mutual trust. Case-study. Simulations. 2 5 Ethical issues of legal counselling on family violence and abuse. Written communication. Persuasion techniques. 2 6 Risks and causes for the commitment of family violence and abuse. 2 7 Effects of domestic abuse on a young person: gender issues. Victimisation and barriers to leaving: gender issues. 2 8 Mock Talk Show. 2 9 How to deal with abuse-based conflicts in a family. Analysing cases. Quiz entitled “Strategies for Coping with Unhealthy Family Behaviour” (Study.com, n./d.) 2 10 Mock Talk Show. 2 “Safe Families Club” as a non-formal learning environment was set up to run the experiment. The project was advertised to potential participants using presentations, posters, and announcements at some lectures. The objective of this was to involve volunteers who were sensitive to the issue of domestic abuse and violence and agreed to further assist the experts who ran educational prevention interventions at three schools located in Kropyvnytskyi Town. 2.2. Sampling Simple random sampling was used to hire volunteers for the study. Forty-three students in their second, third, and fourth years, majoring in Psychology, Law, and Journalism of Volodymyr Vynnychenko Central Ukrainian State Pedagogical University were encouraged to apply for participation in the training programme. The primary rationale for selecting those majors was the fact that the topic of domestic abuse and violence was related to the students’ specialism. They were supposed to write a motivation letter which was used to shortlist 30 students for the interview. It was conducted by a panel of two psychology experts in the field of domestic violence and abuse. It included the questions as follows: 1) What do you see as triggers of violence and abuse in families? 2) If you were your father, how would you react to some misbehaviours of yours in the classroom? 3) Describe the worst argument you had with someone from your family and how you coped with it, etc. The selection criteria were non-violent thinking, non- proneness to aggressive dominance, or gender humiliation, being a non- vulnerable person. As the study utilised one group design, twenty-one students (13 females aged between 19 and 22 and 8 males aged between 19 and 21) were sampled for the intervention. They were considered mutually homogeneous as they had gone through the above selection procedure. At this stage, the pre- treatment measurements, including the Attitudes towards Domestic Violence
  • 12. 6 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Questionnaire (ADV) and a quiz entitled “Family Violence & Abuse” (ClickLaw WikiBooks, n./d.) were administered. 2.3. Major research-related ethical issues Before the experiment, written informed consent was obtained from the sampled students to address the confidentiality of their personal information (Cacciattolo, 2015; Akaranga & Makau, 2016). The “primum non nocere” [“first, do no harm”] principle was followed at every stage of the study to avoid or minimise any deliberate or potential harm. The sampled students were treated as non- vulnerable (Drew, Hardman & Hosp, 2008) for a reason being that they lived on campus but not with their families. 2.4. Instruments The study used such quantitative tools as observation reports, evaluation sheets, student attendance records, the Questionnaire on Attitudes towards Domestic Violence (ADV) (Fox & Gadd, 2012) and quizzes entitled “Family Violence & Abuse” (ClickLaw WikiBooks, n./d.) and “Dimensions and dynamics of family violence” (AVERT Family Violence, 2010). To ensure the reliability of the observation reports, behavioural code description was developed and three assessors were hired to take records. Data were simultaneously collected by all assessors on each separate session. Kappa Online Calculator (Statistics Solution, n./d.) was used to assesses the inter-rater reliability of three raters drawn from the observation reports, evaluation sheets, student attendance records. The kappa coefficient was 0.74 which was substantial and proved that the measurements were reliable. The questionnaire on attitudes towards domestic violence proved to be an effective tool that can be used to assess the effectiveness of domestic abuse prevention programmes (Fox, Gadd & Sim, 2015). At the pre-test stage, it aimed at exploring students’ experience of domestic violence and abuse as victims, perpetrators and as witnesses. IBM SPSS Statistics software was used to process the above data. Additionally, the questionnaire for interviewing sampled students was used to obtain qualitative data. It comprised five open-ended questions which were as follows: 1) How did the programme influence your beliefs? 2) What were your gains from this programme? 3) Did you appreciate the non-formal format of the pedagogical engagement? 4) What were the problems you faced or challenged as a participant and assistant in the project? 5) What do you suggest improving so that the programme addressed those problems? MS Office Excel Software was used to consolidated and process the data drawn from the interview.
  • 13. 7 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 3. Results The prevention programme entitled “Legal and Psychological Domains of Domestic Abuse and Violence” and “Safe Families Club” have appeared to be the most significant result of this research which brought a number of benefits to the sampled students. The repeated measurements of the students’ awareness of legal and psychological aspects of domestic abuse and violence (see Table 2), students’ gender-related perception of committing abusive and/or violent actions by men and women in family settings proved the relationship between participation of the students in the prevention programme and the changes to have occurred in the variables. Table 2: Relation between the participation of the students in the programme and their awareness of family abuse expressed as proportions of correct/incorrect answers in quizzes before and after the intervention, in % 𝑛 Before Intervention After Intervention 𝑑𝑓 “Family Violence & Abuse” Quiz “Dimensions and dynamics of family violence” Quiz 𝑛 = 21 IA CA IA CA 19 53% 47% 33% 67% Note: IA – incorrect answers; CA - correct answers. As can be seen, the proportion of the correct answers increased by 20% which indicated the programme boosted students’ knowledge related to the issue. The results that were obtained at pre-test and post-test stages through the questionnaire on attitudes towards domestic violence and compared at the post- test stage showed a decrease in victimisation (before the intervention: 𝐹1.0891 = 4.02; 𝑝 = 0.41; p < .001 VS after the intervention 𝐹0.9214 = 3.79;𝑝 = 0.37;𝑝 < .001) and perpetration (before the intervention: 𝐹1.1062 = 13.31; 𝑝 = 0.04; 𝑝 < .001 VS after the intervention: 𝐹0.9932 = 11.79;𝑝 = 0. 33; 𝑝 < .001) characteristics in the sampled students. It suggested that the educational environment raised students’ self-confidence in dealing with violent actions towards them. The change in perceptions of committing abusive and/or violent actions by men and women in family settings also took place after the intervention (see Table 3). Table 3: Change in approval of abusive and/or violent actions by men and women in the family to have taken place due to the intervention based on the ADV questionnaire (12-item version), item-total correlations (ITC), before and after the intervention # of question Before Intervention After Intervention 𝑛 of responses approval, % ITC 𝑛 of responses approval, % ITC 1 20 83 .637 17 31 .560 2 16 39 .641 19 21 .591 3 21 47 .608 20 12 .598 4 13 56 .557 21 18 .512
