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International Journal
of
Learning, Teaching
And
Educational Research
p-ISSN:
1694-2493
e-ISSN:
1694-2116
IJLTER.ORG
Vol.22 No.12
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
(IJLTER)
Vol. 22, No. 12 (December 2023)
Print version: 1694-2493
Online version: 1694-2116
IJLTER
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER)
Vol. 22, No. 12
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International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
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Foreword
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and Educational Research.
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to
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We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal
with this issue.
Editors of the December 2023 Issue
VOLUME 22 NUMBER 12 December 2023
Table of Contents
Developing Productive Thinking Skills in the field of Artistic Works using the SCAMPER Strategy for Twice
Exceptional Students.................................................................................................................................................................1
Hussam Khalifah Aldawsari, Hussein Ahmed Shahat, Sherif Adel Gaber, Hamdah Ayed Al-Ruwaili, Abdullah Muteb
Aldughaysh, Thanaa Abdelrashed Mohmed
Digital Learning Management using OpenAI ChatGPT: A Systematic Literature Review......................................... 21
M. Shoffa Saifillah Al Faruq, Ahmad Sunoko, Hamidulloh ibda, Khairul Wahyudi
Using the Delphi Method to Explore Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Pedagogical Competence Training on
University Lecturers in Vietnam........................................................................................................................................... 42
Nguyen Thi Viet Nga, Tran Thi Hanh Phuong, Doan Ngoc Anh, Dao Thi Viet Anh
Enhancing Oral Language Skills in 5-Year-Old Children Through Drawing Activities in the Classroom............... 62
Mengyun Xiao, Fadzilah Amzah, Noor Azlina Mohamed Khalid, Weihan Rong
Strengthening Character Education: An Action Research in Forming Religious Moderation in Islamic Education
....................................................................................................................................................................................................84
Aep Saepudin, Tedi Supriyadi, Dedih Surana, Ikin Asikin
Teachers' Challenges in Preparing Grade R Learners for School-readiness and Strategies Used to Activate
Learner-readiness.................................................................................................................................................................. 106
Mapule Yvonne Segooa, Habasisa Vincent Molise
The Influence of AI ChatGPT on Improving Teachers' Creative Thinking.................................................................. 124
ZuoYuan Liu, Alena Vobolevich, Alexey Oparin
Relationships of Abstraction and Application Complexity in the Attainment between Mathematics and Electrical
Engineering Modules in Diploma Courses of South Africa............................................................................................140
Kavita Behara, Kayode Timothy Akindeji, Gulshan Sharma
Teachers and Students Perception of Technology and Sustainable Adoption Framework in the Pedagogical
Process: A Systematic Review............................................................................................................................................. 162
Sri Utaminingsih, Nur Fajrie, Nurudeen Babatunde Bamiro, Mohamed Nor Azhari Azman
Determinants of Intention to Use ChatGPT for Professional Development among Omani EFL Pre-service
Teachers.................................................................................................................................................................................. 187
Amal Mohammad Alrishan
Integrating IT and Sustainability in Higher Education Infrastructure: Impacts on Quality, Innovation and
Research.................................................................................................................................................................................. 210
Qamrul Islam, Syed Md Faisal Ali Khan
Enhancing English Verbal Communication Skills through Virtual Reality: A Study on Engagement, Motivation,
and Autonomy among English as a Second Language Learners...................................................................................237
Kumutha Raman, Harwati Hashim, Hanita Hanim Ismail
Teacher Information Literacy for Inclusive Early Childhood Education (ECE) to Provide Literacy and Numeracy
for Special Needs Children in Central Java-Indonesia.................................................................................................... 262
Neneng Tasu’ah, Diana ., Sugiariyanti ., Tias Martika
Devising Online Writing Services: An Exploration of an Academic Writing Class....................................................279
Yulia Hapsari, Hamamah Hamamah, Ive Emaliana, Putu Dian Danayanti Degeng, Lydia Kusumahwati
The Impact of MoodleCloud on Faculty and Graduate Students’ User-Independence Engagement in a State
University in the Philippines............................................................................................................................................... 299
Julie Rose Mendoza, Rosario G. Catapang, John Michael Del Rosario Aquino
Adoption of Learning Management Systems in Face-to-Face Learning: A Systematic Literature Review of
Variables, Relationships, and Models.................................................................................................................................326
Delio Luis Salgado-Chamorro, Victor Mario Noble-Ramos, Sebastian Gomez-Jaramillo
School and Family Collaboration on Twice-exceptional Academic Program Services...............................................351
Bayu Pamungkas, Rochmat Wahab, Suwarjo Suwarjo, Adi Suseno
Blended Learning with Mobile Learning Tools in Financial Curricula: Challenges, Opportunities, and
Implications for Student Engagement and Achievement................................................................................................368
Hsin-Jung Hsieh
Teacher Classroom Management Skills: Case Study of the Activator School Programme in Indonesia................. 389
Ainun Nafisah, Sri Marmoah, Riyadi .
1
©Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0
International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 22, No. 12, pp. 1-20, December 2023
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.12.1
Received Oct 15, 2023; Revised Dec 7, 2023; Accepted Dec 12, 2023
Developing Productive Thinking Skills in the
field of Artistic Works using the SCAMPER
Strategy for Twice Exceptional Students
Hussam Khalifah Aldawsari , Hussein Ahmed Shahat ,
,
i
Ruwail
-
Hamdah Ayed Al
,
*
herif Adel Gaber
S
Abdullah Muteb Aldughaysh
Faculty of Education, King Faisal University
Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Thanaa Abdelrashed Mohmed
Faculty of Education University of Hail
Hail, Saudi Arabia
Abstract. This study investigates whether the SCAMPER technique is an
appropriate tool to develop productive thinking skills related to artistic
works among gifted students in general and students with Twice
Exceptionality (2e) in particular. The current study aims to verify the
effectiveness of the SCAMPER technique for the aforementioned
purpose. The sample consisted of 35 2e students aged 8-12 from Al-Ahsa,
Saudi Arabia. A quasi-experimental approach was used, and the study
sample was divided into three experimental groups. The first
experimental group included nine gifted students with autism spectrum
disorder (ASD); the second group consisted of 15 gifted students with
learning disabilities (LD); and the third group included 11 gifted students
with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The
researchers developed a measure of productive thinking skills related to
artistic works (PTSRAW) and a training program based on the
SCAMPER technique. The statistical methods that have been used were
the Wilcoson and the Kruskal-Walls tests. The findings of the study
consisted of differences between the mean ranks of the three study
groups on the post-test of the PTSRAW test in favor of gifted students
with LD, followed by gifted students with ADHD, followed by gifted
students with ASD. The authors suggest more studies to enhance
understanding of the benefits of this method and its use in various
disciplines of education and arts.
Keywords: SCAMPER technique; productive thinking; twice
exceptionality; artistic works; art education
*
Corresponding author: Sherif Adel Gaber; Email: sagahmed@kfu.edu.sa
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1. Introduction
The 20th century information revolution has heightened the need for students to
develop adaptive thinking skills. Art education involves experimentation with
different materials, media and resources, and requires specific instructional
techniques to shape thinking skills. The Saudi Ministry of Education’s education
policy document has highlighted the importance of providing students with the
knowledge, skills, and constructive behaviors to prepare the students to be part
of the economic and cultural progress and prosperity of society (Al-Wadey & Al-
Ajmi, 2022).
To teach students the skills required to develop new ideas, new teaching strategies
need to be researched, such as experimentation with materials, and mind
mapping (Purtee, 2015). Among these strategies is the SCAMPER model,
developed for artistic expression and composition using raw materials. It is
celebrated as an educational tool that enhances awareness, leadership, fluency,
flexibility, and originality. The word “SCAMPER” is an acronym where each
letter represents a different way to change the properties of a structure or system,
physically or metaphorically, to form new relationships. The SCAMPER model
comprises the following elements, namely substitute, combine, adapt, modify or
magnify, eliminate or minify, put to another use, and reverse or rearrange (Serrat,
2017). Using this model, learners can generate new ideas through playing with,
and synthesizing materials. This activity develops productive thinking, also noted
in the problem-solving model proposed by Guilford (1964). This model consists
of a succession of processes interacting with items stored in the memory with the
aim of enhancing cognitive faculties (Barakat, 2022).
Several studies have shown how the SCAMPER technique can be used to develop
the higher mental faculties of the artistically gifted and to prepare programs that
satisfy their needs (Mahmoud, 2017). In his 2022 study, Abbas suggested
establishing educational institutes for handicrafts training and called for a study
on the role of artistic works in improving the imaginative abilities of middle
school students. Cohen (2012) proposed a study linking creative adaptation in
childhood with the type of creativity observed in adults. The global education
index confirms that education must facilitate the development of crucial skills
such as critical thinking and problem-solving using talented teachers to guide
students to acquire the crucial skills they will need in the future (Walton, 2017).
Thinking is an approach to learning and problem-solving where thinking
represents a set of applicable abilities that are implemented in teaching in
structured frameworks that refine ideas, which help in improving the learning
processes and the advancement of students. Productive thinking is also a scientific
method that combines creative thinking skills with critical thinking to solve
problems. Combining creative thinking with critical thinking can be employed to
maximize achievement and reach practical results (Hurson, 2008).
The term "twice exceptional (2e)" refers to people who are bright or skilled in one
or more categories yet have a handicap, disorder, or difficulties in others. Because
giftedness and handicap are addressed simultaneously, this scenario has made
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the definition and acceptance of the term problematic (Şentürk et al., 2022).
Students who are 2e are extraordinarily skilled in one or more areas such as
academic ability, creativity, leadership, and visual arts, coupled with problems in
other areas such as reading, writing, and arithmetic (Yenioğlu et al., 2022).
Klingner (2022) suggests that the biggest obstacles confronting 2e students are
misunderstanding and misdiagnosis. They are frequently reprimanded,
underchallenged, and left behind, which underlines the need to better understand
them. Students may be eligible for special education services as a result of their
handicap under the 2004 federal Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act (IDEIA). Once students qualify for IDEIA services, they are
entitled to free and appropriate public education (Bell, 2020).
Although 2e students are gradually receiving more recognition and intervention,
they are still a grossly underserved segment of the school population, and
educators still lack effective methods for identifying and supporting them
(Kircher-Morris, 2021).
"A Call to Action: Identification and Intervention for 2e Students" begins
with basic information about 2e students who are both gifted and talented
and who also have LD and provides strategies for how educators can
identify these students. It is imperative that classroom teachers provide
intervention to address this exception since these students often score at
grade level on standardized tests, with the giftedness score lowered by the
learning disability and raised by the giftedness, resulting in neither this
exception nor the other being addressed because they do not qualify for
either of the special services (Sosland, 2022).
This study applies the SCAMPER technique to the field of art to develop technical
excellence and creative and critical thinking skills among students with 2e. Using
the SCAMPER technique can enhance critical thinking in 2e students, enabling
them to analyze and evaluate various artistic ideas and concepts and apply them
to their art. This also promotes comprehensive learning by developing higher-
order thinking skills (analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and application) for artistic
work. This study contributes to developing 2e students’ creative and critical
thinking skills in the field of arts and supporting ongoing academic achievement.
Productive thinking skills are considered one of the basic aspects of developing
creativity and innovation in the field of the arts. The problem of the study
emerged through the workshops conducted by the researchers of the current
study which aimed to conduct a group of practical applications in the field of raw
material synthesis to produce some artistic works for 2e students. The researchers
noticed the need for these students to improve their artistic production skills in
the field of raw material synthesis. They found in their art work a stereotype in
the design and production of the artistic product, in line with the recognized
standards in the field of artistic production. Therefore, 2e students face difficulty
developing these skills due to the unique challenges they face, which is what
Feldhusen emphasized in 1997. He suggested four areas that must be nurtured
among gifted students, including the field of artistic creativity and the field of the
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arts, because these students have latent abilities that need to be developed in
proportion to their strengths.
In this study, the SCAMPER technique was selected as a suitable technique for
developing creative and productive thinking. The technique motivates students
to generate new ideas and develop them through the use of six different
techniques: substitution, adaptation, modification, composition, challenge, and
synthesis. However, there are not many studies that focus on using the SCAMPER
technique to develop 2e students' productive thinking skills in artwork. Therefore,
this study aims to answer the following four questions:
Q1. Are there statistically significant differences between the mean ranks of gifted
students with ASD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW?
Q.2. Are there statistically significant differences between the mean ranks of gifted
students with LD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW?
Q.3. Are there statistically significant differences between the mean ranks of gifted
students with ADHD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW?
Q.4. Are there statistically significant differences between the mean ranks of the
three study groups in the post-test on the PTSRAW?
2. Literature Review
2.1. SCAMPER and Thinking
First introduced by López-Mesaa (2011), the SCAMPER technique uses a series of
questions directed to learners to encourage the processes of productive thinking
and creativity. It is also an educational tool that promotes awareness, leadership,
fluency, flexibility, and originality (Serrat, 2017). It can be used as a simple
problem-solving technique, a brainstorming tool, or as a stand-alone technique to
help generate new and unfamiliar ideas (Loop, 2021). SCAMPER uses questions
as subframes in addition to various stimuli to promote divergent thinking by
answering the questions that the student raises and the variables that SCAMPER
symbolizes (Ozyaprak, 2016; Serrat, 2017). Each letter of SCAMPER refers to a
specific thought process, where (S) indicates alternatively, the formation of ideas,
(C) denoting fusion which refers to the combination of different ideas or materials
and multiple techniques, and (A) for adaptation which depends on the response
of the trainee in modifying a living organism or its parts, making it more suitable
for existence under the conditions of the environment. Creative adaptation is the
ability to adapt flexibly to circumstances by introducing (M) modifications or
improvements to develop new ideas or products (Cohen, 2012). It is also possible
to “minify” reduce, change shape, or modify attributes. There is also (P), put to
other uses; (E), delete or simplify an element; and (R), rearrange (Sabri & Al-
Ruwaithi, 2013). Therefore, it can be said that SCAMPER questions are consistent
with Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive critical thinking skills, as identified by
Anderson and Krathwohl (2011) in terms of Remembering, Analysis, Evaluation,
and Composition.
2.2. Productive Thinking
The concept of productive thinking was first proposed in the early 1930s by
German psychologist Otto Selz and was expanded by Canadian author Tim
Hurson, who proposed a structured approach to problem-solving or idea
generation that combines knowledge with creative and critical thinking
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(AlleyDog, 2023). Hurson (2008) defined productive thinking as a pattern of
thinking that combines critical thinking skills and creative thinking and employs
them together to produce new ideas in which sensory perception interacts with
experience. Herein lies its importance in the educational process because it
combines more than one type of thinking. This helps in better understanding the
cognitive content and linking its elements to each other (Razzouqi et al., 2016). In
research conducted in 1967, Taylor recognized productive thinking as one of nine
capabilities considered essential (Al-Jughaiman, 2023). It is also a psychological
process of learning how to absorb problems and determine the method of
solution. Through feeling the need to achieve a goal, work can be done to reach
the desired situation (Auernhammer & Roth, 2022).
2.2.1. Creative thinking
Creativity is valuable in education because it relies on deep knowledge and the
ability to use it effectively to achieve valuable results. It is often developed as a
competency and skill within educational frameworks. Moreover, education
moves from acquiring knowledge to developing competencies (Patston, 2021).
Some definitions of creativity have been formulated as any act, idea, or product
that changes or transforms an existing field into a new field (Franken, 2023).
Hurson (2008) confirmed that creativity is an indispensable element in solving
problems. He devised a model of productive thinking that consists of stages.
Questions are asked at each to emphasize the various aspects of the problem in
order to reach a better understanding of the solution (Kumar, 2021). The model is
represented by six steps in the form of questions: "What's going on?" "What is
success?" and "What is the question?" Generate the answers, create the solution,
and align the resources (Stormz, 2023). The Torrance Scale of Creative Thinking
includes three main skills: fluency, flexibility, and originality (Al-Atoum et al.,
2009).
Flexibility is one of the cognitive processes that shapes creativity and enhances
productive thinking in which the individual is quick to adapt and respond to
change without affecting the original goal and is able to move freely from one
process to another with the freedom to choose different vehicles or media. Fluency
is a flow of expression in producing a number of ideas (Caldwell & Dake, 2009).
The field of arts is a fertile land for developing thinking skills. True fluency lies in
the quality of creative expression and the ability to build intricate connections and
meanings (Matney, 2014). Originality is one of the skills most associated with
creativity and refers to the ability to produce the largest number of unique
responses (Al-Mashrafi, 2005). Ozyaprak (2016) indicates that creativity can be
developed by focusing on general creativity theories such as lateral thinking,
creative problem-solving, and productive thinking, as well as some strategies and
creative thinking techniques such as brainstorming.
2.2.2. Critical thinking
Critical thinking is accurate thinking directed toward a goal, and its components
have been adopted as educational goals on the basis of respecting the autonomy
of students (Hitchcock, 2022). Mixing creativity and critical thinking is necessary
for productive thinking in the field of artistic works because of its ability to
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facilitate reaching high-quality creative solutions based on the synthesis of raw
materials. According to the Critical Thinking Subcommittee for AoL Learning
Goal looking at Bloom's classification of critical thinking in 1956, students apply
previous knowledge and skills creatively or differently to produce something
new. The value of materials is based on personal values and opinions, which
ultimately leads to a new product (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001; Hirakubo, 2022).