  • 14. 8 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 5 20 35 .656 14 11 .523 6 18 51 .643 18 17 .511 7 19 63 .669 17 22 .533 8 15 78 .778 15 32 .611 9 21 74 .634 20 29 .602 10 21 66 .671 20 24 .594 11 17 41 .665 18 18 .601 12 19 52 .751 21 22 .627 Note: The questions are laid out in the order they appear on the questionnaire. ITC ‒ Item-total correlation The figures in Table 3 illustrated a marked decrease in the approval of abusive and violent deeds of partners in family settings. The observation reports of the research team members and evaluation sheets also proved that the students suggested two primary justifiable reasons for abuse or violence from both sides (from men or women): who attacked or hurt first and who cheated first. Moreover, females are easier than males to forgive their partners either abuse or violence or cheating in their family relationships. Seven out of eight sampled male students tended to justify a violent or abusive response in the situations in which women were drunk or drugged or they humiliated/offended males in some way (especially publicly), they were angry and shouted at males. The figures in Table 4 reveal the shift in sampled students’ knowledge of core legal and psychological aspects of domestic abuse and violence and their skills and abilities to deal with them before and after the intervention. Table 4: Students’ pre-test and post-test measurement results in the knowledge of core aspects of domestic abuse and violence and their skills and abilities to deal with them, expressed as mean values obtained from measurements before and after the intervention N KCLA KCPA SA Cronbac h’s alpha SD t p value B A B A B A n = 21 57.87 74.11 48.58 69.13 43.21 69.11 0.783 (> 0.7) 721 0.73 0.38 Note: B – Before; A – After; KCLA ‒ knowledge of core legal aspects; KCPA - knowledge of core psychological aspects; SA ‒ skills and abilities to deal with the issues. The above suggests that the sampled students experienced a statistically significant change (of approximately 16%) in awareness of legal and psychological aspects of domestic violence and abuse and improved their skills of dealing with them. 3.1. Results of Semi-structured Interview (EG students, 𝒏 = 𝟐𝟏, 𝒅𝒇 = 𝟐) Question 1. How did the programme influence your beliefs? Seventeen respondents reported a radical change in their attitudes to some domestic abusive and violent behaviours. Four participants were still convinced that women’s behaviour was the key trigger of a conflict in a family. Question 2. What were your gains from this programme? Twelve people reported that they learned how to control their behaviour when the conflict situation
  • 15. 9 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. emerged. Seven people confessed that training sessions developed their self- confidence when dealing with people causing trouble. One student reported progress in communication with ‘difficult’ people. One participant found the programme useful for their relationships. Question 3. Did you appreciate the non-formal format of the pedagogical engagement? Eleven people found the format to be optimal for this very issue. Eight people stated it was OK for them. Two participants stated that the format did not fit their learning style. Question 4. What were the problems you faced or challenged as a participant and assistant in the project? Two respondents reported they were overloaded with information. Two participants stated that the format did not fit their learning style. Question 5. What do you suggest improving so that the programme addressed those problems? Nineteen students suggested training them in NLP and debating before the intervention. The students’ responses to the interview questions imply that students were generally positive about the format of the project and appreciated the outcomes. 4. Discussion This study has been the first attempt in Ukraine to evaluate the effectiveness of using prevention programme entitled “Legal and Psychological Domains of Domestic Abuse and Violence” delivered through a non-formal environment at university and how this programme influenced students’ gender-related perceptions of committing abusive and/or violent actions by men and women in family settings. Additionally, it aimed at exploring students’ perceptions of the project delivery format. It was found that the students’ awareness of legal and psychological aspects of domestic abuse and violence increased by about 20%, the approval of abusive and violent deeds of partners in family settings decrease by approximately substantially, the students’ skills of dealing with domestic violence and abuse and improved by about 16%. The results that were obtained at pre-test and post-test stages through the questionnaire on attitudes towards domestic violence and compared at the post-test stage showed a decrease in victimisation and perpetration characteristics in the sampled students, which indicated that the educational environment raised students’ self-confidence in dealing with violent actions towards them. The above results addressed the questions of this study and complied with literature highlighting best prevention practices in coping with domestic abuse and violence (European Institute for Gender Equality, 2015; Katz & McGuire, 2018; Pisani Altafim & Martins Linhares, 2016). The findings, which were in line with previous studies (Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 1998), from the study proved that the quality of educational prevention intervention improved when conducted jointly by a practitioner from the issue field and an educator. This is due to the fact (Grimmer, 2016) that young people are sensitive to issues like trust, betrayal, love, friendship, and respect the experts’ opinions, trust them more than their relatives or friends.
  • 16. 10 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. The study goes in line with Fox, Hale & Gadd (2014) stating that the concerns related with domestic abuse and violence in young people should be anticipated in the student-tailored education programmes in the class and out-of-class activities at school and university. This was also found in the study that non- formal university settings and the age of the students were favourable prerequisites for addressing domestic abuse and violence. This study is also consistent with the findings of Roy, Lindsay & Dallaire, (2013) whose research demonstrated the importance of establishing cooperation with the specialist facilitators from external agencies to support teachers in the educational interventions of this kind. The experiment provides a new insight into the prevention educational project management that can be delivered non-formally and with the involvement of the expert facilitators from the external institutions. The reason for this is that high rates of abuse and violence, to have been performed to and by young people, are found (see the Introduction section). The study contributed to the pedagogic domain of dealing with the issue of family abuse and violence by exploring non-formal university settings. 4.1. Limitations of the study The results of the study might be challenged because of the number of sampled students, the duration of the experiment, and instrumentation used to obtain statistical data. Moreover, the study did not assess the actual behaviour of the respondents but only their attitudes towards domestic violence and abuse. The results of the research only rely on one group of sampled students. And one can argue that there is no alternative explanation of the results. 5. Conclusion The study showed that the non-formal university settings have the potential to enrich pedagogic tools for addressing domestic abuse and violence. The prevention intervention organised in the way presented had a positive impact on students’ awareness of legal and psychological aspects of domestic abuse and violence, students’ perceptions of committing abusive and/or violent actions by men and women in family settings. It was validated by measurements, observations, and students’ feedbacks. The pre-test and post-test results proved that the project to have been delivered through the non-formal educational environment had a positive outcome in terms of a reduction of victimisation and perpetration characteristics in involved students and an increase in students’ self- confidence in tackling violent actions towards them in both family and educational environment. The results obtained directly and indirectly from the research implied that the issue is still gender-stereotyped and young people need extensive training in establishing and maintaining relationships with representatives of the opposite gender. The programmes of such kind should be incorporated into the university curriculum as an optional or elective course. Furthermore, both teachers’ and involved experts’ knowledge of students’ experiences and learning preferences are a prerequisite for success of this intervention.
  • 17. 11 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. The experiment also raised some implications like attracting experts, raising funds, finding sufficient evidence, and cases to fill the programme content. Further research is needed in developing methodology and tools for evaluation of the effectiveness of such intervention programmes. References Adelman, M., Rosenberg, K. E., & Hobart, M. (2016). Simulations and social empathy: domestic violence education in the new millennium. Violence Against Women, 22(12), 1451-1462. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801215625850 Akaranga, S. I, & Makau, B. K. (2016). Ethical Considerations and their Applications to Research: A Case of the University of Nairobi. Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial, 3(12), 1-9. AVERT Family Violence. (2010). Quiz on dimensions and dynamics of family violence. Australian Attorney-General’s Department. Retrieved from https://www.avertfamilyviolence.com.au/wp- content/uploads/sites/4/2013/06/Dimensions_and_Dynamics_of_Family_Viol ence_Quiz_With_Answers_for_web_2014.pdf Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2010). Family violence across the lifespan: An introduction (3rd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. Cacciattolo, M. (2015). Ethical Considerations in Research. In: M. Vicars, S. Steinberg, T. McKenna, & M. Cacciattolo (Eds.), The Praxis of English Language Teaching and Learning (PELT) (pp. 61-79). Rotterdam, Netherland: SensePublishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6300-112-0_4 ClickLaw WikiBooks. (2020). Family Violence & Abuse Quiz. Retrieved from https://wiki.clicklaw.bc.ca/index.php?title=Family_Violence_%26_Abuse_Quiz Crowther-Dowey, C., Gillespie, T., & Hopkins, K. (2016). Building healthy relationships for young people and the prevention of domestic abuse. In: S. Hilder, & V. Bettinson (Eds.), Domestic Violence (pp 155-179). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-52452-2_8 Domestic Violence Resource Centre Victoria. (2020). Our Courses. Retrieved from https://training.dvrcv.org.au/our-courses/ Drew, C. J., Hardman, M. L., & Hosp, J. L. (2008). Ethical issues in conducting research. In: C. J. Drew, M. L. Hardman, & J. L. Hosp (Eds.), Designing and conducting research in education (pp. 55-80). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483385648 European Institute for Gender Equality. (2015). Master’s course in gender violence improves professional practice. Retrieved from https://eige.europa.eu/gender-based- violence/good-practices/spain/masters-course-gender-violence-improves- professional-practice European Institute for Gender Equality. (2015). Preventing domestic violence: Good practices. Retrieved from https://eige.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/MH0114678ENN_WEB. PDF European Union. (2020). Domestic Abuse Intervention Centres/Violence Protection Centres. Retrieved from https://e- justice.europa.eu/content_rights_of_victims_of_crime_in_criminal_proceedings- 171-AT-en.do?clang=en&idSubpage=4&member=1#n03 Fenton, R. A., & Mott, H. L. (2017). The bystander approach to violence prevention: Considerations for implementation in Europe. Psychology of Violence, 7(3), 450– 458. https://doi.org/10.1037/vio0000104
  • 18. 12 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Fox, C. L., Gadd, D., & Sim, J. (2015). Development of the Attitudes to Domestic Violence Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(14), 2506–2525. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0886260514553115 Fox, C. L., Hale, R., & Gadd, D. (2014). Domestic abuse prevention education: listening to the views of young people. Sex Education, 14:1, 28-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/14681811.2013.816949 Fox, C., & Gadd, D. (2012). Attitudes towards Domestic Violence Questionnaire (ADV). Retrieved from https://www.keele.ac.uk/readapt/sites/default/files/documents/ADV%20Qu estionnaire.pdf Gabriel, L., Tizro, Z., James, H., Cronin-Davis, J., Beetham, T., Corbally, A., Lopez-Moreno, E., & Hill, S. (2018). “Give me some space”: exploring youth to parent aggression and violence. Journal of Family Violence, 35(3), 161-169. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-017-9928-1 Ghafournia, N. (2017). Muslim women and domestic violence: Developing a framework for social work practice. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 36(1-2), 146-163. https://doi.org/10.1080/15426432.2017.1313150 Goldman, D., Assaraf, O., & Shaharabani, D. (2013). Influence of a Non-formal Environmental Education Programme on Junior High-School Students' Environmental Literacy. International Journal of Science Education, 35, 515-545. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2012.749545 Grimmer, J. (2016). Experts vs. Friends: The Definitive Guide to Who Influences Us and Why. Retrieved from https://medium.com/bestcompany/experts-vs-friends-the- definitive-guide-to-who-influences-us-and-why-6a0aa609c8c0 Heaven-Oakland. (2020). Domestic violence and sexual assault prevention education programs. Retrieved from https://www.haven-oakland.org/education- prevention/programs Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. (1998). Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/5285. Katz, S. M., & McGuire, L. J. (2018). Intimate partner violence in higher education. Intimate partner violence in higher education: integrated approaches for reducing domestic violence and sexual assault on campus. In: H. Shapiro (Ed.), The Wiley Handbook on Violence in Education: Forms, Factors, and Preventions (pp. 417-431). Medford, MA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. La Strada – Ukraine. (2020). Stories of survivors. Retrieved from http://www.la- strada.org.ua/ucp_mod_information_showcategory_58.html Lloyd, M. (2018). Domestic Violence and Education: Examining the Impact of Domestic Violence on Young Children, Children, and Young People and the Potential Role of Schools. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2094. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02094 McKibbin, G., & Humphreys, C. (2020). Future directions in child sexual abuse prevention: An Australian perspective. Child Abuse & Neglect, 104422. In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104422 Odenbring, Y., Johansson, T., Lunneblad, J., & Hammarén, N. (2015). Youth victimisation, school, and family support: schools’ strategies to handle abused children. Education Inquiry, 6(2), 26417. https://doi.org/10.3402/edui.v6.26417 Owen, J., Antle, B., & Quirk, K. (2017). Individual relationship education program as a prevention method for intimate partner violence. Journal of Family Social Work, 20(5), 457-469. https://doi.org/10.1080/10522158.2017.1300112
  • 19. 13 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Parkinson, K., & Rogers, M. (2019). Addressing domestic abuse through FGCs. In: D. Edwards, & K. Parkinson (Eds.), Family Group Conferences in Social Work: Involving Families in Social Care Decision Making. https://doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781447335801.003.0008 Pisani Altafim, E. R., & Martins Linhares, M. B. (2016). Universal violence and child maltreatment prevention programs for parents: A systematic review. Psychosocial Intervention, 25(1), 27-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psi.2015.10.003 Roy, V., Lindsay, J., & Dallaire, L.-F. (2013). Mixed-Gender Co-Facilitation in Therapeutic Groups for Men Who Have Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence: Group Members' Perspectives. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 38(1), 3-29. https://doi.org/10.1080/01933922.2012.732981 Stanley, N., Ellis, J., & Bell, J. (2011). “Delivering Preventative Programmes in Schools: Identifying Gender Issues.” In Children Behaving Badly? Peer Violence Between Children and Young People, edited by Christine Barter and David Berridge, 217– 230. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. Stanley, N., Ellis, J., Farrelly, N., Hollinghurst, S., & Downe, S. (2015). Preventing domestic abuse for children and young people: A review of school-based interventions. Children and Youth Services Review, 59, 120-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.10.018 Statistics Solution. (2020). Kappa Calculator. Retrieved from https://www.statisticssolutions.com/kappa-calculator/ Stover, C. S., & Lent, K. (2014). Training and certification for domestic violence service providers: The need for a national standard curriculum and training approach. Psychology of Violence, 4(2), 117-127. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036022 Study.com. (2020). Quiz: “Strategies for Coping with Unhealthy Family Behavior”. Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/practice/quiz-worksheet-dealing-with- family-conflict.html Wagner, J., Jones, S., Tsaroucha, A., & Cumbers, H. (2019). Intergenerational transmission of domestic violence: practitioners' perceptions and experiences of working with adult victims and perpetrators in the UK. Child Abuse Review, 28(1), 39-51. https://doi.org/10.1002/car.2541 World Health Organization. (2019). School-based violence prevention: a practical handbook. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/media/58081/file/UNICEF-WHO- UNESCO-handbook-school-based-violence.pdf ZIK. (2020). Imprisonment for Domestic Violence Required ‒ How Domestic Violence and Abuse are dealt with in Ukraine and the World. Retrieved from https://zik.ua/news/2019/11/22/za_domashnie_nasylstvo__za_hraty_yak_v_ ukraini_ta_sviti_boriatsia_zi_znushchanniam_u_rodyni_946146