Therefore, it is a disciplined process of conceptualization that works by applying
mental actions such as analysis, synthesis observation, experience, thinking, and
inference (Foundation for Critical Thinking [FCT], 2023). Hitchcock (2022)
identified other critical thinking processes, such as experimentation, counseling,
judgment, and decision-making. It is logical thinking that works to restore its
process, or evaluative thinking that works to restore its goal (Rusbult, 2021). When
students engage in synthesis in the field of artistic works, they practice logical
thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving as well as divergent thinking
and convergent thinking, which makes them develop their thinking, as pointed
out by Razzouqi et al. (2016) This reshapes ideas in different formulations through
free thought, allowing the student internal insight to accommodate unfamiliar
situations. According to Sun et al. (2020), implementing a training program on
divergent thinking improves school students’ scientific creativity.
Through the above, it can be concluded that critical thinking depends on the three
principles of autonomy, self-awareness, and learning.
2.2.3. Productive thinking skills
Productive thinking skills can be defined as fluency, flexibility, originality,
problem analysis, expansion or detail, imagination, and production (Ali &
Ibrahim, 2018; Al-Quraiti, 2019; Mustafa, 2013).
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Figure 1: The SCAMPER model and productive thinking in the field of handicrafts
2.2.4 Handicrafts
Handicrafts have their own nature, as part of the process of artistic creativity and
its various components. They require a type of cognitive representation with the
ability to find non-stereotypical plastic and aesthetic solutions through
manipulating raw materials. Handicrafts are considered one of the artistic
formation systems that are the focus of expression and the basic foundation for
producing artistic work. It is a field that actively involves the student, building
their knowledge and experience through solving real problems in their interaction
with the material through research and experimentation (Ali et al., 2022). It is one
of the axes of creativity based on diverse experiences of forming multiple
materials and the organization of units in the process of creating the artwork (Al-
Essa, 2021). The student reshapes, reassembles, adds, or deletes from the
materials, using various experiences, information, and skills to adapt these
materials to their needs. These are the requirements of a creative attitude (Dewey,
2008).
In creative expression, synthesis endeavors to achieve compatibility and harmony
among different raw elements, where the combined ingredients improve the
artwork (Al-Deeb, 2020). As a result, synthesis necessitates a thorough grasp of
the foundations of artistic creation as well as the capacity to manipulate and
modify the material. The learner reformulates these technical and creative
Put to another use
Reverse & rearrange
Synthesis -installation
Experimentation
Decision
The verdict
Flexibility
Artistic work
Creative thinking
Ideation
Substitute
Combine
Adapt
Eliminate & minify
Scamper
Productive Thinking
Observation
Analysis
Imagination
Critical thinking
Plastic design
fluency
Originality
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experiences through experimental practices that employ new methodologies
based on the situation (Ali et al., 2022). Synthesis is classified into three types:
gluing, mounting, and assembling (Al-Shammari, 2019).
Techniques in art production: These are the methods, industrial assets, skills, and
processes required to change raw materials into an artwork. Technique is also
considered the fourth element of the four elements of artistic production (raw
materials, subject, and expression). It is the gateway to practical applications in
various fields related to intellectual construction (Ali, 2022). Technique also
includes synthesis. There are frequent preferences for the raw materials utilized
and the suitable technique in the field of synthesis using raw materials. The
student chooses the best way to express themselves (Shahat et al., 2023).
Experimentation: Artistic vision is considered the source of experimentation and
one of the cognitive processes that connects the activities of thinking, perception,
and feeling. It is a process that combines logical and divergent thinking as the
experience in art is different from scientific experimentation in the vocabulary of
the creative process and the nature of the product (Barakat, 2021). It also combines
methods to achieve compatibility and harmony among different materials in the
structure of artistic creativity (Shahat et al., 2023). It is a scientific procedure that
depends on proving a cognitive fact. Experimentation also helps expand the
student's perspective as a creator because as they freely experiment, they are freed
from seriousness and the demand for perfection (Hayes, 2022).
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Figure 2: Applying the SCAMPER technique in the field of handicrafts
2.3. Twice Exceptional
The term "twice exceptional" was first coined by Gallagher in 2004 to describe
uniquely gifted students who have a talent and at the same time have a disability.
Other terms have been used, such as "dual exceptionality,” “gifted with
disabilities/difficulties," "paradoxical learners," and "gifted handicapped." Some
descriptions specify the disability–gifted with "LD," "autistic savant," and the like
Substitute: Brainstorming can be used.
Is it possible to replace one material with another?
Example: replacing burlap with cloth. What are the
variables resulting from this change?
Is it possible to use experimental entries (breaking -
reducing – producing - synthesis)?
Example: Destruction in the sense of going outside the
known range of the material’s formal appearance, for
example deleting some palm fronds and the resulting
formal effects.
Is it possible to enrich the surface of the work piece with
some sense values resulting from the use of Fabric
Integration Technique?
Combine: A group of different materials are chosen
to be combined with each other to produce a work of
art.
How can different materials with formal
characteristics and multiple plastic potentials, be
collected in the structure of a single artistic object?
Example: burlap, palm raw material waste, “palm
leaves, palm fronds, palm fibres” and some other
materials that can be used and add to the product in a
positive way, “for example, threads and the variety of
sizes.”
What technical treatments are supposed to be used
to form these ores?
Here it is necessary to focus. The student uses
meditation in order to see the mental image of what
these raw materials will be like together, and in it a
good knowledge is formed for the student.
Example: There are multiple techniques with
multiple materials. Each material has multiple shaping
methods. The student must choose from some
technical techniques that suit the structure of the
artistic product. Example: Burlap can be used with the
technique of splicing, folding and folding, using
overlapping layers and other techniques.
Reverse & rearrange: We aim here to
rearrange and explore the plastic potential of
the materials and material components of
the artistic work, in order to reach
innovative plastic formulations and
expressive values.
Can the elements be arranged in another
way? What elements can be replaced?
What elements can be kept, moved or
dispensed?
Put to another use: The student is asked to imagine
and find new functional uses for the elements used in
the structure of the artistic work, by asking a set of
questions. How can these elements be employed in
another way? What are the other uses for these
materials? Are there other ways these ores and elements
can be formed?
Modify & Magnify: In which the student
uses the cognitive processes that
contribute to creative thinking, exercises
the freedom of flow of ideas, and the
flexibility of thinking. Is it possible to
develop and find different design
formulations for the artistic work?
Are there better technical treatments
than those used? In addition, what if the
sizes and color spaces were changed in the
structure of the artwork and
manipulated?
Artistic
work
Eliminate & minify: Can an element of the substances
used be excluded? What can be deleted and simplified
and what does it have to do with the overall structure
of the artwork?
An example of deleting or removing part of the
background is a product, whether forward or
backward, so that you can break the classic rules of the
art structure and how does that affect the product?
Adaptation: At this stage, a fantasy is emerging, which
is rebuilding reality in a new way.
Is it possible to rearrange the materials and the
elements of the artwork to bring about some kind of
harmony and harmony between the materials through
the various synthesis processes?
What elements can be used to bring about harmony
and harmony among disparate raw materials?
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(Al-Jughaiman, 2022; Şentürk et al., 2022). Students with autism spectrum
disorder (ASD) who are gifted are commonly referred to as 2e students (Cain et
al., 2019). There is significant disagreement in the literature on the prevalence of
2e (Ronksley-Pavia, 2020). Gierczyk and Hornby (2021) established that 2e
students might be taught well in inclusive education settings if they have access
to suitable special education and gifted education methodologies and programs.
Therefore, because governments anticipate numbers when formulating education
policy and providing budgetary support, it is critical to quantify the number of 2e
students as accurately as possible.
Foley-Nicpon and Teriba (2022) point out that regulations for 2e students exist in
just a few states across the USA and suggest 2e policies be revised to include best
practices to identify 2e students, such as interventions using universal screening
methods linked to curriculum, and developing gifted individualized education
plans in conjunction with IEPs. These ideas detail not only how to provide
services for one's condition but also how to cultivate potential in 2e students.
Amran and Majid (2019) reviewed 44 studies on 2e therapies conducted between
2000 and 2018, independent of disability area. The findings are organized into five
major topics, beginning with the most commonly utilized in research, academic
or learning methods, and continuing with support, strength or talent-based,
technology or music, and art. Grigorenko (2020) showed that there is a growing
interest in the phenomenon of 2e students in the performing arts. In a research
study conducted in 1997, Feldhusen presented a model for identifying and
developing talents, which he called "talent identification and development in
education," where he regards talent as a general ability based on genetic
predisposition with added life experiences represented by home and school. He
proposed four areas that must be nurtured by the school providing appropriate
care for students with talent, namely (a) the field of artistic creativity: movement,
music, drawing, sculpture, and photography; (b) the field of academic excellence:
science, mathematics, language, social studies, and computers; (c) the field of
social relations: leadership, social welfare, commerce, and human services; and
(d) the field of art: home economics, trade and industry, industrial arts,
agriculture, and business administration. In 2005, Feldhusen also believed that
abilities in general are often latent and are preparations of other various abilities,
and the school's primary mission is to stimulate and develop these preparations
in accordance with students’ strengths (Al-Jughaiman, 2022).
Al-Haj Issa (2007) believed that research into the gifted with LD can be
categorized in three axes: case studies, comparative studies between the
experimental performance of the gifted with LD and their number, and studies
that dealt with the effectiveness of the available educational programs. Some of
these studies examined the compensatory strategies and self-regulatory strategies
that these students use to succeed in school. Al-Suwait (2014) highlighted the
effectiveness of a training program based on the Schwartz model for developing
critical thinking skills among gifted students with LD in the Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia. The results showed that the training program had an impact on the
development of critical thinking skills for gifted students with LD.
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Mahmoud (2019) investigated the effectiveness of a program based on the Six
Thinking Hats to develop leadership behavior in gifted students with LD. Gerges
et al. (2020) looked at differences in executive function (working memory,
planning, problem-solving, and verbal fluency) between gifted children with
ADHD and their non-gifted counterparts. The results revealed that there were no
statistically significant differences.
Salem et al. (2021) built an integrative model of emotional creativity among gifted
students with LD. They identified negative emotional characteristics that can be
modified: low self-concept, low self-esteem, perfectionism, a sense of inferiority,
and the consequent turbulent emotional behaviors, with the aim of integrating the
prescriptive theories. The different levels of emotional creativity and its sub-skills
and the results indicated the arrival of a proposed integrative model for the
development of emotional creativity through a number of procedural steps aimed
at developing emotional creativity among gifted students with LD.
Gaber (2022) showed that attitudes toward creativity may play a critical role in
the development of creative talents in children with ASD, highlighting the need
to investigate attitudes toward creativity. The study assessed the efficacy of a
training program to develop attitudes about creativity, encouraging the
production of a diverse range of ideas about talent, marked by freshness and
originality. These ideas should be practical and beneficial, as well as well received
in the community in which these gifted children live. Gaber suggests that the
required resources and finances be made available to help gifted youngsters with
ASD realize their gifts, and research on giftedness and ASD should be increased.
Qomawy and Melhem (2022) assessed the positive impact and potential of a
training program on developing awareness of the gifted with ASD in families, and
enhancing their attitudes toward caring for them. The program is part of a series
about awareness and care for gifted students with ASD.
3. Methodology
3.1. Study design and participants
Given that the study is an experiment aimed at verifying the effectiveness of the
SCAMPER strategy to develop productive thinking skills in the field of artistic
works among 2e students, the researchers used a quasi-experimental approach.
The study measures the effect of the independent variable on the dependent
variable. The independent variable is the training program, which is based on the
SCAMPER strategy. On the other hand, the dependent variable is establishing
productive thinking skills in the field of artistic works in the three study groups.
The study population consisted of all 2e students in Al-Ahsa in the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia (214 males and 57 females), diagnosed as gifted, and having ASD,
LD, or ADHD. The study sample consisted of 35 males, aged 8–12 years, with 2e
students gifted in artistic vision but lacking productive thinking skills. They were
chosen intentionally and divided into three groups randomly. The three groups
were equivalent of each other in terms of the degree of disorder and age as
follows: (gifted students with ASD = 9 students, mean = 9.87, standard
deviation±1.51), (gifted students with LD = 15 students, mean = 10, standard
deviation±1.46), and (gifted students with ADHD = 11 students, mean = 9.93,
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standard deviation±1.33). A one-sample experimental design (pre-post) was
chosen to verify the effect of the SCAMPER technique on developing productive
thinking skills in the field of artistic works in the three groups. This experiment
was implemented in the third semester of the 2022-2023 academic year after
obtaining scientific research ethics approval from the Deanship of Scientific
Research at King Faisal University.
3.2. Productive Thinking Scale
This scale measures a productive thinking skills in 2e students. The scale in its
final form consists of 12 statements measured on a Likert type scale: Applies = 3,
Applies to some extent = 2, and Does not apply = 1. Thus the maximum score on
the scale is 36, the average is 24, and the lowest score is 12. A score higher than
average indicates that the student possesses good productive thinking skills,
while a lower score indicates a deficit in productive thinking.
To verify the validity of the scale, the internal consistency of the scale was used
where the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.521 to 0.776. The stability of the
scale was also verified using the Trumpet Alpha coefficient until the reliability
coefficient in this way reached 0.702.
3.3. Training Program
A training program was created to develop the productive thinking skills of
students with 2e in the field of artistic works and provide them with the skills of
synthesis and experimentation with materials.
The goal of the program was to provide exceptional students with raw materials
and allow them to choose appropriate technical treatments. They were
encouraged to adapt ideas aligned with the nature of the product and employ
various experimental approaches as required by the product. This enabled
students to benefit from previous experience and generate ideas to solve problems
which enhanced their proficiency. The program is based on the SCAMPER model,
which consists of seven steps. Each step has a set of questions that help 2e
students develop productive thinking skills in the field of artistic works, recall
relevant knowledge, and gain the ability to reorganize the elements of an artistic
work.
The validity of the program was confirmed by presenting it to a group of
arbitrators in the field of artistic works, and the proposals and recommendations
of the arbitrators were taken into account. The program was implemented in six
stages, with each stage consisting of a group of sessions. Each session had its own
objectives and appropriate teaching strategies. Table 1 shows the stages and
strategies for implementing the training program to develop productive thinking
skills among 2e students.
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Table 1: Stages of training program implementation
3.4. Data analysis
The researchers conducted statistical analysis using SPSS version 26. The
Wilcoxon test was used to indicate the difference between the paired samples in
the pre- and post-tests. An analysis of variance was also conducted using the
Kruskal-Wallis test to indicate the differences between the means ranks for the
three experimental groups in the post-tests.
4. Results
4.1. Results related to RQ 1:
RQ 1 was "Are there statistically significant differences between the mean ranks
of gifted students with ASD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW?" To
answer this question, the Wilcoxon test was used to detect the significance of the
difference between the mean ranks of two related samples on the PTSRAW before
and after applying the training program, as shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Results of the Wilcoxon test showing the difference between the pre- and
post-tests on the PTSRAW
Gifted Students
With ASD
Pre-and Post-tests
N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Z P
Negative Ranks 0 0 0
-2.754 0.006
Positive Ranks 9 5.00 45
Ties 0
Training
program stages
Training program objectives
Introduction
stages 1,2
- Introduce the SCAMPER model steps and their importance in
developing productive thinking skills in the field of handicrafts.
- Define the SCAMPER technique and its purpose.
- Explain the basic concepts of productive thinking, creative
thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality) and critical thinking.
- Highlight the concept of “Handicrafts,” as the synthesis of
experimenting with raw materials to produce artifacts.
Stages 3-6
- Follow procedural steps to create the artistic product through
the application of the SCAMPER technique and motivational
questions to stimulate students’ to cultivate a wide range of
ideas, using brainstorming and mental processes such as
observation, analysis, and imagination.
Stages 7-10
- Follow experimental practices based on problem-solving and
formative assessment for synthesizing raw materials to produce
novel artifacts through the application of strategies such as
constructive learning.
- Synthesize raw materials, collect ideas, adapt, experiment,
make decisions, make some modifications, put them to other
uses, rearrange the elements of the artistic work. The verdict.
Stages 11-12
Evaluation
- The finishing stage and an overview of the finished work.
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Table 1 shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean
ranks of gifted students with ASD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW By
referring to the mean ranks in the two tests, it is clear that this difference is in favor
of the post-test, which highlights the effectiveness of the training program in
developing productive thinking skills related to artistic works for gifted students
with ASD.
4.2. Results related to RQ2
RQ2 was "Are there any differences between the mean ranks of gifted students
with LD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW?" The results are shown in
Table 2.
Table 2: Results of the Wilcoxon test showing the difference between the pre- and
post-tests on the PTSRAW
Gifted Students With
LD
Pre-and Post-tests
N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Z P
Negative Ranks 0 0 0
-3.420 0.001
Positive Ranks 15 8.00 120
Ties 0
Table 2 shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean
ranks of gifted students with LD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW in
favor of the post-test.
4.3. Results related to RQ3
RQ3 was "Are there any differences between the ranks of the mean of gifted
students with ADHD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW?" The results are
shown in Table 3.
Table 3: Wilcoxon test results showing the difference between the pre- and post-tests
on the PTSRAW
Gifted Students
With ADHD
(Pre and Post) Tests
N
Mean
Rank
Sum of Ranks Z P
Negative Ranks 0 0 0
-3.017 0.003
Positive Ranks 11 6.00 66
Ties 0
Table 3 shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean
ranks of gifted students with ADHD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW in
favor of the post-measurement. By referring to the mean ranks in the two tests, it
is clear that this difference is in favor of the better measure, which is the post-test,
which points to the effectiveness of the training program in developing
productive thinking skills related to artistic works among gifted students with
ADHD.