  • 20. 14 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 14-28, April 2020 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.4.2 Towards De-Colonial Agitations in University Classrooms: The Quest for Afrocentric Pedagogy Bunmi Isaiah Omodan and Bekithemba Dube University of the Free State Republic of South Africa Abstract. This study empirically conceptualised and rationalised decoloniality as a way to bridge the vacuumed of Americentric classroom hegemony in an attempt to reposition classroom with Afrocentricism as a dominant practice in Universities. “Ubuntugogy” as a transformational deviation from the Americentric teaching and learning is adopted as a theoretical framework. The study is situated in the transformative paradigm because its focus is to propose “ubuntugogy” as a way to deconstruct Eurocentric hegemony in university classrooms. Critical Emancipatory Research CER as an epistemological movement that is channelled towards emancipation and freedom from ideological enslavement is used as research design, and the participants consist of 10 people, 5 actively experienced lecturers, and 5 students were selected in the QwaQwa campus of the University of the Free State. Free attitude interview was used to collect data from the participant and the data collected were analysed using Thomas and Harden’s three steps of thematic analysis. The study found out that the curriculum and the perpendicular of language and cultural diversities, and colonization of mind and irresistible western classroom system are the significant challenges of implementing “ubuntugogy” in the classroom. The study subsequently proposed curriculum adjustment to accommodate trans-languaging and cultural diversities, and inculcation of self-worth and self-esteem to respond to the western irresistibility in the system with the conclusion that Afrocentric classroom may be one dimensional and thus needs to be redirected to speak to the issues of globalization. Keywords: university classrooms; decoloniality; ubuntugogy; afrocentricism; modernity 1. Introduction 21st-century classroom activities is characterised with the leftover of coloniality otherwise acknowledged as modernity. Though the spate of modernity sounds progressively inevitable to the echelon of school and schooling, most especially in the global south, its trajectories have become a compulsory devil to the factorisation and production of indigenous knowledge. In our argument, these
  • 21. 15 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. may not wholly take away the beauty of educational advancement and national productivity, but the sociality, socialisation, discoverability and ingenious constructivism are wallowing in the abyss of oblivion. This is supported by Musitha and Mafukata (2018) and Omodan (2019), that the South Africa education system still battling with the consequentiality of the Bantu education. This lacuna is connected to the Eurocentric classroom mapping in our schools. In these observations, no level of education in South Africa is exempted. This may be the reason why Rodney (2012) proposed that “Africa should develop its model of development” to jettison the modernised coloniality and euro-centrism in schools. In this article, we are joining our proposition with the assumptions of Lebeloane (2018) that the curriculum deserves to be reconstructed to pave ways for the implementers (Teachers/Lectures) who are the major classroom practitioners (Omodan, Ekundayo & Omodan, 2018). That is, the curriculum must be reconstructed to accommodate ethics and ethos of inclusivity, internalization of indigenous knowledge, disengagement of the indignity of language, indiscriminate sociality, and social justice. By ensuring these postulations, the content knowledge that encompasses self-determined knowledge construction, historically inclined ways of idealizing, pragmatic realities as means of knowing will be determined by the environmental and epistemological realities within learners’ conferment. However, the classroom on its own is not abstract, and it does not exist alone without the students, teachers/lecturers and above all, the instinct of actualizing students’ achievement and school productivity. This means that human beings are the classroom and to which classroom is set to affect, therefore, to erase the mirage of discourse from the deoloniality, the minds and the mindset of the subjects must be decolonized. Decolonising the mindset is a confirmation to the fact that Eurocentric and Americentric classroom is not only from the intensity of the coloniality (Mignolo, 2011; Ndlovu-Gatsheni, 2015) but the inability of the colonised to discover the endemic of natural thinking, idealizing and “doing”. Hence, the idea of deconstruction of students and teachers/lecturers’ mind cannot be disconnected from the classroom decoloniality. Though the curriculum is the guiding principles cum policies for teachers/lecturers and students, but the mindset to bring it to reality is fundamental to individual perspective of the socio-ecological realities of the classroom. From this, the quest to define and redefine own experience beyond the idea of the long-standing coloniality becomes activated. This, as described by Ngũgĩ (1986) as the politics and politicking of language in African literature, is a constructive role in cultural transition, historical reorientation, and love for social identity, which in our argument is called Africanism. From this narrative, one could conclude that the epistemologically “dismembered” ideas as a result of Euro/Americentric pedagogies could be re-launched.
  • 22. 16 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 2. The place of Curriculum in Afrocentric Pedagogy In order to ensure Afrocentricism in the space of Africa education and most especially in classroom ecology, a concerted effort is needed to consistently propel our education documents such as curriculum and other policies that bother more on educational development. A redoubled effort in propelling the idea of Africanising our curricular in South Africa and elsewhere in Africa needs a serious study of the idea of Apartheid and if we have completely de-linked ourselves from its rationality. This is what is needed to be able to delink our epistemological praxis from the westerners. This idea of epistemological disconnection according to Odora-Hoppers and Matiwana (2017) will ensure a perfectly deconstructed Eurocentric way of doing. This according to him is because South African and other African countries still produce knowledge in line with the mirage of modernity. This is to say that the curriculum status quo must be interrogated to establish what appeases the current way of generating knowledge and give credence to ingenious knowledge as a practical concept. This according to Luckett (2016) may not be achieved except if we start questioning the temerity of who decides what counts, what knowledge is valid, and to whom should take the lead, among others. This was supported by Joseph (2017), that in order to dis-expand the colonial archive, the knowledge and the historical development relating to curriculum must be deconstructed. The school’s curriculum itself has been conceptualized from multidisciplinary dimensions to mean what and how, when, and