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4.4. Results related to RQ4
RQ 4 was "Are there any differences between the mean ranks of the three study
groups in the post-test on the PTSRAW?" To answer this question, the Kruskal–
Wallis test was used, and the results are presented in Table 4.
Table 4: Results of the Kruskal–Wallis test to indicate the differences among the
mean ranks of the three study groups in the post-test on the PTSRAW
Scale Groups N Mean rank df X2 P
PTSRAW
Gifted students with ASD 9 9.17
2 17.695 >0.001
Gifted students with LD 15 26
Gifted students with ADHD 11 14.32
Table 4 shows that there are statistically significant differences between the
mean ranks of the three study groups in the post-test on the PTSRAW. To verify
which of these three groups caused these differences, the Mann–Whitney test
was conducted between groups (1) and (2), between (1) and (3), and between (2)
and (3). The results are presented in Table 5.
Table 5: Results of the differences among the mean ranks of the three study groups
The difference between the
mean ranks of the groups
Gifted students with
LD (26)
Gifted students with ADHD
(14.32)
Gifted students with ASD
(9.17)
Z p Z p
−3.593 >0.001 −1.542 0.123
Gifted students with LD
(26)
Z p
−3.2 0.001
Table 5 shows that there are statistically significant differences between groups (1)
and (3), and groups (2) and (3), but no differences between groups (1) and (2).
5. Discussion
The results indicate that the SCAMPER technique promotes productive thinking
and enhances creative and critical thinking in 2e students (students with LD,
ADHD, and ASD). It teaches them divergent thinking and creative problem-
solving. Moreover, it strengthens design flexibility and fluency in technical
treatments related to the synthesis of materials in the field of handicrafts.
The students with LD outperformed the students with ADHD and ASD in
improving productive, critical and creative thinking in artistic works.
The results are consistent with the Özyaprak (2016) study, which found that the
SCAMPER technique supports cognitive skills in terms of gathering information,
flexible thinking, originality, and problem-solving. It also confirms the findings of
Mahmoud (2017) on the necessity to develop gifted students’ higher mental skills.
The 2e students were encouraged to practice productive thinking in the field of
artistic works using understanding, interpretation, analysis, and synthesis.
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Decision-making regarding the material, synthesis processes, and experimental
approaches requires logical reasoning skills to deal with the varied characteristics
of the materials. This requires fluency of thought and flexibility to arrive at novel
solutions for plastic treatments of the material. Ali and Ibrahim (2018) showed that
the SCAMPER technique can develop productive thinking skills in educational
media. The SCAMPER technique allowed the participants to think consciously
about material combinations using experimental approaches, developing
imagination and planning, and translating ideas into tangible products.
Therefore, using the SCAMPER technique is useful and important (Hamza 2017;
Naji 2017) It develops students’ creative imagination, and teaches them the skills
of generating ideas, improving productive thinking skills, and developing
curiosity and risk-taking. Moreover, the self-concept is enhanced when divergent
thinking improves the ability to benefit from previous experiences in novel
situations by utilizing creative approaches.
The results of the current study are also consistent with previous studies in that it
is possible to improve 2e students’ attitudes toward creativity, art, and other types
of thinking (Al-Suwait, 2014; Grigorenko, 2020; Salem et al., 2021; Gaber, 2022;
Qomawy & Melhem, 2022).
It is believed that the SCAMPER model is an organized thinking strategy process
that enhances the ability of outstanding 2e students to use their imagination to
create new designs by using materials to construct artworks through the processes
of experimentation, deletion, addition, rearrangement, merging, consolidation,
and synthesis. The researchers posit that the reason the LD students obtained
higher grades than those from the other two groups was because they explored
experimental processes and were able to acquire cognitive and technical skills
related to shaping materials. There were some obstacles among students with
ADHD, namely attention deficit, motivation, and hyperactivity, as well as ASD,
which are characterized by deficiencies in communication skills, and by
stereotypical behavior, and difficulty in breaking routine. The group of students
with ADHD also outperformed the ASD group in productive thinking skills in the
field of artistic works, which is possibly owing to the fact that students with ASD
show fewer responses in artistic production processes and have lower productive
critical, and creative skills, in addition to not having positive communication skills
to convey their opinions on artistic production processes to their peers.
6. Limitations
Despite the positive results of the study, the researchers faced a number of
challenges. The study population in Al-Ahsa is small; therefore, the sample was
chosen intentionally, which limits the generalizability of the study. Also, with
respect to the size of the population, had it been larger, the standardization of the
instrument would have been more accurate and thus more reliable and effective
in assessing changes in productive thinking skills. Moreover, there was a lack of
the optimal level of resources such as time, money, technical materials, and space
for training and implementation. For instance, a reasonable period must be
allocated to develop productive thinking skills in the field of artistic works,
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especially in using the SCAMPER technique. Finally, individual differences,
attitudes, and different learning styles are a number of possible confounding
variables that could have affected the outcome measures of the study.
7. Conclusions and Recommendations
In conclusion, using the SCAMPER technique to develop productive thinking
skills in the field of artistic works is an effective tool for 2e students. The study
found that using this model helps students develop their creative abilities and
critical and analytical thinking when producing unique and innovative works of
art. The study also found that using the SCAMPER technique helps students
develop their skills in planning, organizing, implementing, and evaluating, which
contributes to enhancing their mental and creative abilities in the field of arts. One
positive aspect of strengthening productive thinking skills for 2e students is that it
promotes active and interactive learning and encourages students to collaborate,
think creatively, and innovate in producing unique works of art. In conclusion, it
can be said that using the SCAMPER technique is a powerful tool for developing
productive thinking skills in the field of artwork for 2e students.
Further research is recommended to broaden understanding of the benefits of this
strategy and its application in other fields of education and the arts. It is suggested
that a study be conducted using the SCAMPER technique for developing the
creative thinking skills of 2e students in artwork. In addition, the use of the
SCAMPER technique to develop creative and analytical thinking skills among 2e
students in digital arts and graphic design is recommended. More studies are also
recommended to improve the understanding of the benefits of the SCAMPER
strategy and its use in various fields of education and the arts, such as gifted
education, special education, and art education.
Acknowledgements
The researchers would like to thank the Deanship of Scientific Research at King
Faisal University for providing the research fund and publishing research Grant
No. (GRANT5245).
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©Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0
International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 22, No. 12, pp. 21-41, December 2023
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.12.2
Received Oct 17, 2023; Revised Dec 12, 2023; Accepted Dec 22, 2023
Digital Learning Management using OpenAI
ChatGPT: A Systematic Literature Review
M. Shoffa Saifillah Al Faruq@
Institut Islam Mamba'ul Ulum Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia
Ahmad Sunoko
STAI Al-Anwar Sarang Rembang, Rembang, Indonesia
Hamidulloh Ibda
Institut Islam Nahdlatul Ulama Temanggung, Temanggung, Indonesia
Khairul Wahyudi
STAI Al Kamal Sarang Rembang, Rembang, Indonesia
Abstract. Several studies have investigated digital learning management,
but few did so, using OpenAI ChatGPT together with a systematic
literature review. The research reported here, aimed to explore the
current literature related to the concept, use, and impact of OpenAI
ChatGPT. The Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and Preferred
Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)
methods were applied in this research with the stages of identification,
screening, eligibility, and inclusion assisted by the Publish or Perish 7,
VOSviewer 1.6.18, and NVIVO 12 Plus applications. The findings of
Scopus-indexed articles amounted to 2,852 pieces which were filtered into
51 pieces according to themes. The 51 articles were analysed according to
the specified topics through the NVIVO 12 Plus application, and the
results are presented here. The findings indicate that digital learning
management is an online-based learning management system, e-learning,
using LMS, AI, and ChatGPT in learning activities from elementary
school to university. ChatGPT fosters academic performance, text
preparation, curriculum development, compiling academic papers and
texts, answering cross-cutting problems, assisting research, assisting
educational administration, and using assessment tools in medical
education. ChatGPT has positive and negative impacts of which the
education community must take cognisance. Thus, future research needs
to explore digital learning management based on OpenAI ChatGPT in
various cross-disciplines and from various perspectives for comparative
results and triangulation.
Keywords: Digital Learning Management; OpenAI ChatGPT; Systematic
Literature Review
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1. Introduction
Currently, there is a shift from manual learning management towards digital; one
of the real manifestations is the emergence of ChatGPT as an artificial intelligence
product that is utilized in learning. During 2022-2023 several researchers
worldwide have explored digital learning management across disciplines using
ChatGPT artificial intelligence in education and learning. These studies included
the integration of management and digital technology for Indonesia's educational
progress (Sumarno, 2023), learning management systems in learning assessment
for operations management courses (Strakos et al., 2023), integration of artificial
intelligence (AI) ChatGPT in university students in Thailand (Fuchs & Aguilos,
2023), a survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of teachers in the
Philippines, using ChatGPT (Robledo et al., 2023), and the views of higher
education stakeholders regarding the ethics of using AI in distance learning
(Holmes et al., 2023). While research on the topic of digital learning management
using artificial intelligence ChatGPT with systematic literature review (SLR)
techniques and similar ones found research on the implementation of AI for
health care with SLR (Loh et al., 2022), AI in machine learning with a bibliometric
review (Shamima et al., 2022), a systematic review of artificial intelligence in
midwifery and nursing (Siobhán O’Connor et al., 2022), bibliometric and content
analysis in online learning in management education (Ng et al., 2023), a systematic
review of digital learning theories with e-Learning for nursing and midwifery
courses (Siobhan O’Connor et al., 2023), review and taxonomy of ChatGPT in
healthcare (Jianning Li et al., 2023), review and taxonomy of ChatGPT in
healthcare (Prananta et al., 2023), impact of ChatGPT implementation for students
with SLR techniques (Renato et al., 2023), use of ChatGPT in software companies
with an initial systematic literature review (Pattyn, 2023), SLR on Chatbot
implications for customer satisfaction (Daza et al., 2023), research on visualization
and AI trends over the past decade (Prahani et al., 2023), research into the impact
of ChatGPT use in education using systematic review techniques (Montenegro-
Rueda et al., 2023), and SLR on ethics in learning using ChatGPT (Vargas-Murillo
et al., 2023). Among these studies, no research has been found on digital learning
management using OpenAI ChatGPT in education with SLR techniques.
Therefore, research on the topic is needed in order to reveal the concept, use and
impact of digital learning management using OpenAI ChatGPT in education with
SLR techniques.
It is quite surprising that ChatGPT continues to be popular and is even predicted
to beat the Google company. Since its launch in 2022, the number of ChatGPT
users worldwide has continued to rise. In January 2023 there were 616 million
users; in February 2023, 1 billion; and by August 2023, there were 1.8 billion
ChatGPT users (Korkmaz et al., 2023; Koc et al., 2023; Skjuve et al., 2023). This
caused concern among global scholars and scientists that the emergence of
ChatGPT might exceed the swiftness of lecturers' intelligence and responses, due
to the features of ChatGPT being more diverse. In addition to presenting
information quickly and accurately, ChatGPT offers writing services, providing
science literature, creating academic texts and non-academic texts to coding,
making this type of AI more popular as the number of users increases (Haman &
Školník, 2023). This phenomenon eventually might usurp the scientific authority
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of scholars, scientists, lecturers, teachers, educators, or mentors in transforming
information into knowledge. Scientists fear this phenomenon because it marks
academics' "death of expertise", as it becomes captured by technological products
and artificial intelligence (Nichols, 2017; Pulliam, 2017). The reality, however, is
that not all scholars and institutions worldwide share this concern, because
ChatGPT is used as a means, tool, and medium that foster learning across
disciplines from elementary school to university levels (Strzelecki, 2023; Firaina &
Sulisworo, 2023). This indicates that using ChatGPT in education is still being
debated. The reality, however, is that educated learners, teachers, students, and
lecturers in higher education use ChatGPT for learning purposes.
The debate about using ChatGPT and not using it is ongoing, as indicated by
several reports, such as research examining the controversy over the use of
ChatGPT in academic publications (Curtis, 2023), educational disruption due to
using ChatGPT in nursing education (Castonguay et al., 2023), the potential of
ChatGPT to replace teachers and human language, and the ethical implications of
implementing machine-learning systems in text production (Risang & Mukarto,
2023), the friends and foes controversy in the use of ChatGPT among corpus
language experts (Lin, 2023), and research on the movement away from ChatGPT
in structured learning (Khaddage & Flintoff, 2023). These controversies need to be
examined on a broader scale by tracing recent research on digital learning
management using ChatGPT in education.
The research reported here was aimed at exploring the current literature related
to the concept, use, and impact of using OpenAI ChatGPT, specifically on the
following;
1) What does the concept digital learning management using OpenAI ChatGPT
mean?
2) How is OpenAI ChatGPT used in education?
3) What is the impact of using OpenAI ChatGPT in education?
2. Literature Review
2.1 Digital Learning Management
Digital learning management is a series of activities in the process of planning,
implementing, and assessing or evaluating digital-based learning to make
learning successful through approaches, models, media, techniques, and digital-
based learning tools, which usually are developed in the form of a Learning
Management System (LMS) (Unwin et al., 2010; Dampson et al., 2020; Turnbull et
al., 2020; Abdullah & Omar, 2022). Digital learning management is the
management of learning with technology and digital platforms that teachers must
use in this digital era, from planning and implementation right through to
evaluation. Educators must be able to redesign subjects well to be taught with
digital technology because the one who organizes is not the principal but the
educator himself (Rizal et al., 2021; Ratten, 2023). This scope of digital learning
management leads to the use of digital technology, tools, and AI that are planned,
implemented, and evaluated by educationists to make learning successful.
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In this context, the development of AI is very rapid, including the emergence of
Artificial Intelligence Internet of Things (AIoT), which integrates the
intercommunity of several systems and networks through intelligent objects into
the study of digital learning management (Seng et al., 2022). AI or AIoT is more
about transferring data and knowledge through data-based computing, storage,
and transmission effectively and efficiently (Guo et al., 2022). The scope of digital
learning is abundant by utilizing many tools and ICTs, such as big data, the
Internet of Things (IoT), blockchain, AI, and the like (Joey Li et al., 2022). In the
context of this research, the meaning of digital learning management is limited to
OpenAI ChatGPT in education and learning, which examines the concept,
features, and impact of using ChatGPT.
2.2 AI and ChatGPT in Education
AI in education is a digital technology system designed with computer systems
that resemble human intelligence capabilities and can be used to assist students
and teachers in learning (Pan & Zhang, 2023). AI provides innovation in online
learning that must be balanced with teacher technical skills, teacher instruction,
gamification, and ethical use (Uunona & Goosen, 2023). AI is an AI product that
can be applied in education and learning practices, such as AI Chatbots, ChatGPT,
and others (Gaber et al., 2023). The types of AI developing in the world vary, but
the most popular is the Generative Pre-training Transformer (ChatGPT), an AI
with a chatbot format (Pari-Bedoya et al., 2023).
ChatGPT is used for various purposes, from finding information, writing, and
drafting academic papers to learning. ChatGPT was released on 30 November
2022, and underwent many revisions until its stable version was made available
by OpenAI, a company affiliated with Microsoft Corp, on 24 May, 2023 (Van Dis
et al., 2023). The use of ChatGPT has expanded with the complex needs of the
academic community. In addition to information-seeking activities, ChatGPT
assists in writing and editing scientific articles, improving writing skills, linguistic
assistance, self-study, doing assignments, answering problems and questions in
teacher assignments, and others. However, ChatGPT has the disadvantage of not
replacing the teacher's position (Chan & Tsi, 2023; Grassini, 2023). Chat, or chat
conducted through ChatGPT with a robotic system, will not replace the teacher as
a human being and a profession that educates students using reason, mind,
feelings, and conscience (Ibda, Syamsi, et al., 2023; Ausat et al., 2023). In this
research, the meaning of OpenAI ChatGPT is limited to the concept, its use, and
a focus from the perspective of digital learning management.
3. Methodology
3.1. Research Design
For this research on digital learning management using OpenAI ChatGPT the
SLR method was applied, adopting the Kitchenham model to uncover findings,
studies, and an analysis of the concept of digital learning management using
OpenAI ChatGPT (Kitchenham, 2007; Ma’arif et al., 2023). The SLR stage starts
with identifying updated published literature compatible with digital learning
management using OpenAI ChatGPT in terms of concept, usage, and impact on
Scopus databases. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and
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Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) technique was used to assist the SLR procedure
through identification, screening, testing eligibility, and inclusion of data, after
which analysis was carried out and the findings are presented in descriptive form
(see Ibda, Al-Hakim et al., 2023). The stages of identification, screening, eligibility,
and inclusion of the findings of recent articles indexed by Scopus refer to the
PRISMA technique.
3.2 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Selection of Publications
Researchers determined eight criteria for the selection of articles (see Tantowi et
al., 2023). (i) The articles were peer-reviewed scientific articles. Literature findings
in papers, book chapters, conference proceedings, research reports, books,
dissertations, and theses were not used. (ii) The articles were indexed on Scopus
databases. (iii) The articles were available on digital learning management
systems by using OpenAI ChatGPT. (iv) Articles werelimited to publications
dated 2022-2023. (v) Articles were in English. (vi) For article searches we only used
the Publish or Perish 7 application. (vii) The literature used comprised complete
PDFs. (viii) The articles used, all were published in open-access journals.
3.3 Screening and Eligibility Assessment for Data Analysis
At this stage, on October 10, 2023, researchers screened literature findings from
Scopus through the Publish or Perish 7 application. Article screening was based on
the title-abstract-keyword aspect. Different keywords determined the keywords
for the search; this was done to select sufficient articles. The search findings of the
Scopus database rendered 2,852 published articles for 2022-2023. The details are
provided in Table 1 below.
Table 1: Findings of articles from the Scopus database
Keyword Quantity
1 Learning management 200 articles
2 Digital learning management 200 articles
3 Digital learning management in education 200 articles
4 Digital learning management using artificial intelligence 200 articles
5 ChatGPT 200 articles
6 ChatGPT in education 200 articles
7 Using ChatGPT 200 articles
8 Impact of using ChatGPT 200 articles
9 Learning with ChatGPT 200 articles
10 ChatGPT system 200 articles
11 ChatGPT management 147 articles
12 ChatGPT feature 78 articles
13 Artificial intelligence 200 articles
14 Artificial intelligence in education 200 articles
15 Artificial intelligence ChatGPT 200 articles
Quantity 2.852 articles
The findings from the search of 2,852 articles (see Table 1) were not all selected
and reviewed. However, the same articles were not used, and in the next step, the
final stage, 51 articles were selected and entered into the Mendeley application
version 1.19.8, and then saved in the form of RIS. In order to map the initial
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network of theme relevance, the RIS file from the Mendeley application was
entered into the VOSviewer, application version 1.6.18. A number of steps need
to be followed in entering the RIS file into a VOSviewer:
i. Prepare the RIS file.
ii. Create a map based on bibliographic data.
iii. Read data from the reference manager file.
iv. Select a file from a folder on the PC.
v. Choose the type of analysis and counting method, namely the type
of analysis: co-occurrence, unit of analysis, keywords, and counting
method: complete counting.
vi. Verify selected keywords.
vii.Finalize and present.
Based on the results of the initial analysis of thematic associations, the theme of
digital learning management using AI ChatGPT has a very complex association
pattern (see Figure 1) in terms of the network visualization below.
Figure 1. Initial network visualization
Figure 1 shows that the study of digital learning management using OpenAI
ChatGPT is closely related to a number of themes such as ChatGPT, digital learning
management, artificial intelligence, AI, ChatGPT in education, chatbot, OpenAI
ChatGPT, generative AI, Open AI, GPT-4, education, ethics, learning, NLP, and
applications in education. Some keywords that have a distant connection to the
theme of the study are AI academic implementation, applications of chemistry,
communication/writing, AI Chatbots, Covid-19, digital technology, environment,
disability, authentication, collaborative learning, artificial intelligence in education,
security, and critical thinking, etc.
3.4 PRISMA Flow Diagram
The PRISMA flowchart is applied in the article search process through four
schemes, namely identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion, which can be
seen in Figure 2 below.
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Figure 2: PRISMA Flow Diagram for Systematic Review (Topouzelis et al., 2021).
At the identification stage, 2,852 Scopus-indexed articles were found with the help
of the Publish or Perish 7 application (see Table 1). At the screening stage, the
articles were checked for similarity according to keywords, and 2,557 similar
articles were found, and the remaining 295 articles were selected. Determination
of similarity does not refer to databases; the search here only uses Scopus
databases, so the determination of similarity was reviewed from the keywords
used. From the screening stage, 135 irrelevant articles were discarded, and 160
articles were selected to be used in the next stage. At the eligibility stage, 85
articles were selected for full-text reading, while 75 articles were discarded. From
the articles included, 51 articles were selected from the 85 articles with reference
to research questions in terms of title-abstract-keywords and article substance,
while the remaining 34 articles were not used.
In the next step, researchers entered all articles that had been saved in RIF format
in Mendeley into the Nvivo 12 Plus application. The analysis and review stages in
the Nvivo 12 Plus application begin with opening the NVivo 12 Plus application
and preparing the RIS file, creating a Blank Project, and entering the title, "Digital
Learning Management”. The file was saved in the PC browser. The next step was
to create file names for the project in Files, Nodes, and Cases. In the file, the RIS
file was imported in the Mendeley menu by selecting the Author and Year menu,
and the created files in the menu were saved in the file that had been named
Digital Learning Management. When all inputs had been concluded, all
documents were blocked, and an auto-code was created by selecting the identified
theme. When the next step appeared in the file to select nodes or cases, the
relevant themes were selected according to the three research questions and
keywords, namely digital learning management, AI, Chatboots, and ChatGPT. In
the next step, the researcher selected the text with the code paragraph menu
aimed at the results being presented quickly. In the next step, the node results
were saved in the Digital Learning Management file, and the node stage ended.
Identification
Screening
Eligibility
Included
Records identified from
databased Scopus (n=2.852)
Additional records identified
through other sources (n=0)
Records screened after
duplicates were removed
(295 duplications were
removed)
Duplicates removed (n=2.557)
Articles screened
(n=160)
Articles excluded as not
relevant (n= 135)
Full-text articles
assessed for eligibility
(n=85)
Full-text articles
excluded with response
(n=51)
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Filling in the Cases, the researcher returned to the file menu and all files to be
blocked, and selected the Create As-Create as Cases menu, and selected the Cases
file menu named "Digital Learning Management”. When the Cases were filled in,
the next step was to go to the Create menu and click the Framework Matrix menu.
In the General menu, the file "Digital Learning Management" was written. On the
Rows menu, the Select menu was selected, and the file on Cases, "Digital Learning
Management", also was selected. When that input had been done, I moved to the
Columns menu and selected the node, "Digital Learning Management". When it
had been put in, I clicked the OK menu, and the description results of 51 articles
appeared according to the name and year categories. In order to get the node
result text, the Auto Summarize menu was selected. In the next step, when all the
texts had been put in, the author entered the findings according to the relevance
of the research question.
4. Results
In this section, the findings reported in 51 articles are presented according to
journals (name, volume, edition, year), author name, methodology, country, and
relevance to the research question (RQ), namely 5.1 Digital Learning Management
Concept Using OpenAI ChatGPT, 5.2 Use of OpenAI ChatGPT in education, and 5.3
What is the Impact of Using OpenAI ChatGPT in Education (see Table 2). In the
columns Journals and Authors, the title of the journal, as well as the volume,
edition, and year of publication are given, followed (in the next column) by the
name(s) of the author(s). The methodology column provides a description of the
approach/method/model/type of research applied in the reviewed article. In the
column, Country, the country in which the research was done, is given. In the RQ
column, the relevance of the article to the research question posed in this research
is described.
Table 2: Findings of 51 articles selected from Scopus databases
No Journals Authors Methodology Country RQ
1 Peer J Computer Science 8
2022
(Kaddoura et
al., 2022)
A systematic review Several
countries
5.1
2 Automation in
Construction 141 (2022)
(Baduge et al.,
2022)
State-of-the-art
review
Australia 5.1
3 Sustainability 14 6 2022 (Yu et al., 2022) A rapid evidence
assessment review
method
Several
countries
5.1
4 International Journal of
Evaluation and Research
in Education Vol. 11, No.
4 2022
(Ahmad et al.,
2022)
Case study Jordan 5.1
5 Education Sciences 12 784
2022
(Akour &
Alenezi, 2022)
Investigative
Research
Saudi Arabia 5.2
6 Sustainability 14, 5195,
2022
(Sobaih et al.,
2022)
Quantitative studies Egypt 5.2
7 Education and
Information Technologies
27 (2022)
(Hashim et al.,
2022)
Qualitative model Several
countries
5.3
8 International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and
(Yusof et al.,
2022)
A survey method Malaysia 5.2
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Educational Research,
Vol. 21, No. 9 2022
9 Higher Education for the
Future 9 (1) 2022
(Veluvali &
Surisetti, 2022)
A Review India 5.1
10 International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and
Educational Research,
Vol. 21, No. 9 2022
(A. Rahman,
2022)
A case investigation India 5.3
11 Sustainability 15 2023 (Chang et al.,
2023)
Exploratory
Research
Canada 5.1
12 Journal of Applied
Learning & Teaching
Vol.6 No.1 (2023)
(Rasul et al.,
2023)
Qualitative Study Australia 5.3
13 International Journal of
Educational Technology in
Higher Education 20 1
2023
(Chan, 2023) Quantitative and
qualitative research
Hong Kong 5.1
14 Innovations in Education
and Teaching
International, Mar 2023
(Farrokhnia et
al., 2023)
SWOT Research Netherlands 5.3
15 International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and
Educational Research Vol.
22, No. 7 2023
(Chamorro-
Atalaya et al.,
2023)
A Bibliometric
Analysis
Several
countries
5.1
16 Education Sciences 13,
410, 2023
(Lo, 2023) A Rapid Review Several
countries
5.3
17 Journal of Hospitality,
Leisure, Sport & Tourism
Education, Vol. 33 2023
(Keiper et al.,
2023)
A Generic
qualitative inquiry
North
America
5.3
18 International Journal of
Artificial Intelligence in
Education 2023
(De-Winter,
2023)
Quantitative Netherlands 5.3
19 Medical Education
Online, 28:1 2023
(Moldt et al.,
2023)
Qualitative Germany 5.2
20 International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and
Educational Research Vol.
22, No. 7 2023
(Renato et al.,
2023)
SLR Several
countries
5.2
21 Pakistan Journal of
Medical Sciences Vol. 39
No. 2 2023
(Khan et al.,
2023)
Qualitative Pakistan 5.2
22 Post-digital Science and
Education, 2023
(Costello, 2023) Qualitative Ireland 5.3
23 Applied Sciences 13, 6039,
2023
(Sánchez-Ruiz
et al., 2023)
Survey Study Spain 5.3
24 Applied Sciences 13, 5783,
2023
(M. Rahman &
Watanobe,
2023)
Survey Research
and Analysis
Japan 5.2
25 Contemporary
Educational Technology,
15 (2) 2023
(Halaweh,
2023)
Qualitative United Arab
Emirates
5.2
26 Journal of Applied
Learning & Teaching,
Vol. 6 No. 1 (2023)
(Sullivan et al.,
2023)
Content analysis Australia,
New
Zealand,
United
States, and
United
Kingdom.
5.3
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27 Contemporary
Educational Technology,
15 (3) 2023
(Bitzenbauer,
2023)
One-group pretest-
post-test design
Germany 5.3
28 International Journal of
Emerging Technologies in
Learning (iJET), 18 (17)
2023
(Fiialka et al.,
2023)
A survey method Ukrainian 5.3
29 Journal of Chinese
Economic and Business
Studies, 21, 2 2023
(Singh & Singh,
2023)
Systematic Review Several
countries
5.1
30 Healthcare, 11, 887 2023 (Sallam, 2023) Systematic Review Several
countries
5.1
31 Cogent Education, 10, 2
2023
(Pradana et al.,
2023)
A literature review
and bibliometric
analysis
Several
countries
5.3
32 Journal of Chemical
Education, 100, 2023
(Fergus et al.,
2023)
Evaluation
Research
United
Kingdom
5.3
33 Journal of Science
Education and Technology
32 (2023)
(Cooper, 2023) Exploratory
research
Australia 5.2
34 Przestrzen Spoleczna 23
(1) 2023
(Muñoz et al.,
2023)
Investigational
Research
Perú 5.1
35 International Journal of
Neutrosophic Science
(IJNS) Vol. 20, No. 04
2023
(Alnaqbi &
Fouda, 2023)
MCDA method United Arab
Emirates
5.2
36 RELC Journal 54 (1) 2023 (Moorhouse et
al., 2023)
Mixed-method
survey
Hong Kong 5.1
37 Biology of Sport, Vol. 40
No. 2, 2023
(Dergaa et al.,
2023)
Literature review Several
countries
5.3
38 International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and
Educational Research Vol.
22, No. 6, 2023
(Chaka, 2023) Exploratory
research
South Africa 5.1
39 Education Sciences, 13,
150 2023
(Thurzo et al.,
2023)
Literature Review Several
countries
5.2
40 Journal français
d’ophtalmologie 46 7
(2023)
(Panthier &
Gatinel, 2023)
Comprehensive
study
France 5.2
41 Interactive Learning
Environments 2023
(Chiu, 2023) Survey Study Hong Kong 5.2
42 Surgical and Radiologic
Anatomy 45 (2023)
(Totlis et al.,
2023)
Interview Research Greece 5.2
43 Journal of Applied
Learning & Teaching
Vol.6 No.1 (2023)
(Firat, 2023) Exploratory
Research
Australia,
Sweden,
Canada, and
Turkey
5.3
44 Smart Learning
Environments, Vol. 10, 15
(2023)
(Tlili et al.,
2023)
Case study
approach
(qualitative)
China 5.1
45 Journal of Chemical
Education 100, 2023
(Emenike &
Emenike, 2023)
Identification Study United States 5.1
46 Journal of Applied
Learning & Teaching
Vol.6 No.1 (2023)
(Rudolph et al.,
2023)
Comparative
Method
Singapore 5.3
47 Educational Process
International Journal 12,
Issue 2 (2023)
(Karakose,
2023)
Descriptive
Analysis
Turkey 5.3
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48 International Journal of
Evaluation and Research
in Education (IJERE)
Vol. 12, No. 2, 2023
(Razak et al.,
2023)
Systematic review Several
countries
5.1
49 ECNU Review of
Education 6(3) 2023
(Su & Yang,
2023)
IDEE theoretical
framework method
Hong Kong 5.1
50 Indian Dermatology
Online Journal 14, 2023
(Mondal et al.,
2023)
Cross‑sectional
observational study
India 5.1
51 International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and
Educational Research Vol.
22, No. 8 2023
(Zekaj, 2023) SLR Several
countries
5.2
5. Discussion
5.1 Digital Learning Management concept using AI ChatGPT
Digital learning management is a cyber-based learning management system,
digital e-learning (Ahmad et al., 2022), which is used in machine-assisted learning,
scheduling, supervision, cheating detection and assessment, artificial intelligence
(Kaddoura et al., 2022), IoT, Chatbots, robots, augmented reality for deep and
digital-based learning (Baduge et al., 2022), and using generative artificial
intelligence, ChatGPT (Emenike & Emenike, 2023). Digital learning management
nowadays is not only e-learning, augmented reality, and virtual reality, but also
refers to artificial intelligence, which has become a new tool in digital learning
(Razak et al., 2023). To facilitate the implementation of digital learning
management, LMSs are used (Veluvali & Surisetti, 2022), such as MOOCs,
Lernraum Berlin Platform, MS Teams, Tencent Conference, Zoom, Webex
Platform, and OpenAI ChatGPT or AI ChatGPT (Yu et al., 2022). In digital
learning settings, ChatGPT AI chatbot is more popular than YouChat and
Chatsonic (Chaka, 2023). ChatGPT is set up as a tool for digital learning that
provides answering facilities and presents information according to learner needs
(Muñoz et al., 2023), which can be done with E-Classroom, synchronous or
asynchronous learning (Moorhouse et al., 2023).
ChatGPT in digital learning management refers to an intelligence-based Chatbots
with a large conversational language model (LLM) (Sallam, 2023), belonging to
the category of educational Chatbots for universities (Chamorro-Atalaya et al.,
2023), interactive conversations, or conversational agents designed to provide
learning experiences to students (Chang et al., 2023) developed by Open AI
(Openai.com) (Mondal et al., 2023). ChatGPT works with a transformer algorithm
through preprocessing, encoding, decoding, and postprocessing stages (Su &
Yang, 2023). ChatGPT is classified as a generative AI, designed to produce natural
text language. The development of ChatGPT from GPT, GPT-3.5, and GPT-4 (Tlili
et al., 2023) is proof that artificial intelligence can be instructed to perform the
same intellectual tasks as human (Chan, 2023), and is proof that education cannot
be separated from intelligent and practical digital technology (Singh & Singh,
2023).
The findings about ChatGPT's AI concept are important for teachers, students,
and educational researchers to know. The reason is that ChatGPT, as an AI
product, influences the concept of digital-based learning management and
32
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becomes a genre in specific learning contexts. The ever-changing development of
ChatGPT proves that technology is very inclusive and adapts to the times.
Therefore, all education activists must know the concept of AI at large, and
ChatGPT itself.
5.2 Use of AI ChatGPT in Education
AI ChatGPT is used from elementary school to college. In higher education, the
application of ChatGPT is a form of digital transformation that requires much
preparation, skills, digital literacy (Akour & Alenezi, 2022), adequate academic
performance, social-media networking (Sobaih et al., 2022), social-network
systems (Yusof et al., 2022), text drafting, data processing, and curriculum
development (Renato et al., 2023). In the world of education and research,
ChatGPT is used as a tool to organize writing, answer cross-cutting questions
(Alnaqbi & Fouda, 2023), to answer complex topics, in language training, virtual
tutoring, programming exercises, and to assist in the research process (Rahman &
Watanobe, 2023), assist with writing, research, academic publications (Halaweh,
2023), and manuscript editing (Cooper, 2023). ChatGPT is used by academics and
policymakers to help solve educational problems and make educational policies
(Pradana et al., 2023), while in Hong Kong, teachers and principals use OpenAI
ChatGPT to help with learning, school administration and assessment (Chiu,
2023). The use of AI in education is not just a tool but must transform education
as a cognitive process, integration of educational theory, and pedagogical practice
(Zekaj, 2023).