why the education system wants its students to learn an arranged content planned for them in schools. Though arguments exist that curriculum could be planned and thought, most fundamentally could be taught as live (Lebeloane, 2017). This rationale behind curriculum being taught as live, in our view, is to avail the students’ enablement to be able to critique the way and process of implementation, which is one of the beauties of decoloniality and “ubuntugogy”. In order to ensure unhindered decolonization in university classrooms, the idea of Le Grange (2017) about the various forms of the curriculum cannot be underrated. He deconstructs curriculum in the classroom into two, which are explicit, hidden or null. The explicit curriculum according to Lebeloane (2017) is a deliberately planned learning content that exposes learners to the exigencies of themselves and their environment, ranging from the past, present and the future. This kind of curriculum according to Le Grange (2017) provides learners with skills to critique, question and ameliorate issues by way of critical thinking. Some of the materials or tools used in the type of curriculum are expert presentations, textbooks, and readers among others. In our argument, it appears that this kind of curriculum could enable learners to individually construct knowledge by the virtue of what he thinks is best because it does allow the student to ask questions to how and why. On the other hand, the hidden curriculum is the one that indoctrinates the practitioners, which include students, teachers, lecturers, among others into the dominant culture and values of the colonisers (Le Grange, 2017; Lebeloane, 2017). This we think is the fact that the content and the freedom to critique and ask questions are not made known or taught in schools. In the quest to decolonize the practical space, one could start to ask questions such as
  • 23. 17 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 5Wh; why, when, what, who, and how. Even the colonization of the mindset may not be far from the hidden curriculum that is ideally Eurocentric. 3. Situating the Problems as lack of Africanised Pedagogy in the Universities In order to challenge the Eurocentric or Americentric classroom “way of doing”, the contributions of university education in Africa cannot be underrated. This level of education is the universal community of scholars. This is assumed to contain various pieces of knowledge. It is where the face of a nation, to some extent, is the light to the darkness as created by the coloniality. The problem of this study, therefore, rests on the fact that observations and experiences showed that universities even other levels of education had neglected the aesthetic of indigenous knowledge (Senanayake, 2006; Kaya & Seleti, 2013). This is to say that, the foreign way of doing has been accepted “hook line and sinker,” not minding the locality of the differentiation in the environmental fragmentation, cultural relativism, and the ecological prowess of all the stakeholders both lectures and students are the order of the day. Even the organogram and administrative functionality of the universities is not an exemption. Though this article is only addressing the teaching and learning by defacing the long- standing Eurocentric classroom mapping and replacing it with pedagogy that is fitted to accommodate the use of local knowledge in the process of knowledge construction. This is argued to mean Afrocentric Pedagogy. However, it is observed that the “natural way of doing”, which could mean “indigenous way of doing” is perceived to have been taken away the hegemony of sense of belonging on the part of university teachers and students. This problem could be linked to the national and university curriculum that arrested the Afrocentric classroom constructivism instead of converging with the personal and social needs of curriculum implementers (Odora-Hoppers, 2001). This may have hindered the teachers and students’ social dimension of knowledge construction by interpreting the issues below the value and cultural lenses and awareness, making it looks like our own way of doing are below the standard (Van Wyk, 2002). In line with this argument, though knowledge is linked to interest and power domination (Badat, 1997) which is peculiar to current university pedagogy the dominance of the long-standing coloniality in the system. This according to Avis (1996) has regarded knowledge production as hegemonic practices that propagated the rise in poverty, power dominance and social breakdown in general productivity. Besides, our observation also shows that the mindset of teachers, students, and other stakeholder are Eurocentric. Our encounter with many lecturers and students on the trajectories of classroom decoloniality makes me conclude that the mind of the lecturers is somewhat stuck to the implementation of foreign ways of doing, at the expense of cultural and local inclination. Our encounter with students, most especially those studying science-related courses, showed that many contents in the classroom are completely strange and unable to link them to any concrete and practical realities around them. Among many observations, universities in South Africa, most especially those located in the rural ecology, are far from opening the space for local and or indigenous
  • 24. 18 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. knowledge productions. Even, the instructional materials that are used as aids to learning are not exemplifying or relating to known knowledge. Classrooms in the observed universities have been conducted from the “unknown to unknown” as against “known to unknown” practice. This study is however determined to empirically conceptualise and rationalise decoloniality as a way to bridge the vacuumed of Americentric classroom hegemony. 4. Theoretical Framework: “Ubuntugogy” as an Approach This study is grounded in the concept of “ubuntugogy” which in our view is Afrocentric pedagogy that is rooted in Africanism called “Ubuntu”. Ubuntugogy was propounded in 2005 and argued by Bangura to the best-hidden pedagogy, which was branded by the qualities of culturalism, environmentalism, and Afrocentricism (Ganyi & Owan, 2016). However, “Ubuntugogy” metamorphosed from the philosophy of “Ubuntu”; Ubuntu, etymologically emanated from Xhosa and Zulu languages (Samkange & Samkange: 1980) which means Humanity and or Humanness (Omodan & Tsoetsi 2019). This is to say that Ubuntu could be referred to as the quality of being human and humane (Tworeck et al., 2015). These were conceptualised as “a person is a person through others” (Khomba, 2011). From the above, ubuntugogy could be said to mean an Africanised way of teaching and learning. This was conceptualised by Bangura (2017) as an “art and science of teaching and learning that is dominated by humanity and love towards others”. From the above, we can make bold to argue along with Ganyi and Owan (2016) that “ubuntugogy” is a transformational deviation from the Amenricentric teaching and learning otherwise called “pedagogy.” Ubuntugogy is, however, a system of teaching and learning that is centered on the utilisation of indigenous and Africanised teaching and learning aids in the classroom where culturalism and environmentalism take the lead (Bangura, 2015) in the teaching and learning input, process and output. This could also be referred to as Afrocentric pedagogy. This theory is relevant in this study because it propels the utilisation and galvanization of culturally and environmentally inclined teaching aids, material and practice to dominate the process of knowledge construction in the classroom. This will enable learners and the teachers and in case of the university system, the students and the lecturers to get along. This could manifest quick knowledge and assimilation because African people are confirmed to crush on the process that enables employment of indigenous spices to discourse. Such an atmosphere enables the lecturers to dispense knowledge from the known to unknown. That is, when classroom content is dispensed and simplified to the students using local examples and materials, it will open their reasoning and be able to link the concept from environmentalism thereby enhance their assimilation. In other to be able to achieve this and inject it into the reality of the university classrooms, the following research question and aim guided the study.
  • 25. 19 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 5. Research Question and Aim of the Study The question of “how to concretize Afrocentric classroom practices to decolonize the euro-centric classroom hegemony” piloted the study. In order to do justices to this empirical discourse, the inconsistencies in the university classrooms and the failure of its system to accommodate Afrocentric constructivism will be explored. 6. Objectives of the Study Based on the research question and aims of the study, the following research objectives paved the way to unravel the problem of Afrocentricism in university classrooms; • The study investigated the challenges associated with the implementation of Afrocentric Classroom pedagogy. • The study probed into the possible solution to the challenges with more focus on the implementation of “ubuntugogy”. 7. Methodology This is situated in the transformative paradigm because its focus is to propose ubuntugogy as a way to deconstruct Eurocentric hegemony in university classrooms. Besides, the ontology and epistemic stance informing the study is concerned with the social and historical nature in correlation to the classroom reality (Chilisa, 2013). Critical Emancipatory Research (CER) is adopted as a research design for this study, and this is adopted to enable researcher to understand and respond to the issue of classroom sociality and interrogate social justices in the curriculum implementation. In the argument of Dube (2016) and Ngwenyama (1992), CER is a break-away ideology from Frankfurt school which is centered towards reformation. In a similar perspective, CER is an epistemological movement that is channeled towards emancipation and freedom from ideological enslavement (Dube & Hlalele, 2018). That is, this choice of design exposes the participant to the systematic social and ideological enslavement eroded in Eurocentric pedagogy. CER is, therefore, appropriate to stand as a foundation for this research process because it stands as anti- injustices; it promotes emancipation and encourages freedom in the research process for transformation. The research participants comprise of five university students, and five lecturers in the Qwaqwa campus of the university of the Free State, South Africa, totaling ten participants, who are active in classroom activities, the selected student were fourth year and postgraduate honour students who are assumed to be much experienced in university pedagogy. The selected lecturers are those with at least four years’ experience in the system with active classroom experience. Free attitude interview was used to collect data from the participant; this method of data generation is considered appropriate because it enables the participants to discuss the issue as it appears to them. Free attitude interview is regarded as a conversation that uncovers real thoughts about a particular phenomenon (Creswell et al., 2016), and it helps the researcher to understand people, their sociality, and the nature of the problem they live with (Mahoko, Omodan & Tsotetsi, 2019). The data collected was analysed using three steps of
  • 26. 20 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. analysis prescribed by (Thomas & Harden, 2008), these steps according to them involve coding text, developing descriptive themes, and generating analytical meaning from the coded text. This becomes relevant to this study because it enables the researcher to arrange the data according to the objectives of the study. This further ensures the readers a coherence and cohesion of understanding of the research and its findings. 8. Results and Findings The results from this study were informed by the implementation of the methodological stance as stated above, the principle of CER as research design was fully followed and the data generated through the interview were coded, schematised and analysed based on the objectives of the study. The objectives were to explore the challenges associated with the implementation of the Afrocentric teaching-learning system in the University classroom and to provide possible solutions to the challenges to establish the need for Africanism in the classroom. 9. The challenges associated with the implementation of Afrocentric Classroom pedagogy Sub-themes under objective one that was analysed based on themes from the raw data are; curriculum and the perpendicular of language and cultural diversities, and colonization of mind and irresistible western classroom system. These were derived from the participants’ statements and triangulated with literature. For stressless reading, the Lecturers were represented as LT while students were represented as ST in the analysis below; 9.1 Curriculum and the Perpendicular of Language and Cultural diversities Delinking, separating, and or distancing learners from Eurocentric pedagogy in university classrooms could not be done in isolation if at all it is going to see the light of the day. This is because no system of teaching and learning exist without curriculum or policy backup, not only which, the language of teaching and learning is also essential in classroom activities, management, and knowledge production. This in line with the fact that curriculum and other policy document is needed to delink epistemological praxis that could ensure a complete disconnection of eurocentric knowledge construct (Odora-Hoppers & Matiwana, 2017) from educational practitioners and replace it with Africentric way of doing and thinking. This is the ideal that is expected in the reality of this discourse but the reverse is the case in the system as the participants' statements seem to contradict. See the statements below; LT2: “Inadequacy of indigenous instructors in schools has made all of us accept foreign classroom culture as the best and it remains like that” LT3: “Lack of resources relevant to the curriculum/shortage of textual resources to refer to... Lessons that could incorporate Indigenous Knowledge could be time-consuming”
  • 27. 21 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. The statement from LT1 lament that even there are approval ways with which the classroom could be decolonised in the way of using “ubuntugogy”, there are limited lecturers who can understand and implement the niti-gritty of such idea. These scenarios according to him have practically made the people more westernized to the extent that it may be difficult to retrace the hegemony of Eurocentric in African classroom mostly in universities. Lack of human capital such as lecturer to implement indigenous knowledge across the classes is the only contributing factor to the challenges, but lack and shortage of locally inclined materials and school resources according to the statement of LT3 is not helping the mater. His idea could mean that the use of indigenous teaching aids may exist but are not enough to ensure consistent use of indigenized teaching aids all the time. The last statement of the LT3 also confirmed that the use of indigenized teaching aids is not time friendly. To think of it, the intention is to say that the use will not allow the lecturer to quickly address the needed issues in classroom as and when due. This is not practically far from the fact that the curriculum and/or the policy book that is piloting the university education in South Africa is either silent or inactive about the incorporation of local content. The use or not of this indigenized teaching and learning at times is not the sole problem of the lecturer. According to the participants' statements, it bothers more on the issue of diversities in South African classrooms. See the following statements; LT5: “Since a classroom consists of diversity, another challenge would be, to know which IK from which cultures would be more relevant in a diverse classroom...” ST1: “Afrocentric education/ curriculum is one dimensional and does may not speak to the issues of the global context and therefore in an ever- evolving world where the education system seeks to produce 21st century and global citizens, Afrocentric curricula may be irrelevant as it only speaks to the history of one people”. In the statement of LT5, one could confirm that the trajectory of classroom diversities in South Africa, that is, that classroom consists of people from different cultures that come with different socio-political-economic and cultural backgrounds. In this case, it may be difficult for a lecturer to choose which indigenous artefact or history and ways of going is better employed. Besides, the lecturer may even not be familiar with more than one of two cultural and environmental backgrounds. Therefore, such a teacher does not have a choice than to use generally accepted teaching practices in the classroom. This is not far from the analysis of ST1, who stressed that the Afrocentric curriculum is one dimensional too and does not accommodate diversities of people that can support the best global practice. This according to her is irrelevant. Moreover, our understanding is because Afrocentric pedagogy may not accommodate the people’s choice, most notably in the university system, where people from various countries converge in the search for knowledge. However, the issue of diversity that comes with language differences surface and because more problematic to the implementation of indigenous knowledge. This is confirmed by the responses below;