The University of Luebeck and the University Hospital of Tuebingen incorporated
AI ChatGPT as medical Chatbots in the medical education curriculum designed
for all medical students to communicate with AI-based patients (Moldt et al.,
2023). ChatGPT was used as a media knowledge assessment tool in France
(Panthier & Gatinel, 2023), integrated into the curriculum for the purpose of
strengthening care planning, telemedicine screening, diagnostics, and
management (Thurzo et al., 2023), and in Pakistan for teaching assistance,
personalized learning, research assistance, quick access to information,
automated scoring, language translation, creating content to facilitate learning,
and generating case scenarios (Khan et al., 2023). ChatGPT-4 was implemented as
an interactive anatomy tool and quiz medium for medical students in Greece.
Although varied, ChatGPT-4 cannot replace human education (Totlis et al., 2023).
The use of ChatGPT in education should be supervised and guided by educators.
This is to ensure that the use of AI takes place in a way that is effective, relevant,
and safe for the students. It is also important to consider privacy and data security
when using this kind of technology in an educational context. This is because, in
essence, teachers will not be replaced by any technology, including AI and
ChatGPT itself. Therefore, teacher supervision, guidance, and direction are very
important when students are delinquent on ChatGPT.
5.3 Impact of Using AI ChatGPT in Education
In general, the use of ChatGPT has both positive and negative impacts. The
positive impact is that AI in India is used to assist e-learning and e-assessment,
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ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 12 December 2023

  • 1. International Journal of Learning, Teaching And Educational Research p-ISSN: 1694-2493 e-ISSN: 1694-2116 IJLTER.ORG Vol.22 No.12
  • 2. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 22, No. 12 (December 2023) Print version: 1694-2493 Online version: 1694-2116 IJLTER International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 22, No. 12 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks. Society for Research and Knowledge Management
  • 3. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of learning, teaching and educational research. Aims and Objectives The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators, teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the world to present the results of their research activities in the following fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment; multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education; knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning; virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education; digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e- tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom management issues, educational case studies, etc. Indexing and Abstracting The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned a unique DOI number.
  • 4. Foreword We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue. Editors of the December 2023 Issue
  • 5. VOLUME 22 NUMBER 12 December 2023 Table of Contents Developing Productive Thinking Skills in the field of Artistic Works using the SCAMPER Strategy for Twice Exceptional Students.................................................................................................................................................................1 Hussam Khalifah Aldawsari, Hussein Ahmed Shahat, Sherif Adel Gaber, Hamdah Ayed Al-Ruwaili, Abdullah Muteb Aldughaysh, Thanaa Abdelrashed Mohmed Digital Learning Management using OpenAI ChatGPT: A Systematic Literature Review......................................... 21 M. Shoffa Saifillah Al Faruq, Ahmad Sunoko, Hamidulloh ibda, Khairul Wahyudi Using the Delphi Method to Explore Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Pedagogical Competence Training on University Lecturers in Vietnam........................................................................................................................................... 42 Nguyen Thi Viet Nga, Tran Thi Hanh Phuong, Doan Ngoc Anh, Dao Thi Viet Anh Enhancing Oral Language Skills in 5-Year-Old Children Through Drawing Activities in the Classroom............... 62 Mengyun Xiao, Fadzilah Amzah, Noor Azlina Mohamed Khalid, Weihan Rong Strengthening Character Education: An Action Research in Forming Religious Moderation in Islamic Education ....................................................................................................................................................................................................84 Aep Saepudin, Tedi Supriyadi, Dedih Surana, Ikin Asikin Teachers' Challenges in Preparing Grade R Learners for School-readiness and Strategies Used to Activate Learner-readiness.................................................................................................................................................................. 106 Mapule Yvonne Segooa, Habasisa Vincent Molise The Influence of AI ChatGPT on Improving Teachers' Creative Thinking.................................................................. 124 ZuoYuan Liu, Alena Vobolevich, Alexey Oparin Relationships of Abstraction and Application Complexity in the Attainment between Mathematics and Electrical Engineering Modules in Diploma Courses of South Africa............................................................................................140 Kavita Behara, Kayode Timothy Akindeji, Gulshan Sharma Teachers and Students Perception of Technology and Sustainable Adoption Framework in the Pedagogical Process: A Systematic Review............................................................................................................................................. 162 Sri Utaminingsih, Nur Fajrie, Nurudeen Babatunde Bamiro, Mohamed Nor Azhari Azman Determinants of Intention to Use ChatGPT for Professional Development among Omani EFL Pre-service Teachers.................................................................................................................................................................................. 187 Amal Mohammad Alrishan Integrating IT and Sustainability in Higher Education Infrastructure: Impacts on Quality, Innovation and Research.................................................................................................................................................................................. 210 Qamrul Islam, Syed Md Faisal Ali Khan Enhancing English Verbal Communication Skills through Virtual Reality: A Study on Engagement, Motivation, and Autonomy among English as a Second Language Learners...................................................................................237
  • 6. Kumutha Raman, Harwati Hashim, Hanita Hanim Ismail Teacher Information Literacy for Inclusive Early Childhood Education (ECE) to Provide Literacy and Numeracy for Special Needs Children in Central Java-Indonesia.................................................................................................... 262 Neneng Tasu’ah, Diana ., Sugiariyanti ., Tias Martika Devising Online Writing Services: An Exploration of an Academic Writing Class....................................................279 Yulia Hapsari, Hamamah Hamamah, Ive Emaliana, Putu Dian Danayanti Degeng, Lydia Kusumahwati The Impact of MoodleCloud on Faculty and Graduate Students’ User-Independence Engagement in a State University in the Philippines............................................................................................................................................... 299 Julie Rose Mendoza, Rosario G. Catapang, John Michael Del Rosario Aquino Adoption of Learning Management Systems in Face-to-Face Learning: A Systematic Literature Review of Variables, Relationships, and Models.................................................................................................................................326 Delio Luis Salgado-Chamorro, Victor Mario Noble-Ramos, Sebastian Gomez-Jaramillo School and Family Collaboration on Twice-exceptional Academic Program Services...............................................351 Bayu Pamungkas, Rochmat Wahab, Suwarjo Suwarjo, Adi Suseno Blended Learning with Mobile Learning Tools in Financial Curricula: Challenges, Opportunities, and Implications for Student Engagement and Achievement................................................................................................368 Hsin-Jung Hsieh Teacher Classroom Management Skills: Case Study of the Activator School Programme in Indonesia................. 389 Ainun Nafisah, Sri Marmoah, Riyadi .
  • 7. 1 ©Authors This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 12, pp. 1-20, December 2023 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.12.1 Received Oct 15, 2023; Revised Dec 7, 2023; Accepted Dec 12, 2023 Developing Productive Thinking Skills in the field of Artistic Works using the SCAMPER Strategy for Twice Exceptional Students Hussam Khalifah Aldawsari , Hussein Ahmed Shahat , , i Ruwail - Hamdah Ayed Al , * herif Adel Gaber S Abdullah Muteb Aldughaysh Faculty of Education, King Faisal University Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia Thanaa Abdelrashed Mohmed Faculty of Education University of Hail Hail, Saudi Arabia Abstract. This study investigates whether the SCAMPER technique is an appropriate tool to develop productive thinking skills related to artistic works among gifted students in general and students with Twice Exceptionality (2e) in particular. The current study aims to verify the effectiveness of the SCAMPER technique for the aforementioned purpose. The sample consisted of 35 2e students aged 8-12 from Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. A quasi-experimental approach was used, and the study sample was divided into three experimental groups. The first experimental group included nine gifted students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); the second group consisted of 15 gifted students with learning disabilities (LD); and the third group included 11 gifted students with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The researchers developed a measure of productive thinking skills related to artistic works (PTSRAW) and a training program based on the SCAMPER technique. The statistical methods that have been used were the Wilcoson and the Kruskal-Walls tests. The findings of the study consisted of differences between the mean ranks of the three study groups on the post-test of the PTSRAW test in favor of gifted students with LD, followed by gifted students with ADHD, followed by gifted students with ASD. The authors suggest more studies to enhance understanding of the benefits of this method and its use in various disciplines of education and arts. Keywords: SCAMPER technique; productive thinking; twice exceptionality; artistic works; art education * Corresponding author: Sherif Adel Gaber; Email: sagahmed@kfu.edu.sa
  • 8. 2 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 1. Introduction The 20th century information revolution has heightened the need for students to develop adaptive thinking skills. Art education involves experimentation with different materials, media and resources, and requires specific instructional techniques to shape thinking skills. The Saudi Ministry of Education’s education policy document has highlighted the importance of providing students with the knowledge, skills, and constructive behaviors to prepare the students to be part of the economic and cultural progress and prosperity of society (Al-Wadey & Al- Ajmi, 2022). To teach students the skills required to develop new ideas, new teaching strategies need to be researched, such as experimentation with materials, and mind mapping (Purtee, 2015). Among these strategies is the SCAMPER model, developed for artistic expression and composition using raw materials. It is celebrated as an educational tool that enhances awareness, leadership, fluency, flexibility, and originality. The word “SCAMPER” is an acronym where each letter represents a different way to change the properties of a structure or system, physically or metaphorically, to form new relationships. The SCAMPER model comprises the following elements, namely substitute, combine, adapt, modify or magnify, eliminate or minify, put to another use, and reverse or rearrange (Serrat, 2017). Using this model, learners can generate new ideas through playing with, and synthesizing materials. This activity develops productive thinking, also noted in the problem-solving model proposed by Guilford (1964). This model consists of a succession of processes interacting with items stored in the memory with the aim of enhancing cognitive faculties (Barakat, 2022). Several studies have shown how the SCAMPER technique can be used to develop the higher mental faculties of the artistically gifted and to prepare programs that satisfy their needs (Mahmoud, 2017). In his 2022 study, Abbas suggested establishing educational institutes for handicrafts training and called for a study on the role of artistic works in improving the imaginative abilities of middle school students. Cohen (2012) proposed a study linking creative adaptation in childhood with the type of creativity observed in adults. The global education index confirms that education must facilitate the development of crucial skills such as critical thinking and problem-solving using talented teachers to guide students to acquire the crucial skills they will need in the future (Walton, 2017). Thinking is an approach to learning and problem-solving where thinking represents a set of applicable abilities that are implemented in teaching in structured frameworks that refine ideas, which help in improving the learning processes and the advancement of students. Productive thinking is also a scientific method that combines creative thinking skills with critical thinking to solve problems. Combining creative thinking with critical thinking can be employed to maximize achievement and reach practical results (Hurson, 2008). The term "twice exceptional (2e)" refers to people who are bright or skilled in one or more categories yet have a handicap, disorder, or difficulties in others. Because giftedness and handicap are addressed simultaneously, this scenario has made
  • 9. 3 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter the definition and acceptance of the term problematic (Şentürk et al., 2022). Students who are 2e are extraordinarily skilled in one or more areas such as academic ability, creativity, leadership, and visual arts, coupled with problems in other areas such as reading, writing, and arithmetic (Yenioğlu et al., 2022). Klingner (2022) suggests that the biggest obstacles confronting 2e students are misunderstanding and misdiagnosis. They are frequently reprimanded, underchallenged, and left behind, which underlines the need to better understand them. Students may be eligible for special education services as a result of their handicap under the 2004 federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA). Once students qualify for IDEIA services, they are entitled to free and appropriate public education (Bell, 2020). Although 2e students are gradually receiving more recognition and intervention, they are still a grossly underserved segment of the school population, and educators still lack effective methods for identifying and supporting them (Kircher-Morris, 2021). "A Call to Action: Identification and Intervention for 2e Students" begins with basic information about 2e students who are both gifted and talented and who also have LD and provides strategies for how educators can identify these students. It is imperative that classroom teachers provide intervention to address this exception since these students often score at grade level on standardized tests, with the giftedness score lowered by the learning disability and raised by the giftedness, resulting in neither this exception nor the other being addressed because they do not qualify for either of the special services (Sosland, 2022). This study applies the SCAMPER technique to the field of art to develop technical excellence and creative and critical thinking skills among students with 2e. Using the SCAMPER technique can enhance critical thinking in 2e students, enabling them to analyze and evaluate various artistic ideas and concepts and apply them to their art. This also promotes comprehensive learning by developing higher- order thinking skills (analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and application) for artistic work. This study contributes to developing 2e students’ creative and critical thinking skills in the field of arts and supporting ongoing academic achievement. Productive thinking skills are considered one of the basic aspects of developing creativity and innovation in the field of the arts. The problem of the study emerged through the workshops conducted by the researchers of the current study which aimed to conduct a group of practical applications in the field of raw material synthesis to produce some artistic works for 2e students. The researchers noticed the need for these students to improve their artistic production skills in the field of raw material synthesis. They found in their art work a stereotype in the design and production of the artistic product, in line with the recognized standards in the field of artistic production. Therefore, 2e students face difficulty developing these skills due to the unique challenges they face, which is what Feldhusen emphasized in 1997. He suggested four areas that must be nurtured among gifted students, including the field of artistic creativity and the field of the
  • 10. 4 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter arts, because these students have latent abilities that need to be developed in proportion to their strengths. In this study, the SCAMPER technique was selected as a suitable technique for developing creative and productive thinking. The technique motivates students to generate new ideas and develop them through the use of six different techniques: substitution, adaptation, modification, composition, challenge, and synthesis. However, there are not many studies that focus on using the SCAMPER technique to develop 2e students' productive thinking skills in artwork. Therefore, this study aims to answer the following four questions: Q1. Are there statistically significant differences between the mean ranks of gifted students with ASD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW? Q.2. Are there statistically significant differences between the mean ranks of gifted students with LD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW? Q.3. Are there statistically significant differences between the mean ranks of gifted students with ADHD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW? Q.4. Are there statistically significant differences between the mean ranks of the three study groups in the post-test on the PTSRAW? 2. Literature Review 2.1. SCAMPER and Thinking First introduced by López-Mesaa (2011), the SCAMPER technique uses a series of questions directed to learners to encourage the processes of productive thinking and creativity. It is also an educational tool that promotes awareness, leadership, fluency, flexibility, and originality (Serrat, 2017). It can be used as a simple problem-solving technique, a brainstorming tool, or as a stand-alone technique to help generate new and unfamiliar ideas (Loop, 2021). SCAMPER uses questions as subframes in addition to various stimuli to promote divergent thinking by answering the questions that the student raises and the variables that SCAMPER symbolizes (Ozyaprak, 2016; Serrat, 2017). Each letter of SCAMPER refers to a specific thought process, where (S) indicates alternatively, the formation of ideas, (C) denoting fusion which refers to the combination of different ideas or materials and multiple techniques, and (A) for adaptation which depends on the response of the trainee in modifying a living organism or its parts, making it more suitable for existence under the conditions of the environment. Creative adaptation is the ability to adapt flexibly to circumstances by introducing (M) modifications or improvements to develop new ideas or products (Cohen, 2012). It is also possible to “minify” reduce, change shape, or modify attributes. There is also (P), put to other uses; (E), delete or simplify an element; and (R), rearrange (Sabri & Al- Ruwaithi, 2013). Therefore, it can be said that SCAMPER questions are consistent with Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive critical thinking skills, as identified by Anderson and Krathwohl (2011) in terms of Remembering, Analysis, Evaluation, and Composition. 2.2. Productive Thinking The concept of productive thinking was first proposed in the early 1930s by German psychologist Otto Selz and was expanded by Canadian author Tim Hurson, who proposed a structured approach to problem-solving or idea generation that combines knowledge with creative and critical thinking
  • 11. 5 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter (AlleyDog, 2023). Hurson (2008) defined productive thinking as a pattern of thinking that combines critical thinking skills and creative thinking and employs them together to produce new ideas in which sensory perception interacts with experience. Herein lies its importance in the educational process because it combines more than one type of thinking. This helps in better understanding the cognitive content and linking its elements to each other (Razzouqi et al., 2016). In research conducted in 1967, Taylor recognized productive thinking as one of nine capabilities considered essential (Al-Jughaiman, 2023). It is also a psychological process of learning how to absorb problems and determine the method of solution. Through feeling the need to achieve a goal, work can be done to reach the desired situation (Auernhammer & Roth, 2022). 2.2.1. Creative thinking Creativity is valuable in education because it relies on deep knowledge and the ability to use it effectively to achieve valuable results. It is often developed as a competency and skill within educational frameworks. Moreover, education moves from acquiring knowledge to developing competencies (Patston, 2021). Some definitions of creativity have been formulated as any act, idea, or product that changes or transforms an existing field into a new field (Franken, 2023). Hurson (2008) confirmed that creativity is an indispensable element in solving problems. He devised a model of productive thinking that consists of stages. Questions are asked at each to emphasize the various aspects of the problem in order to reach a better understanding of the solution (Kumar, 2021). The model is represented by six steps in the form of questions: "What's going on?" "What is success?" and "What is the question?" Generate the answers, create the solution, and align the resources (Stormz, 2023). The Torrance Scale of Creative Thinking includes three main skills: fluency, flexibility, and originality (Al-Atoum et al., 2009). Flexibility is one of the cognitive processes that shapes creativity and enhances productive thinking in which the individual is quick to adapt and respond to change without affecting the original goal and is able to move freely from one process to another with the freedom to choose different vehicles or media. Fluency is a flow of expression in producing a number of ideas (Caldwell & Dake, 2009). The field of arts is a fertile land for developing thinking skills. True fluency lies in the quality of creative expression and the ability to build intricate connections and meanings (Matney, 2014). Originality is one of the skills most associated with creativity and refers to the ability to produce the largest number of unique responses (Al-Mashrafi, 2005). Ozyaprak (2016) indicates that creativity can be developed by focusing on general creativity theories such as lateral thinking, creative problem-solving, and productive thinking, as well as some strategies and creative thinking techniques such as brainstorming. 2.2.2. Critical thinking Critical thinking is accurate thinking directed toward a goal, and its components have been adopted as educational goals on the basis of respecting the autonomy of students (Hitchcock, 2022). Mixing creativity and critical thinking is necessary for productive thinking in the field of artistic works because of its ability to
  • 12. 6 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter facilitate reaching high-quality creative solutions based on the synthesis of raw materials. According to the Critical Thinking Subcommittee for AoL Learning Goal looking at Bloom's classification of critical thinking in 1956, students apply previous knowledge and skills creatively or differently to produce something new. The value of materials is based on personal values and opinions, which ultimately leads to a new product (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001; Hirakubo, 2022). Therefore, it is a disciplined process of conceptualization that works by applying mental actions such as analysis, synthesis observation, experience, thinking, and inference (Foundation for Critical Thinking [FCT], 2023). Hitchcock (2022) identified other critical thinking processes, such as experimentation, counseling, judgment, and decision-making. It is logical thinking that works to restore its process, or evaluative thinking that works to restore its goal (Rusbult, 2021). When students engage in synthesis in the field of artistic works, they practice logical thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving as well as divergent thinking and convergent thinking, which makes them develop their thinking, as pointed out by Razzouqi et al. (2016) This reshapes ideas in different formulations through free thought, allowing the student internal insight to accommodate unfamiliar situations. According to Sun et al. (2020), implementing a training program on divergent thinking improves school students’ scientific creativity. Through the above, it can be concluded that critical thinking depends on the three principles of autonomy, self-awareness, and learning. 2.2.3. Productive thinking skills Productive thinking skills can be defined as fluency, flexibility, originality, problem analysis, expansion or detail, imagination, and production (Ali & Ibrahim, 2018; Al-Quraiti, 2019; Mustafa, 2013).
  • 13. 7 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Figure 1: The SCAMPER model and productive thinking in the field of handicrafts 2.2.4 Handicrafts Handicrafts have their own nature, as part of the process of artistic creativity and its various components. They require a type of cognitive representation with the ability to find non-stereotypical plastic and aesthetic solutions through manipulating raw materials. Handicrafts are considered one of the artistic formation systems that are the focus of expression and the basic foundation for producing artistic work. It is a field that actively involves the student, building their knowledge and experience through solving real problems in their interaction with the material through research and experimentation (Ali et al., 2022). It is one of the axes of creativity based on diverse experiences of forming multiple materials and the organization of units in the process of creating the artwork (Al- Essa, 2021). The student reshapes, reassembles, adds, or deletes from the materials, using various experiences, information, and skills to adapt these materials to their needs. These are the requirements of a creative attitude (Dewey, 2008). In creative expression, synthesis endeavors to achieve compatibility and harmony among different raw elements, where the combined ingredients improve the artwork (Al-Deeb, 2020). As a result, synthesis necessitates a thorough grasp of the foundations of artistic creation as well as the capacity to manipulate and modify the material. The learner reformulates these technical and creative Put to another use Reverse & rearrange Synthesis -installation Experimentation Decision The verdict Flexibility Artistic work Creative thinking Ideation Substitute Combine Adapt Eliminate & minify Scamper Productive Thinking Observation Analysis Imagination Critical thinking Plastic design fluency Originality
  • 14. 8 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter experiences through experimental practices that employ new methodologies based on the situation (Ali et al., 2022). Synthesis is classified into three types: gluing, mounting, and assembling (Al-Shammari, 2019). Techniques in art production: These are the methods, industrial assets, skills, and processes required to change raw materials into an artwork. Technique is also considered the fourth element of the four elements of artistic production (raw materials, subject, and expression). It is the gateway to practical applications in various fields related to intellectual construction (Ali, 2022). Technique also includes synthesis. There are frequent preferences for the raw materials utilized and the suitable technique in the field of synthesis using raw materials. The student chooses the best way to express themselves (Shahat et al., 2023). Experimentation: Artistic vision is considered the source of experimentation and one of the cognitive processes that connects the activities of thinking, perception, and feeling. It is a process that combines logical and divergent thinking as the experience in art is different from scientific experimentation in the vocabulary of the creative process and the nature of the product (Barakat, 2021). It also combines methods to achieve compatibility and harmony among different materials in the structure of artistic creativity (Shahat et al., 2023). It is a scientific procedure that depends on proving a cognitive fact. Experimentation also helps expand the student's perspective as a creator because as they freely experiment, they are freed from seriousness and the demand for perfection (Hayes, 2022).
  • 15. 9 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Figure 2: Applying the SCAMPER technique in the field of handicrafts 2.3. Twice Exceptional The term "twice exceptional" was first coined by Gallagher in 2004 to describe uniquely gifted students who have a talent and at the same time have a disability. Other terms have been used, such as "dual exceptionality,” “gifted with disabilities/difficulties," "paradoxical learners," and "gifted handicapped." Some descriptions specify the disability–gifted with "LD," "autistic savant," and the like Substitute: Brainstorming can be used. Is it possible to replace one material with another? Example: replacing burlap with cloth. What are the variables resulting from this change? Is it possible to use experimental entries (breaking - reducing – producing - synthesis)? Example: Destruction in the sense of going outside the known range of the material’s formal appearance, for example deleting some palm fronds and the resulting formal effects. Is it possible to enrich the surface of the work piece with some sense values resulting from the use of Fabric Integration Technique? Combine: A group of different materials are chosen to be combined with each other to produce a work of art. How can different materials with formal characteristics and multiple plastic potentials, be collected in the structure of a single artistic object? Example: burlap, palm raw material waste, “palm leaves, palm fronds, palm fibres” and some other materials that can be used and add to the product in a positive way, “for example, threads and the variety of sizes.” What technical treatments are supposed to be used to form these ores? Here it is necessary to focus. The student uses meditation in order to see the mental image of what these raw materials will be like together, and in it a good knowledge is formed for the student. Example: There are multiple techniques with multiple materials. Each material has multiple shaping methods. The student must choose from some technical techniques that suit the structure of the artistic product. Example: Burlap can be used with the technique of splicing, folding and folding, using overlapping layers and other techniques. Reverse & rearrange: We aim here to rearrange and explore the plastic potential of the materials and material components of the artistic work, in order to reach innovative plastic formulations and expressive values. Can the elements be arranged in another way? What elements can be replaced? What elements can be kept, moved or dispensed? Put to another use: The student is asked to imagine and find new functional uses for the elements used in the structure of the artistic work, by asking a set of questions. How can these elements be employed in another way? What are the other uses for these materials? Are there other ways these ores and elements can be formed? Modify & Magnify: In which the student uses the cognitive processes that contribute to creative thinking, exercises the freedom of flow of ideas, and the flexibility of thinking. Is it possible to develop and find different design formulations for the artistic work? Are there better technical treatments than those used? In addition, what if the sizes and color spaces were changed in the structure of the artwork and manipulated? Artistic work Eliminate & minify: Can an element of the substances used be excluded? What can be deleted and simplified and what does it have to do with the overall structure of the artwork? An example of deleting or removing part of the background is a product, whether forward or backward, so that you can break the classic rules of the art structure and how does that affect the product? Adaptation: At this stage, a fantasy is emerging, which is rebuilding reality in a new way. Is it possible to rearrange the materials and the elements of the artwork to bring about some kind of harmony and harmony between the materials through the various synthesis processes? What elements can be used to bring about harmony and harmony among disparate raw materials?
  • 16. 10 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter (Al-Jughaiman, 2022; Şentürk et al., 2022). Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who are gifted are commonly referred to as 2e students (Cain et al., 2019). There is significant disagreement in the literature on the prevalence of 2e (Ronksley-Pavia, 2020). Gierczyk and Hornby (2021) established that 2e students might be taught well in inclusive education settings if they have access to suitable special education and gifted education methodologies and programs. Therefore, because governments anticipate numbers when formulating education policy and providing budgetary support, it is critical to quantify the number of 2e students as accurately as possible. Foley-Nicpon and Teriba (2022) point out that regulations for 2e students exist in just a few states across the USA and suggest 2e policies be revised to include best practices to identify 2e students, such as interventions using universal screening methods linked to curriculum, and developing gifted individualized education plans in conjunction with IEPs. These ideas detail not only how to provide services for one's condition but also how to cultivate potential in 2e students. Amran and Majid (2019) reviewed 44 studies on 2e therapies conducted between 2000 and 2018, independent of disability area. The findings are organized into five major topics, beginning with the most commonly utilized in research, academic or learning methods, and continuing with support, strength or talent-based, technology or music, and art. Grigorenko (2020) showed that there is a growing interest in the phenomenon of 2e students in the performing arts. In a research study conducted in 1997, Feldhusen presented a model for identifying and developing talents, which he called "talent identification and development in education," where he regards talent as a general ability based on genetic predisposition with added life experiences represented by home and school. He proposed four areas that must be nurtured by the school providing appropriate care for students with talent, namely (a) the field of artistic creativity: movement, music, drawing, sculpture, and photography; (b) the field of academic excellence: science, mathematics, language, social studies, and computers; (c) the field of social relations: leadership, social welfare, commerce, and human services; and (d) the field of art: home economics, trade and industry, industrial arts, agriculture, and business administration. In 2005, Feldhusen also believed that abilities in general are often latent and are preparations of other various abilities, and the school's primary mission is to stimulate and develop these preparations in accordance with students’ strengths (Al-Jughaiman, 2022). Al-Haj Issa (2007) believed that research into the gifted with LD can be categorized in three axes: case studies, comparative studies between the experimental performance of the gifted with LD and their number, and studies that dealt with the effectiveness of the available educational programs. Some of these studies examined the compensatory strategies and self-regulatory strategies that these students use to succeed in school. Al-Suwait (2014) highlighted the effectiveness of a training program based on the Schwartz model for developing critical thinking skills among gifted students with LD in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results showed that the training program had an impact on the development of critical thinking skills for gifted students with LD.
  • 17. 11 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Mahmoud (2019) investigated the effectiveness of a program based on the Six Thinking Hats to develop leadership behavior in gifted students with LD. Gerges et al. (2020) looked at differences in executive function (working memory, planning, problem-solving, and verbal fluency) between gifted children with ADHD and their non-gifted counterparts. The results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences. Salem et al. (2021) built an integrative model of emotional creativity among gifted students with LD. They identified negative emotional characteristics that can be modified: low self-concept, low self-esteem, perfectionism, a sense of inferiority, and the consequent turbulent emotional behaviors, with the aim of integrating the prescriptive theories. The different levels of emotional creativity and its sub-skills and the results indicated the arrival of a proposed integrative model for the development of emotional creativity through a number of procedural steps aimed at developing emotional creativity among gifted students with LD. Gaber (2022) showed that attitudes toward creativity may play a critical role in the development of creative talents in children with ASD, highlighting the need to investigate attitudes toward creativity. The study assessed the efficacy of a training program to develop attitudes about creativity, encouraging the production of a diverse range of ideas about talent, marked by freshness and originality. These ideas should be practical and beneficial, as well as well received in the community in which these gifted children live. Gaber suggests that the required resources and finances be made available to help gifted youngsters with ASD realize their gifts, and research on giftedness and ASD should be increased. Qomawy and Melhem (2022) assessed the positive impact and potential of a training program on developing awareness of the gifted with ASD in families, and enhancing their attitudes toward caring for them. The program is part of a series about awareness and care for gifted students with ASD. 3. Methodology 3.1. Study design and participants Given that the study is an experiment aimed at verifying the effectiveness of the SCAMPER strategy to develop productive thinking skills in the field of artistic works among 2e students, the researchers used a quasi-experimental approach. The study measures the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. The independent variable is the training program, which is based on the SCAMPER strategy. On the other hand, the dependent variable is establishing productive thinking skills in the field of artistic works in the three study groups. The study population consisted of all 2e students in Al-Ahsa in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (214 males and 57 females), diagnosed as gifted, and having ASD, LD, or ADHD. The study sample consisted of 35 males, aged 8–12 years, with 2e students gifted in artistic vision but lacking productive thinking skills. They were chosen intentionally and divided into three groups randomly. The three groups were equivalent of each other in terms of the degree of disorder and age as follows: (gifted students with ASD = 9 students, mean = 9.87, standard deviation±1.51), (gifted students with LD = 15 students, mean = 10, standard deviation±1.46), and (gifted students with ADHD = 11 students, mean = 9.93,
  • 18. 12 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter standard deviation±1.33). A one-sample experimental design (pre-post) was chosen to verify the effect of the SCAMPER technique on developing productive thinking skills in the field of artistic works in the three groups. This experiment was implemented in the third semester of the 2022-2023 academic year after obtaining scientific research ethics approval from the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Faisal University. 3.2. Productive Thinking Scale This scale measures a productive thinking skills in 2e students. The scale in its final form consists of 12 statements measured on a Likert type scale: Applies = 3, Applies to some extent = 2, and Does not apply = 1. Thus the maximum score on the scale is 36, the average is 24, and the lowest score is 12. A score higher than average indicates that the student possesses good productive thinking skills, while a lower score indicates a deficit in productive thinking. To verify the validity of the scale, the internal consistency of the scale was used where the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.521 to 0.776. The stability of the scale was also verified using the Trumpet Alpha coefficient until the reliability coefficient in this way reached 0.702. 3.3. Training Program A training program was created to develop the productive thinking skills of students with 2e in the field of artistic works and provide them with the skills of synthesis and experimentation with materials. The goal of the program was to provide exceptional students with raw materials and allow them to choose appropriate technical treatments. They were encouraged to adapt ideas aligned with the nature of the product and employ various experimental approaches as required by the product. This enabled students to benefit from previous experience and generate ideas to solve problems which enhanced their proficiency. The program is based on the SCAMPER model, which consists of seven steps. Each step has a set of questions that help 2e students develop productive thinking skills in the field of artistic works, recall relevant knowledge, and gain the ability to reorganize the elements of an artistic work. The validity of the program was confirmed by presenting it to a group of arbitrators in the field of artistic works, and the proposals and recommendations of the arbitrators were taken into account. The program was implemented in six stages, with each stage consisting of a group of sessions. Each session had its own objectives and appropriate teaching strategies. Table 1 shows the stages and strategies for implementing the training program to develop productive thinking skills among 2e students.
  • 19. 13 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Table 1: Stages of training program implementation 3.4. Data analysis The researchers conducted statistical analysis using SPSS version 26. The Wilcoxon test was used to indicate the difference between the paired samples in the pre- and post-tests. An analysis of variance was also conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis test to indicate the differences between the means ranks for the three experimental groups in the post-tests. 4. Results 4.1. Results related to RQ 1: RQ 1 was "Are there statistically significant differences between the mean ranks of gifted students with ASD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW?" To answer this question, the Wilcoxon test was used to detect the significance of the difference between the mean ranks of two related samples on the PTSRAW before and after applying the training program, as shown in Table 1. Table 1: Results of the Wilcoxon test showing the difference between the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW Gifted Students With ASD Pre-and Post-tests N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Z P Negative Ranks 0 0 0 -2.754 0.006 Positive Ranks 9 5.00 45 Ties 0 Training program stages Training program objectives Introduction stages 1,2 - Introduce the SCAMPER model steps and their importance in developing productive thinking skills in the field of handicrafts. - Define the SCAMPER technique and its purpose. - Explain the basic concepts of productive thinking, creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality) and critical thinking. - Highlight the concept of “Handicrafts,” as the synthesis of experimenting with raw materials to produce artifacts. Stages 3-6 - Follow procedural steps to create the artistic product through the application of the SCAMPER technique and motivational questions to stimulate students’ to cultivate a wide range of ideas, using brainstorming and mental processes such as observation, analysis, and imagination. Stages 7-10 - Follow experimental practices based on problem-solving and formative assessment for synthesizing raw materials to produce novel artifacts through the application of strategies such as constructive learning. - Synthesize raw materials, collect ideas, adapt, experiment, make decisions, make some modifications, put them to other uses, rearrange the elements of the artistic work. The verdict. Stages 11-12 Evaluation - The finishing stage and an overview of the finished work.
  • 20. 14 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Table 1 shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of gifted students with ASD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW By referring to the mean ranks in the two tests, it is clear that this difference is in favor of the post-test, which highlights the effectiveness of the training program in developing productive thinking skills related to artistic works for gifted students with ASD. 4.2. Results related to RQ2 RQ2 was "Are there any differences between the mean ranks of gifted students with LD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW?" The results are shown in Table 2. Table 2: Results of the Wilcoxon test showing the difference between the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW Gifted Students With LD Pre-and Post-tests N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Z P Negative Ranks 0 0 0 -3.420 0.001 Positive Ranks 15 8.00 120 Ties 0 Table 2 shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of gifted students with LD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW in favor of the post-test. 4.3. Results related to RQ3 RQ3 was "Are there any differences between the ranks of the mean of gifted students with ADHD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW?" The results are shown in Table 3. Table 3: Wilcoxon test results showing the difference between the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW Gifted Students With ADHD (Pre and Post) Tests N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Z P Negative Ranks 0 0 0 -3.017 0.003 Positive Ranks 11 6.00 66 Ties 0 Table 3 shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean ranks of gifted students with ADHD in the pre- and post-tests on the PTSRAW in favor of the post-measurement. By referring to the mean ranks in the two tests, it is clear that this difference is in favor of the better measure, which is the post-test, which points to the effectiveness of the training program in developing productive thinking skills related to artistic works among gifted students with ADHD.