  • 28. 22 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. LT2 “Considering the place of African languages in the in a Eurocentric society. Can they coexist or does it have to be either one of the languages” ST3: “It is difficult to even begin believing in African ways of life in this political era, most especially in the classroom. So, in other words, African pedagogy still needs a lot of development for curriculum purposes” The statement from LT2 gives a severe concern about the possibility of having one language as Africans, which is practically in our view not achievement anytime soon. Even in a country, there are many languages, South Africa, for example, has up to 12 different languages that come with their peculiarities, etc. This is in line with the argument of Ngũgĩ (1986) which states that there are politics and politicking of language in African literature that clamoured for social identity. This idea is not in isolation as the ST3 confirmed that it is challenging to believe in the African way of life as a result of the unstable political system that has characterized the continent. Maybe this statement is coming as a result of politics that has been involving in the formulation and implementation of policies and even curriculum. This trust diversion may not be the focus of this study, but it gives meaning to the reason why many implementers may not even trust the people in power for curriculum and policy formulations. He further stressed that African pedagogy needs a very long way to go. From the above, it is evidenced that curriculum and university education policies are not very kin in the inculcation of Africanized way of practices in the classroom and that the Language in the place of diversities is a significant challenge in the classroom that is diverse like South Africa. This finding is supported by Joseph (2017), that the only way to ensure indignity as against the colonial archive, the knowledge and the historical development relating to curriculum must be deconstructed. From the above analysis, it is therefore found out that the Africanised factors are not yet in the curriculum, and the perpendicular of Language and Cultural diversities is confirmed to be a challenge to the implementation of Africanised knowledge production in the classroom. This finding also goes in consonance with the agitation of Lebeloane (2018) that the curriculum deserves to be reconstructed to pave ways for the implementers. This is practically what the agitation for decoloniality through ubuntugogy is preaching. That is, to ensure the possibilities of Ubuntugogy as a way of decoloniality, the curriculum and languaging will not be an extraneous variable in the process. Because decoloniality and ubuntugogy according to Ganyi and Owan (2016, p. 35) is transformational teaching and learning which could make teaching and learning process more acceptably productive to students. 9.2 Colonisation of Mind and Irresistible Western Classroom System This challenge is not new in the education system, and it is perceived that the system is inclined with the western way of doing that is uneasy to be dismantled based on its long-standing practices of modernity. This idea is not too far from what has dominated the mind of the lecturers and the students. This according to Van Wyk (2002) have hindered the socially constructed knowledge and interpretation of values and culturalism because the westernized mindset of the practitioners portraits the Africanised way of doing as below standards. This is
  • 29. 23 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. evident in the fact that knowledge is linked to interest and power domination (Badat, 1997), which is the dominance of the long-standing coloniality in the universities. This has gone a long way to congest the mindset of the people to believing that only acceptable ways of doing are the westernized and anything short of that is targeted uncivilized. This does not only exist in our observations and literature but also in the participants' statements as illustrated below; LT1: “Inferiority complex is the case, lectures and parents alike believe that using indigenous languages in the classroom setting will rubbish their personalities, hence their continuous insistence on the use of foreign languages” ST4: “Western knowledge has reduced African knowledge into fiction and ridiculed it to something that is unorthodox” ST4: “beside the classroom, even there is no much-written work that is in the African context” From these statements, one could confirm that there is decolonization of life, thinking and doing. The statement of LT1, confirmed that there is an inferiority complex among the lecturers and the parents. This is evidence according to him that parent is not confident in the locally way of doing things thereby will find it difficult to enroll their children in such schools. Furthermore, there is a feeling that using indigenous language or classroom practice is proof that such may be tagged as rubbish and thereby affecting their social personalities. Because of this, they prefer to engrain themselves in the assumed civilized (westernized) ways. This complex as examined above according to ST4 confirms that western knowledge as reduced African knowledge to nothing and making it look like a fiction that is wallowing in the illusion of reality. This is not palatable but in reality, that is what is playing to the gallery. That is why the perceptions of people are that the British schools that operate within the British curriculum are better than the national curriculum ones. This challenge according to ST4 is not only peculiar to this perceived systematic marginalization but also in the world of records. The ST4 stresses that there is not much written that is done in the African context. This may not be that there is no writing that is done is such context but could be that many such have imbibed the westernized content to prove their worth. From the above analysis, it seems that it may not be easy to completely decolonised classroom for the purpose of re-establishing “ubuntugogy”. The reason for this may not be restricted only to the fact that practitioners have been systematically colonised from the aspect of knowledge construction. But another fact emerging from the field is that almost all the practitioners are western- trained. See the statements below; LT2: “it is going to be a challenge to decolonise the African classrooms because most of the teachers, as well as the children, are raised in a modern way” L4: “Influx of foreign teachers/lecturers who do not have indigenous knowledge of teaching into the schools”.
  • 30. 24 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. The argument here is that the challenge regarding the implementation of Africanised classroom pedagogy is facing so many extraneous problems such as the fact that many teachers are trained in a westernized manner and as well as students, most of them grown up where there were little or no experience about local and indigenous knowledge. This may not go well even in the ideal and the discourse is coming to reality. This bothers more on the law of realism that says what cannot be seen may not be real. The finding is, therefore, that the mindset and the way of doing of the people in the system are already indebted to colonization and wiliness to promote the persistence coloniality exists among them. On the other hand, western pedagogy and its practices, according to this study, were found to be irresistible, though these findings may not be absolutely defined the mind and the interest of this research location. I, therefore, argue in line with Avis (1996) that production of knowledge in the classroom has been swept under the carpet of Eurocentric practices that have propagated in power dominance and social breakdown in general productivities. This is confirming the true state of Ubuntugogy in universities as opined by Owan (2016) that the best of “ubuntugogy” is still hidden because it was branded with the beauties of culturalism, environmentalism, and Afrocentricism. 10. Solutions to the challenges of Afrocentric Classroom Pedagogy Sub-themes under objective two that were analysed based on themes from the raw data are; curriculum adjustment to accommodate trans-languaging and cultural diversities, and inculcation of self-worth and self-esteem to respond to the irresistibility. 10.1 Curriculum and or Policy Readjustment to Accommodate Languages and Cultural Diversities Based on the above challenges as emanated from the participants alongside the analytical interpretations, one could confirm that the curriculum needs to be readjusted to accommodate the issue of cultural diversities, language differences in order to be able to respond well to the issue and agitations classroom Africanisation. This may not be achievable in isolation, that is, the practical involvement of leaders, most notably, those in the affairs of higher education should ensure that all these agitations are incorporated; this in our argument may equip the practitioners with necessary weapons to deal with the deficiencies and any hidden trajectories of “Ubuntugogy”. This call is not only based on our argument, but on the participants’ statements also justified the need. See below; LT3: “Need to identify an Authority saddled with the power to implement the proposed education policy or create one if there exists none for effective implementation of the policy”. From this, one could say all eyes are on the leaders, the curriculum planners, the policymakers to gear up and propound all-inclusive law that will inculcate the spirit of multilingualism that could enhance the learning and the use of multiple languages by the teachers and even the learners. This is pertinent because it is deduced that diversity in terms of language and culture may not allow the
  • 31. 25 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. actualization of Africanised classrooms in the university system. The below statements are also justifying the need though in slightly different manners; L3: “we need to adopt a far-reaching indigenous language that is sufficient, flexible and trans-ethnically acceptable to operationalize the policy”. ST3: “we need a position to appreciate African languages then we will move into incorporating the African knowledge into the curriculum.” In line with the above, the formulation of inclusive curriculum/policies on education will only survive if it is adapted with “a far-reaching indigenous language that is sufficient, flexible and trans-ethnically acceptable to operationalize the policy”. This position will enhance the appreciation of African cultures, language and ways of doing. From this analysis, it is hereby found out that curriculum and or policy readjustment to accommodate languages and cultural diversities is essential, this is not an idea that is in isolation, this is in support of the call by Lebeloane (2017) that there is a need for a deliberately planned curriculum content that will expose students to themselves and the environment by exposing the historical linkage of issues to the present and the future. This is also supporting the conclusion of Grange (2017) that various forms of the curriculum cannot be underrated when it comes to educational transformation. 10.2 Inculcation of Self Worth and Self Esteem to respond to irresistibility Self-worth and self-esteem are one of the factors that strengthen students, teachers, lecturers, and other practitioners, according to Jan et al., (2015) enhance their skills, develop them both mentally and physically. The wellness and ability of the stakeholder as mentioned above are essential in what and how the school operates and implementation of academic plans are done (Omodan, Ekundayo & Bamikole, 2018). Self-confidence and self-esteem have been found by researchers to be essential in the performance of lecturers and the students (Kususanto, Ismail & Jamil, 2010; Mbuva, 2016). Going by these, the recommendation of the practitioners’ self-efficacy that could promote self-belief and worth among them is not out of place. This is also mentioned in the participants' statement as a means to make bold to defend one history and dimensions of culture, see below; ST1: Practitioners who are knowledgeable in that area of expertise must come forth and Africanism as a narrative and the true history behind it because there are too many accounts of our history. LT1: Teachers/lecturers and parents alike should see indigenous languages as keys to all-round improvement and should learn from countries like China, Japan, Germany. These statements are coming as a perceived result of lack of self-worth, esteem, and efficacy coupled with boldness to display and define oneself to the people. This does not only bother on the lecturers and or students, but Africanism must also be defined and popularised with a carefully defined history that makes unity in diversity. The boldness to defend oneself among many olds also
  • 32. 26 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. accounts for why LT1 admonished that parents and lecturers should see indigeneity as a way of life, as a means for growth and development. The reasons why LT1 referred to countries such as China, Japan, and Germany are because those countries are examples of countries where indignity and traditional ways of doing dominates. Moreover, this has helped them rise among the countries of the world. It is, therefore, found out that inculcation of self-worth and self- esteem to respond to the irresistibility of western ways of doing could be one of the solutions that could enhance the implementation of Africanised ways of doing. This is supported by the finding of Jan, et al. (2015) that building more on the teachers’ and students' self-esteem is a panacea of productivities and performance. This could also be linked to the fact that when there is boldness and self-belief, to challenge the hegemony of any kind in the classroom will be activated and any forms of oppression, whether systematic, physical or hidden, will be challenged. This is because self-esteem is essential in the performing abilities of lecturers and the students (Mbuva, 2016). 11. Conclusion In conclusion, as findings would have it that the challenges of the Afrocentric classroom operation in universities are inabilities of the curriculum to incorporate the principles of Ubuntugogy, and the perpendicular of language and cultural diversities. Another challenge is the colonisation of mind and irresistible western hegemony in the classroom. All these were found to be essential if the agitation will be sustained. Along these, the solutions were provided which includes, the quest that curriculum should be readjusted to accommodate trans-languaging and cultural diversities. Not only that, all the practitioners are also enjoyed to be endowed with entire self-worth and self- esteem needed to respond to the irresistibility of modernity in classrooms. However, the need for mass orientation that focuses on socio-psychological decolonisation of students and lecturers against the Eurocentric influences of modernity towards broad and legitimate acceptance of the proposed Afrocentric pedagogy policy in teaching through the production of indigenous knowledge in the University system. Therefore, Afrocentric education/curriculum may be one dimensional and thus needs to be redirected to speak to the issues of globalization; this will enhance the concept to operate within the ever-evolving world where the education system seeks to produce 21st century and global citizens. References Avis, J. (1996). Knowledge and nationhood: education, politics and work. London: Casse ll. Badat, S. (1997). Educational politics in the transition period. In: P Kallaway, G Kruss, G Donn & A Fataar (eds). Education after apartheid: South African education intransition. Cape Town: UCT Press. Bangura, A. K. (2015) Yoruba Gurus and the Idea of Ubuntugogy. In: Toyin Falola and African Epistemologies. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. Chilisa, B. (2013). Indigenous Research Methodologies. Thousand Oaks: Sage. https://doi.org/10.4102/aej.v1i1.44. Creswell, J. W., Ebersohn, L., Eloff, I., Ferreira, R., Ivankova, N. V., Jansen, J. D., & Dube, B. (2016). A socio-religious hybridity strategy to respond to the problems of
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  • 35. 29 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 29-43, April 2020 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.4.3 Restructuring the Teacher Education System in Vietnam Quang Hong Pham Thai Nguyen University, Thai Nguyen, 250000, Vietnam Nam Danh Nguyen* Thai Nguyen University of Education, Thai Nguyen, 250000, Vietnam Abstract. This paper presents international experiences and the real situation of the teacher education system in Vietnam. This research has also shown some challenges that teacher education institutions would face within the context of radical and comprehensive education renovation. Based on analyzing the teacher education system and teacher education management, the paper presents some viewpoints and principles for restructuring teacher education as well as draws lessons for Vietnam in renovating the teacher education model. Then, the paper proposes the new teacher education model and reorganized the teacher education system, in which the research determines some key educational universities and their “satellites” educational universities and colleges at localities across the country. The paper also suggests a solution for establishing the connection between key educational universities and their satellites among the system so that it could meet the requirements of the labor market and society. These suggestions help educational universities and colleges to reorganize their functions and missions of training future teachers. The research also makes a contribution to change the policies for teachers and teacher education in Vietnam. Keywords: restructuring; teacher education; teacher education system; teacher training; educational university; Vietnam 1. Introduction In the trend of globalization, teachers must work in a multicultural, multi-ethnic, multi-religious, multinational, and multi-lingual environment. This trend requires teachers must not only meet the national professional standards but also towards the international professional standards to be able to adapt to this * Corresponding author’s e-mail: danhnam.nguyen@tnue.edu.vn
  • 36. 30 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. working environment. That is also the challenge to train global citizens to adapt to the world labor market (Quang, 2013; Binh, 2013; Ayesha, 2018). Therefore, the impact of international integration trends on the professional standards of teachers is a matter of concern in the process of teacher training. Furthermore, the teacher labor market in the globalization trend is broad, open, and flexible. Hence, if the teacher does not meet the requirements of international standards, there is a risk of being unemployed (Sang, 2011; Quang, 2013; Michael, 2018). Consequently, teacher training or educational universities must train teachers who have the competencies to adapt to the international working environment. Vietnam has faced with an urgent need for industrialization and modernization in the context of a socialist-oriented market economy and global integration. The government has been implementing a radical and comprehensive renovation in education and training. In particular, the general education program in the year 2018 has crucial changes from educational objectives, learning content, methods to evaluation methods, implementation conditions, and management systems. Therefore, it is very necessary to renovate the teacher education system to train a new model of teachers that satisfies the educational renovation (Binh, 2013; Quang, 2013). The search for teacher training models suitable for the new context which is conducted with a series of workshops on teacher education. Moreover, the Ministry of Education and Training has developed teacher standards, school standards, and requested educational universities to renew training programs, program, and institution accreditation. In this circumstance, the paper studies the experiences of successful institutions in the world in teacher education. It draws lessons for Vietnamese higher education for determining the direction in modernizing teacher training models. International studies have shown that teacher education programs in many countries have gradually developed from low-ranked teacher training institutions to comprehensive universities. In Vietnam, the educational colleges trained preschool, elementary school teachers, and educational universities trained high school teachers. These institutions are being upgraded into multidisciplinary universities to meet the growing needs for high-quality teachers. Besides, educational schools and teacher training colleges integrated into universities, and non-teacher universities are allowed to involve in teacher preparation (Quang, 2013; Binh, 2013; Hieu, Nam, 2019). Reconstruction of teacher education programs aims at establishing a new teacher education model at universities where a college of education collaborates with other academic colleges to educate prospective teachers. The system formed by teacher training colleges and local educational universities that respectively trained prospective teachers for preschools, elementary schools, and secondary schools. In Vietnam, teacher training colleges and educational universities were public, managed by, the model of the central planning economy. The resources, recruitment of faculty and enrolment of students, approaches of teacher education, and allocation of graduates were all decided and controlled by the Ministry of Education and Training. The objective of this study is to investigate the real situation in the teacher education system in some countries in the world and to evaluate the system in Vietnam. After that, the study draws lessons for teacher education and suggestions for restructuring the teacher education system in Vietnam that