  • 21. 15 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 4.4. Results related to RQ4 RQ 4 was "Are there any differences between the mean ranks of the three study groups in the post-test on the PTSRAW?" To answer this question, the Kruskal– Wallis test was used, and the results are presented in Table 4. Table 4: Results of the Kruskal–Wallis test to indicate the differences among the mean ranks of the three study groups in the post-test on the PTSRAW Scale Groups N Mean rank df X2 P PTSRAW Gifted students with ASD 9 9.17 2 17.695 >0.001 Gifted students with LD 15 26 Gifted students with ADHD 11 14.32 Table 4 shows that there are statistically significant differences between the mean ranks of the three study groups in the post-test on the PTSRAW. To verify which of these three groups caused these differences, the Mann–Whitney test was conducted between groups (1) and (2), between (1) and (3), and between (2) and (3). The results are presented in Table 5. Table 5: Results of the differences among the mean ranks of the three study groups The difference between the mean ranks of the groups Gifted students with LD (26) Gifted students with ADHD (14.32) Gifted students with ASD (9.17) Z p Z p −3.593 >0.001 −1.542 0.123 Gifted students with LD (26) Z p −3.2 0.001 Table 5 shows that there are statistically significant differences between groups (1) and (3), and groups (2) and (3), but no differences between groups (1) and (2). 5. Discussion The results indicate that the SCAMPER technique promotes productive thinking and enhances creative and critical thinking in 2e students (students with LD, ADHD, and ASD). It teaches them divergent thinking and creative problem- solving. Moreover, it strengthens design flexibility and fluency in technical treatments related to the synthesis of materials in the field of handicrafts. The students with LD outperformed the students with ADHD and ASD in improving productive, critical and creative thinking in artistic works. The results are consistent with the Özyaprak (2016) study, which found that the SCAMPER technique supports cognitive skills in terms of gathering information, flexible thinking, originality, and problem-solving. It also confirms the findings of Mahmoud (2017) on the necessity to develop gifted students’ higher mental skills. The 2e students were encouraged to practice productive thinking in the field of artistic works using understanding, interpretation, analysis, and synthesis.
  • 22. 16 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Decision-making regarding the material, synthesis processes, and experimental approaches requires logical reasoning skills to deal with the varied characteristics of the materials. This requires fluency of thought and flexibility to arrive at novel solutions for plastic treatments of the material. Ali and Ibrahim (2018) showed that the SCAMPER technique can develop productive thinking skills in educational media. The SCAMPER technique allowed the participants to think consciously about material combinations using experimental approaches, developing imagination and planning, and translating ideas into tangible products. Therefore, using the SCAMPER technique is useful and important (Hamza 2017; Naji 2017) It develops students’ creative imagination, and teaches them the skills of generating ideas, improving productive thinking skills, and developing curiosity and risk-taking. Moreover, the self-concept is enhanced when divergent thinking improves the ability to benefit from previous experiences in novel situations by utilizing creative approaches. The results of the current study are also consistent with previous studies in that it is possible to improve 2e students’ attitudes toward creativity, art, and other types of thinking (Al-Suwait, 2014; Grigorenko, 2020; Salem et al., 2021; Gaber, 2022; Qomawy & Melhem, 2022). It is believed that the SCAMPER model is an organized thinking strategy process that enhances the ability of outstanding 2e students to use their imagination to create new designs by using materials to construct artworks through the processes of experimentation, deletion, addition, rearrangement, merging, consolidation, and synthesis. The researchers posit that the reason the LD students obtained higher grades than those from the other two groups was because they explored experimental processes and were able to acquire cognitive and technical skills related to shaping materials. There were some obstacles among students with ADHD, namely attention deficit, motivation, and hyperactivity, as well as ASD, which are characterized by deficiencies in communication skills, and by stereotypical behavior, and difficulty in breaking routine. The group of students with ADHD also outperformed the ASD group in productive thinking skills in the field of artistic works, which is possibly owing to the fact that students with ASD show fewer responses in artistic production processes and have lower productive critical, and creative skills, in addition to not having positive communication skills to convey their opinions on artistic production processes to their peers. 6. Limitations Despite the positive results of the study, the researchers faced a number of challenges. The study population in Al-Ahsa is small; therefore, the sample was chosen intentionally, which limits the generalizability of the study. Also, with respect to the size of the population, had it been larger, the standardization of the instrument would have been more accurate and thus more reliable and effective in assessing changes in productive thinking skills. Moreover, there was a lack of the optimal level of resources such as time, money, technical materials, and space for training and implementation. For instance, a reasonable period must be allocated to develop productive thinking skills in the field of artistic works,
  • 23. 17 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter especially in using the SCAMPER technique. Finally, individual differences, attitudes, and different learning styles are a number of possible confounding variables that could have affected the outcome measures of the study. 7. Conclusions and Recommendations In conclusion, using the SCAMPER technique to develop productive thinking skills in the field of artistic works is an effective tool for 2e students. The study found that using this model helps students develop their creative abilities and critical and analytical thinking when producing unique and innovative works of art. The study also found that using the SCAMPER technique helps students develop their skills in planning, organizing, implementing, and evaluating, which contributes to enhancing their mental and creative abilities in the field of arts. One positive aspect of strengthening productive thinking skills for 2e students is that it promotes active and interactive learning and encourages students to collaborate, think creatively, and innovate in producing unique works of art. In conclusion, it can be said that using the SCAMPER technique is a powerful tool for developing productive thinking skills in the field of artwork for 2e students. Further research is recommended to broaden understanding of the benefits of this strategy and its application in other fields of education and the arts. It is suggested that a study be conducted using the SCAMPER technique for developing the creative thinking skills of 2e students in artwork. In addition, the use of the SCAMPER technique to develop creative and analytical thinking skills among 2e students in digital arts and graphic design is recommended. More studies are also recommended to improve the understanding of the benefits of the SCAMPER strategy and its use in various fields of education and the arts, such as gifted education, special education, and art education. Acknowledgements The researchers would like to thank the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Faisal University for providing the research fund and publishing research Grant No. (GRANT5245). 8. References Abbas, H. (2022). The relationship of imagination and innovation to materials in the handicrafts of students of the Art Education Department. Journal of College of Education, 49(2), 548-562. https://doi.org/10.31185/eduj.Vol49.Iss2.3338 Al-Atoum, A., Shabara, M., & Al-Jarrah, A. (2009). Developing thinking skills, theoretical models and practical applications (2nd .ed). Dar March Publishing. Al-Deeb, N. (2020). The aesthetic and plastic values for the concept of synthesis through the ages and the variables of material and designing the hanging textile. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 9, 4. https://doi.org/ 10.14207/ejsd.2020.v9n4p281 Al-Essa, A. (2021). The aesthetic dimensions of Arabic calligraphy and its employment in the design and production of contemporary woodwork. Journal of Educational Sciences and Human Studies, 6(14), 498–525. https://doi.org/10.55074/hesj.v6i14.218 Al-Haj Issa, R. (2007, July 28-29). Developing a training program to provide gifted students with learning difficulties with organizational strategies. The Fifth Arab Scientific
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  • 27. 21 ©Authors This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 12, pp. 21-41, December 2023 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.12.2 Received Oct 17, 2023; Revised Dec 12, 2023; Accepted Dec 22, 2023 Digital Learning Management using OpenAI ChatGPT: A Systematic Literature Review M. Shoffa Saifillah Al Faruq@ Institut Islam Mamba'ul Ulum Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia Ahmad Sunoko STAI Al-Anwar Sarang Rembang, Rembang, Indonesia Hamidulloh Ibda Institut Islam Nahdlatul Ulama Temanggung, Temanggung, Indonesia Khairul Wahyudi STAI Al Kamal Sarang Rembang, Rembang, Indonesia Abstract. Several studies have investigated digital learning management, but few did so, using OpenAI ChatGPT together with a systematic literature review. The research reported here, aimed to explore the current literature related to the concept, use, and impact of OpenAI ChatGPT. The Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methods were applied in this research with the stages of identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion assisted by the Publish or Perish 7, VOSviewer 1.6.18, and NVIVO 12 Plus applications. The findings of Scopus-indexed articles amounted to 2,852 pieces which were filtered into 51 pieces according to themes. The 51 articles were analysed according to the specified topics through the NVIVO 12 Plus application, and the results are presented here. The findings indicate that digital learning management is an online-based learning management system, e-learning, using LMS, AI, and ChatGPT in learning activities from elementary school to university. ChatGPT fosters academic performance, text preparation, curriculum development, compiling academic papers and texts, answering cross-cutting problems, assisting research, assisting educational administration, and using assessment tools in medical education. ChatGPT has positive and negative impacts of which the education community must take cognisance. Thus, future research needs to explore digital learning management based on OpenAI ChatGPT in various cross-disciplines and from various perspectives for comparative results and triangulation. Keywords: Digital Learning Management; OpenAI ChatGPT; Systematic Literature Review
  • 28. 22 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 1. Introduction Currently, there is a shift from manual learning management towards digital; one of the real manifestations is the emergence of ChatGPT as an artificial intelligence product that is utilized in learning. During 2022-2023 several researchers worldwide have explored digital learning management across disciplines using ChatGPT artificial intelligence in education and learning. These studies included the integration of management and digital technology for Indonesia's educational progress (Sumarno, 2023), learning management systems in learning assessment for operations management courses (Strakos et al., 2023), integration of artificial intelligence (AI) ChatGPT in university students in Thailand (Fuchs & Aguilos, 2023), a survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of teachers in the Philippines, using ChatGPT (Robledo et al., 2023), and the views of higher education stakeholders regarding the ethics of using AI in distance learning (Holmes et al., 2023). While research on the topic of digital learning management using artificial intelligence ChatGPT with systematic literature review (SLR) techniques and similar ones found research on the implementation of AI for health care with SLR (Loh et al., 2022), AI in machine learning with a bibliometric review (Shamima et al., 2022), a systematic review of artificial intelligence in midwifery and nursing (Siobhán O’Connor et al., 2022), bibliometric and content analysis in online learning in management education (Ng et al., 2023), a systematic review of digital learning theories with e-Learning for nursing and midwifery courses (Siobhan O’Connor et al., 2023), review and taxonomy of ChatGPT in healthcare (Jianning Li et al., 2023), review and taxonomy of ChatGPT in healthcare (Prananta et al., 2023), impact of ChatGPT implementation for students with SLR techniques (Renato et al., 2023), use of ChatGPT in software companies with an initial systematic literature review (Pattyn, 2023), SLR on Chatbot implications for customer satisfaction (Daza et al., 2023), research on visualization and AI trends over the past decade (Prahani et al., 2023), research into the impact of ChatGPT use in education using systematic review techniques (Montenegro- Rueda et al., 2023), and SLR on ethics in learning using ChatGPT (Vargas-Murillo et al., 2023). Among these studies, no research has been found on digital learning management using OpenAI ChatGPT in education with SLR techniques. Therefore, research on the topic is needed in order to reveal the concept, use and impact of digital learning management using OpenAI ChatGPT in education with SLR techniques. It is quite surprising that ChatGPT continues to be popular and is even predicted to beat the Google company. Since its launch in 2022, the number of ChatGPT users worldwide has continued to rise. In January 2023 there were 616 million users; in February 2023, 1 billion; and by August 2023, there were 1.8 billion ChatGPT users (Korkmaz et al., 2023; Koc et al., 2023; Skjuve et al., 2023). This caused concern among global scholars and scientists that the emergence of ChatGPT might exceed the swiftness of lecturers' intelligence and responses, due to the features of ChatGPT being more diverse. In addition to presenting information quickly and accurately, ChatGPT offers writing services, providing science literature, creating academic texts and non-academic texts to coding, making this type of AI more popular as the number of users increases (Haman & Školník, 2023). This phenomenon eventually might usurp the scientific authority
  • 29. 23 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter of scholars, scientists, lecturers, teachers, educators, or mentors in transforming information into knowledge. Scientists fear this phenomenon because it marks academics' "death of expertise", as it becomes captured by technological products and artificial intelligence (Nichols, 2017; Pulliam, 2017). The reality, however, is that not all scholars and institutions worldwide share this concern, because ChatGPT is used as a means, tool, and medium that foster learning across disciplines from elementary school to university levels (Strzelecki, 2023; Firaina & Sulisworo, 2023). This indicates that using ChatGPT in education is still being debated. The reality, however, is that educated learners, teachers, students, and lecturers in higher education use ChatGPT for learning purposes. The debate about using ChatGPT and not using it is ongoing, as indicated by several reports, such as research examining the controversy over the use of ChatGPT in academic publications (Curtis, 2023), educational disruption due to using ChatGPT in nursing education (Castonguay et al., 2023), the potential of ChatGPT to replace teachers and human language, and the ethical implications of implementing machine-learning systems in text production (Risang & Mukarto, 2023), the friends and foes controversy in the use of ChatGPT among corpus language experts (Lin, 2023), and research on the movement away from ChatGPT in structured learning (Khaddage & Flintoff, 2023). These controversies need to be examined on a broader scale by tracing recent research on digital learning management using ChatGPT in education. The research reported here was aimed at exploring the current literature related to the concept, use, and impact of using OpenAI ChatGPT, specifically on the following; 1) What does the concept digital learning management using OpenAI ChatGPT mean? 2) How is OpenAI ChatGPT used in education? 3) What is the impact of using OpenAI ChatGPT in education? 2. Literature Review 2.1 Digital Learning Management Digital learning management is a series of activities in the process of planning, implementing, and assessing or evaluating digital-based learning to make learning successful through approaches, models, media, techniques, and digital- based learning tools, which usually are developed in the form of a Learning Management System (LMS) (Unwin et al., 2010; Dampson et al., 2020; Turnbull et al., 2020; Abdullah & Omar, 2022). Digital learning management is the management of learning with technology and digital platforms that teachers must use in this digital era, from planning and implementation right through to evaluation. Educators must be able to redesign subjects well to be taught with digital technology because the one who organizes is not the principal but the educator himself (Rizal et al., 2021; Ratten, 2023). This scope of digital learning management leads to the use of digital technology, tools, and AI that are planned, implemented, and evaluated by educationists to make learning successful.
  • 30. 24 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter In this context, the development of AI is very rapid, including the emergence of Artificial Intelligence Internet of Things (AIoT), which integrates the intercommunity of several systems and networks through intelligent objects into the study of digital learning management (Seng et al., 2022). AI or AIoT is more about transferring data and knowledge through data-based computing, storage, and transmission effectively and efficiently (Guo et al., 2022). The scope of digital learning is abundant by utilizing many tools and ICTs, such as big data, the Internet of Things (IoT), blockchain, AI, and the like (Joey Li et al., 2022). In the context of this research, the meaning of digital learning management is limited to OpenAI ChatGPT in education and learning, which examines the concept, features, and impact of using ChatGPT. 2.2 AI and ChatGPT in Education AI in education is a digital technology system designed with computer systems that resemble human intelligence capabilities and can be used to assist students and teachers in learning (Pan & Zhang, 2023). AI provides innovation in online learning that must be balanced with teacher technical skills, teacher instruction, gamification, and ethical use (Uunona & Goosen, 2023). AI is an AI product that can be applied in education and learning practices, such as AI Chatbots, ChatGPT, and others (Gaber et al., 2023). The types of AI developing in the world vary, but the most popular is the Generative Pre-training Transformer (ChatGPT), an AI with a chatbot format (Pari-Bedoya et al., 2023). ChatGPT is used for various purposes, from finding information, writing, and drafting academic papers to learning. ChatGPT was released on 30 November 2022, and underwent many revisions until its stable version was made available by OpenAI, a company affiliated with Microsoft Corp, on 24 May, 2023 (Van Dis et al., 2023). The use of ChatGPT has expanded with the complex needs of the academic community. In addition to information-seeking activities, ChatGPT assists in writing and editing scientific articles, improving writing skills, linguistic assistance, self-study, doing assignments, answering problems and questions in teacher assignments, and others. However, ChatGPT has the disadvantage of not replacing the teacher's position (Chan & Tsi, 2023; Grassini, 2023). Chat, or chat conducted through ChatGPT with a robotic system, will not replace the teacher as a human being and a profession that educates students using reason, mind, feelings, and conscience (Ibda, Syamsi, et al., 2023; Ausat et al., 2023). In this research, the meaning of OpenAI ChatGPT is limited to the concept, its use, and a focus from the perspective of digital learning management. 3. Methodology 3.1. Research Design For this research on digital learning management using OpenAI ChatGPT the SLR method was applied, adopting the Kitchenham model to uncover findings, studies, and an analysis of the concept of digital learning management using OpenAI ChatGPT (Kitchenham, 2007; Ma’arif et al., 2023). The SLR stage starts with identifying updated published literature compatible with digital learning management using OpenAI ChatGPT in terms of concept, usage, and impact on Scopus databases. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and
  • 31. 25 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) technique was used to assist the SLR procedure through identification, screening, testing eligibility, and inclusion of data, after which analysis was carried out and the findings are presented in descriptive form (see Ibda, Al-Hakim et al., 2023). The stages of identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion of the findings of recent articles indexed by Scopus refer to the PRISMA technique. 3.2 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Selection of Publications Researchers determined eight criteria for the selection of articles (see Tantowi et al., 2023). (i) The articles were peer-reviewed scientific articles. Literature findings in papers, book chapters, conference proceedings, research reports, books, dissertations, and theses were not used. (ii) The articles were indexed on Scopus databases. (iii) The articles were available on digital learning management systems by using OpenAI ChatGPT. (iv) Articles werelimited to publications dated 2022-2023. (v) Articles were in English. (vi) For article searches we only used the Publish or Perish 7 application. (vii) The literature used comprised complete PDFs. (viii) The articles used, all were published in open-access journals. 3.3 Screening and Eligibility Assessment for Data Analysis At this stage, on October 10, 2023, researchers screened literature findings from Scopus through the Publish or Perish 7 application. Article screening was based on the title-abstract-keyword aspect. Different keywords determined the keywords for the search; this was done to select sufficient articles. The search findings of the Scopus database rendered 2,852 published articles for 2022-2023. The details are provided in Table 1 below. Table 1: Findings of articles from the Scopus database Keyword Quantity 1 Learning management 200 articles 2 Digital learning management 200 articles 3 Digital learning management in education 200 articles 4 Digital learning management using artificial intelligence 200 articles 5 ChatGPT 200 articles 6 ChatGPT in education 200 articles 7 Using ChatGPT 200 articles 8 Impact of using ChatGPT 200 articles 9 Learning with ChatGPT 200 articles 10 ChatGPT system 200 articles 11 ChatGPT management 147 articles 12 ChatGPT feature 78 articles 13 Artificial intelligence 200 articles 14 Artificial intelligence in education 200 articles 15 Artificial intelligence ChatGPT 200 articles Quantity 2.852 articles The findings from the search of 2,852 articles (see Table 1) were not all selected and reviewed. However, the same articles were not used, and in the next step, the final stage, 51 articles were selected and entered into the Mendeley application version 1.19.8, and then saved in the form of RIS. In order to map the initial
  • 32. 26 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter network of theme relevance, the RIS file from the Mendeley application was entered into the VOSviewer, application version 1.6.18. A number of steps need to be followed in entering the RIS file into a VOSviewer: i. Prepare the RIS file. ii. Create a map based on bibliographic data. iii. Read data from the reference manager file. iv. Select a file from a folder on the PC. v. Choose the type of analysis and counting method, namely the type of analysis: co-occurrence, unit of analysis, keywords, and counting method: complete counting. vi. Verify selected keywords. vii.Finalize and present. Based on the results of the initial analysis of thematic associations, the theme of digital learning management using AI ChatGPT has a very complex association pattern (see Figure 1) in terms of the network visualization below. Figure 1. Initial network visualization Figure 1 shows that the study of digital learning management using OpenAI ChatGPT is closely related to a number of themes such as ChatGPT, digital learning management, artificial intelligence, AI, ChatGPT in education, chatbot, OpenAI ChatGPT, generative AI, Open AI, GPT-4, education, ethics, learning, NLP, and applications in education. Some keywords that have a distant connection to the theme of the study are AI academic implementation, applications of chemistry, communication/writing, AI Chatbots, Covid-19, digital technology, environment, disability, authentication, collaborative learning, artificial intelligence in education, security, and critical thinking, etc. 3.4 PRISMA Flow Diagram The PRISMA flowchart is applied in the article search process through four schemes, namely identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion, which can be seen in Figure 2 below.
  • 33. 27 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Figure 2: PRISMA Flow Diagram for Systematic Review (Topouzelis et al., 2021). At the identification stage, 2,852 Scopus-indexed articles were found with the help of the Publish or Perish 7 application (see Table 1). At the screening stage, the articles were checked for similarity according to keywords, and 2,557 similar articles were found, and the remaining 295 articles were selected. Determination of similarity does not refer to databases; the search here only uses Scopus databases, so the determination of similarity was reviewed from the keywords used. From the screening stage, 135 irrelevant articles were discarded, and 160 articles were selected to be used in the next stage. At the eligibility stage, 85 articles were selected for full-text reading, while 75 articles were discarded. From the articles included, 51 articles were selected from the 85 articles with reference to research questions in terms of title-abstract-keywords and article substance, while the remaining 34 articles were not used. In the next step, researchers entered all articles that had been saved in RIF format in Mendeley into the Nvivo 12 Plus application. The analysis and review stages in the Nvivo 12 Plus application begin with opening the NVivo 12 Plus application and preparing the RIS file, creating a Blank Project, and entering the title, "Digital Learning Management”. The file was saved in the PC browser. The next step was to create file names for the project in Files, Nodes, and Cases. In the file, the RIS file was imported in the Mendeley menu by selecting the Author and Year menu, and the created files in the menu were saved in the file that had been named Digital Learning Management. When all inputs had been concluded, all documents were blocked, and an auto-code was created by selecting the identified theme. When the next step appeared in the file to select nodes or cases, the relevant themes were selected according to the three research questions and keywords, namely digital learning management, AI, Chatboots, and ChatGPT. In the next step, the researcher selected the text with the code paragraph menu aimed at the results being presented quickly. In the next step, the node results were saved in the Digital Learning Management file, and the node stage ended. Identification Screening Eligibility Included Records identified from databased Scopus (n=2.852) Additional records identified through other sources (n=0) Records screened after duplicates were removed (295 duplications were removed) Duplicates removed (n=2.557) Articles screened (n=160) Articles excluded as not relevant (n= 135) Full-text articles assessed for eligibility (n=85) Full-text articles excluded with response (n=51)
  • 34. 28 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Filling in the Cases, the researcher returned to the file menu and all files to be blocked, and selected the Create As-Create as Cases menu, and selected the Cases file menu named "Digital Learning Management”. When the Cases were filled in, the next step was to go to the Create menu and click the Framework Matrix menu. In the General menu, the file "Digital Learning Management" was written. On the Rows menu, the Select menu was selected, and the file on Cases, "Digital Learning Management", also was selected. When that input had been done, I moved to the Columns menu and selected the node, "Digital Learning Management". When it had been put in, I clicked the OK menu, and the description results of 51 articles appeared according to the name and year categories. In order to get the node result text, the Auto Summarize menu was selected. In the next step, when all the texts had been put in, the author entered the findings according to the relevance of the research question. 4. Results In this section, the findings reported in 51 articles are presented according to journals (name, volume, edition, year), author name, methodology, country, and relevance to the research question (RQ), namely 5.1 Digital Learning Management Concept Using OpenAI ChatGPT, 5.2 Use of OpenAI ChatGPT in education, and 5.3 What is the Impact of Using OpenAI ChatGPT in Education (see Table 2). In the columns Journals and Authors, the title of the journal, as well as the volume, edition, and year of publication are given, followed (in the next column) by the name(s) of the author(s). The methodology column provides a description of the approach/method/model/type of research applied in the reviewed article. In the column, Country, the country in which the research was done, is given. In the RQ column, the relevance of the article to the research question posed in this research is described. Table 2: Findings of 51 articles selected from Scopus databases No Journals Authors Methodology Country RQ 1 Peer J Computer Science 8 2022 (Kaddoura et al., 2022) A systematic review Several countries 5.1 2 Automation in Construction 141 (2022) (Baduge et al., 2022) State-of-the-art review Australia 5.1 3 Sustainability 14 6 2022 (Yu et al., 2022) A rapid evidence assessment review method Several countries 5.1 4 International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education Vol. 11, No. 4 2022 (Ahmad et al., 2022) Case study Jordan 5.1 5 Education Sciences 12 784 2022 (Akour & Alenezi, 2022) Investigative Research Saudi Arabia 5.2 6 Sustainability 14, 5195, 2022 (Sobaih et al., 2022) Quantitative studies Egypt 5.2 7 Education and Information Technologies 27 (2022) (Hashim et al., 2022) Qualitative model Several countries 5.3 8 International Journal of Learning, Teaching and (Yusof et al., 2022) A survey method Malaysia 5.2
  • 35. 29 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Educational Research, Vol. 21, No. 9 2022 9 Higher Education for the Future 9 (1) 2022 (Veluvali & Surisetti, 2022) A Review India 5.1 10 International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, Vol. 21, No. 9 2022 (A. Rahman, 2022) A case investigation India 5.3 11 Sustainability 15 2023 (Chang et al., 2023) Exploratory Research Canada 5.1 12 Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching Vol.6 No.1 (2023) (Rasul et al., 2023) Qualitative Study Australia 5.3 13 International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education 20 1 2023 (Chan, 2023) Quantitative and qualitative research Hong Kong 5.1 14 Innovations in Education and Teaching International, Mar 2023 (Farrokhnia et al., 2023) SWOT Research Netherlands 5.3 15 International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 7 2023 (Chamorro- Atalaya et al., 2023) A Bibliometric Analysis Several countries 5.1 16 Education Sciences 13, 410, 2023 (Lo, 2023) A Rapid Review Several countries 5.3 17 Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Vol. 33 2023 (Keiper et al., 2023) A Generic qualitative inquiry North America 5.3 18 International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 2023 (De-Winter, 2023) Quantitative Netherlands 5.3 19 Medical Education Online, 28:1 2023 (Moldt et al., 2023) Qualitative Germany 5.2 20 International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 7 2023 (Renato et al., 2023) SLR Several countries 5.2 21 Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 39 No. 2 2023 (Khan et al., 2023) Qualitative Pakistan 5.2 22 Post-digital Science and Education, 2023 (Costello, 2023) Qualitative Ireland 5.3 23 Applied Sciences 13, 6039, 2023 (Sánchez-Ruiz et al., 2023) Survey Study Spain 5.3 24 Applied Sciences 13, 5783, 2023 (M. Rahman & Watanobe, 2023) Survey Research and Analysis Japan 5.2 25 Contemporary Educational Technology, 15 (2) 2023 (Halaweh, 2023) Qualitative United Arab Emirates 5.2 26 Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2023) (Sullivan et al., 2023) Content analysis Australia, New Zealand, United States, and United Kingdom. 5.3
  • 36. 30 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 27 Contemporary Educational Technology, 15 (3) 2023 (Bitzenbauer, 2023) One-group pretest- post-test design Germany 5.3 28 International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 18 (17) 2023 (Fiialka et al., 2023) A survey method Ukrainian 5.3 29 Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, 21, 2 2023 (Singh & Singh, 2023) Systematic Review Several countries 5.1 30 Healthcare, 11, 887 2023 (Sallam, 2023) Systematic Review Several countries 5.1 31 Cogent Education, 10, 2 2023 (Pradana et al., 2023) A literature review and bibliometric analysis Several countries 5.3 32 Journal of Chemical Education, 100, 2023 (Fergus et al., 2023) Evaluation Research United Kingdom 5.3 33 Journal of Science Education and Technology 32 (2023) (Cooper, 2023) Exploratory research Australia 5.2 34 Przestrzen Spoleczna 23 (1) 2023 (Muñoz et al., 2023) Investigational Research Perú 5.1 35 International Journal of Neutrosophic Science (IJNS) Vol. 20, No. 04 2023 (Alnaqbi & Fouda, 2023) MCDA method United Arab Emirates 5.2 36 RELC Journal 54 (1) 2023 (Moorhouse et al., 2023) Mixed-method survey Hong Kong 5.1 37 Biology of Sport, Vol. 40 No. 2, 2023 (Dergaa et al., 2023) Literature review Several countries 5.3 38 International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 6, 2023 (Chaka, 2023) Exploratory research South Africa 5.1 39 Education Sciences, 13, 150 2023 (Thurzo et al., 2023) Literature Review Several countries 5.2 40 Journal français d’ophtalmologie 46 7 (2023) (Panthier & Gatinel, 2023) Comprehensive study France 5.2 41 Interactive Learning Environments 2023 (Chiu, 2023) Survey Study Hong Kong 5.2 42 Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy 45 (2023) (Totlis et al., 2023) Interview Research Greece 5.2 43 Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching Vol.6 No.1 (2023) (Firat, 2023) Exploratory Research Australia, Sweden, Canada, and Turkey 5.3 44 Smart Learning Environments, Vol. 10, 15 (2023) (Tlili et al., 2023) Case study approach (qualitative) China 5.1 45 Journal of Chemical Education 100, 2023 (Emenike & Emenike, 2023) Identification Study United States 5.1 46 Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching Vol.6 No.1 (2023) (Rudolph et al., 2023) Comparative Method Singapore 5.3 47 Educational Process International Journal 12, Issue 2 (2023) (Karakose, 2023) Descriptive Analysis Turkey 5.3
  • 37. 31 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 48 International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE) Vol. 12, No. 2, 2023 (Razak et al., 2023) Systematic review Several countries 5.1 49 ECNU Review of Education 6(3) 2023 (Su & Yang, 2023) IDEE theoretical framework method Hong Kong 5.1 50 Indian Dermatology Online Journal 14, 2023 (Mondal et al., 2023) Cross‑sectional observational study India 5.1 51 International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 8 2023 (Zekaj, 2023) SLR Several countries 5.2 5. Discussion 5.1 Digital Learning Management concept using AI ChatGPT Digital learning management is a cyber-based learning management system, digital e-learning (Ahmad et al., 2022), which is used in machine-assisted learning, scheduling, supervision, cheating detection and assessment, artificial intelligence (Kaddoura et al., 2022), IoT, Chatbots, robots, augmented reality for deep and digital-based learning (Baduge et al., 2022), and using generative artificial intelligence, ChatGPT (Emenike & Emenike, 2023). Digital learning management nowadays is not only e-learning, augmented reality, and virtual reality, but also refers to artificial intelligence, which has become a new tool in digital learning (Razak et al., 2023). To facilitate the implementation of digital learning management, LMSs are used (Veluvali & Surisetti, 2022), such as MOOCs, Lernraum Berlin Platform, MS Teams, Tencent Conference, Zoom, Webex Platform, and OpenAI ChatGPT or AI ChatGPT (Yu et al., 2022). In digital learning settings, ChatGPT AI chatbot is more popular than YouChat and Chatsonic (Chaka, 2023). ChatGPT is set up as a tool for digital learning that provides answering facilities and presents information according to learner needs (Muñoz et al., 2023), which can be done with E-Classroom, synchronous or asynchronous learning (Moorhouse et al., 2023). ChatGPT in digital learning management refers to an intelligence-based Chatbots with a large conversational language model (LLM) (Sallam, 2023), belonging to the category of educational Chatbots for universities (Chamorro-Atalaya et al., 2023), interactive conversations, or conversational agents designed to provide learning experiences to students (Chang et al., 2023) developed by Open AI (Openai.com) (Mondal et al., 2023). ChatGPT works with a transformer algorithm through preprocessing, encoding, decoding, and postprocessing stages (Su & Yang, 2023). ChatGPT is classified as a generative AI, designed to produce natural text language. The development of ChatGPT from GPT, GPT-3.5, and GPT-4 (Tlili et al., 2023) is proof that artificial intelligence can be instructed to perform the same intellectual tasks as human (Chan, 2023), and is proof that education cannot be separated from intelligent and practical digital technology (Singh & Singh, 2023). The findings about ChatGPT's AI concept are important for teachers, students, and educational researchers to know. The reason is that ChatGPT, as an AI product, influences the concept of digital-based learning management and
  • 38. 32 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter becomes a genre in specific learning contexts. The ever-changing development of ChatGPT proves that technology is very inclusive and adapts to the times. Therefore, all education activists must know the concept of AI at large, and ChatGPT itself. 5.2 Use of AI ChatGPT in Education AI ChatGPT is used from elementary school to college. In higher education, the application of ChatGPT is a form of digital transformation that requires much preparation, skills, digital literacy (Akour & Alenezi, 2022), adequate academic performance, social-media networking (Sobaih et al., 2022), social-network systems (Yusof et al., 2022), text drafting, data processing, and curriculum development (Renato et al., 2023). In the world of education and research, ChatGPT is used as a tool to organize writing, answer cross-cutting questions (Alnaqbi & Fouda, 2023), to answer complex topics, in language training, virtual tutoring, programming exercises, and to assist in the research process (Rahman & Watanobe, 2023), assist with writing, research, academic publications (Halaweh, 2023), and manuscript editing (Cooper, 2023). ChatGPT is used by academics and policymakers to help solve educational problems and make educational policies (Pradana et al., 2023), while in Hong Kong, teachers and principals use OpenAI ChatGPT to help with learning, school administration and assessment (Chiu, 2023). The use of AI in education is not just a tool but must transform education as a cognitive process, integration of educational theory, and pedagogical practice (Zekaj, 2023). The University of Luebeck and the University Hospital of Tuebingen incorporated AI ChatGPT as medical Chatbots in the medical education curriculum designed for all medical students to communicate with AI-based patients (Moldt et al., 2023). ChatGPT was used as a media knowledge assessment tool in France (Panthier & Gatinel, 2023), integrated into the curriculum for the purpose of strengthening care planning, telemedicine screening, diagnostics, and management (Thurzo et al., 2023), and in Pakistan for teaching assistance, personalized learning, research assistance, quick access to information, automated scoring, language translation, creating content to facilitate learning, and generating case scenarios (Khan et al., 2023). ChatGPT-4 was implemented as an interactive anatomy tool and quiz medium for medical students in Greece. Although varied, ChatGPT-4 cannot replace human education (Totlis et al., 2023). The use of ChatGPT in education should be supervised and guided by educators. This is to ensure that the use of AI takes place in a way that is effective, relevant, and safe for the students. It is also important to consider privacy and data security when using this kind of technology in an educational context. This is because, in essence, teachers will not be replaced by any technology, including AI and ChatGPT itself. Therefore, teacher supervision, guidance, and direction are very important when students are delinquent on ChatGPT. 5.3 Impact of Using AI ChatGPT in Education In general, the use of ChatGPT has both positive and negative impacts. The positive impact is that AI in India is used to assist e-learning and e-assessment,