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International Journal
of
Learning, Teaching
And
Educational Research
p-ISSN:
1694-2493
e-ISSN:
1694-2116
IJLTER.ORG
Vol.22 No.10
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
(IJLTER)
Vol. 22, No. 10 (October 2023)
Print version: 1694-2493
Online version: 1694-2116
IJLTER
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER)
Vol. 22, No. 10
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of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations,
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Society for Research and Knowledge Management
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
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established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the
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digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e-
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management issues, educational case studies, etc.
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Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in
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a unique DOI number.
Foreword
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and Educational Research.
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to
publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions
may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to
problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational
organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website
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We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board
and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue.
We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration.
The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the
world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers.
We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal
with this issue.
Editors of the October 2023 Issue
VOLUME 22 NUMBER 10 October 2023
Table of Contents
Assessing the Effects of Flipped Classroom to the Primary Pupils’ English Learning Performance........................... 1
Thavamani Parati, Mohd Nihra Haruzuan Mohamad Said, Mohd Fadzil Abdul Hanid
Knowledge Management Using Storytelling with Infographics to Develop Creativity of Undergraduate Students
....................................................................................................................................................................................................18
Virawan Amnouychokanant
“I find it very difficult to go to work; it is emotionally exhausting”: Understanding the Burnout and Underlying
Emotions among Malaysian University Academics...........................................................................................................37
Fairuz A'dilah Rusdi, Ateerah Abdul Razak, Zaleha Embong
Polymer Science in Action: Transforming the Learning Experience for Undergraduates with Active Learning
Strategies...................................................................................................................................................................................54
Chaninan Pruekpramool, Theerapong Sangpradit, Panitarn Wanakamol, Supitcha Supansomboon
Assessment of Learning about Sustainability in Students with Down Syndrome........................................................79
Cristina Arranz Barcenilla, Sara Gutiérrez-González, María Consuelo Saiz Manzanares, Lourdes Alameda Cuenca-Romero,
Sarah Vandekerkhof
A Systematic Review of Interventions Improving University Students’ EFL Writing Competence.......................... 93
Dandan Zhang, Joanna Tjin Ai Tan, Swagata Sinha Roy
Nature of Science: A Comparative Analysis of the High School Physics Textbooks in Indonesia and Korea........113
Hartono Bancong, Sukmawati ., Nursalam ., Danilo Jr. Tadeo
Exploring the Potential of Integrating Local Wisdom into the Development of Pocket Book Learning Media: A
Systematic Literature Review.............................................................................................................................................. 130
Sukadari ., Mahilda Dea Komalasari, Nina Widyaningsih, Gulzhaina K Kassymova4, Fang Yuqi, Lily Muliana Mustafa,
Nurudeen Babatunde Bamiro
Teacher Training’s Content and Delivery Method Related to Augmentative and Alternative Communication
(AAC): A Systematic Literature Review (SLR)..................................................................................................................152
Sook Wei Loi, Syar Meeze Mohd Rashid, Hasnah Toran
Analysis of Vocational Student Performance Criteria on Work Skills Based on Industry Needs: An Analysis for
Students' Skill Test Instruments.......................................................................................................................................... 174
Rolly Robert Oroh, Muhammad Muhdi Attaufiq, Metsi Daud, Rocky Frangky Roring
Exploring Moodle Usage in Higher Education in the Post-pandemic Era: An Activity-theoretical Investigation of
Systemic Contradictions....................................................................................................................................................... 190
Ishaq Salim Al-Naabi
Collaborative Learning in Higher Education in the Fourth Industrial Revolution: A Systematic Literature Review
and Future Research..............................................................................................................................................................209
Adi Bandono, Mukhlis Mukhlis, A. K. susilo, A. R. Prabowo, Acep Maksum
The Impact and Challenges of the Implementation of a High-Impact ePortfolio Practice on Graduate Students’
Learning Experiences............................................................................................................................................................231
Hawazen Alharbi
Inclusion of Metaverses in the Development of the Flipped Classroom in the University environment:
Bibliometric Analysis of Indexed Scientific Production in SCOPUS............................................................................. 247
Omar Chamorro-Atalaya, Víctor Durán-Herrera, Raul Suarez-Bazalar, Constantino Nieves-Barreto, Julio Tarazona-Padilla,
Milagros Rojas-Carbajal, Yreneo Cruz-Telada, Juan Caller-Luna, Ronald Alarcón-Anco, José Antonio Arévalo-Tuesta
Factors Contributing to Resistance in the use of Information and Communications Technology: A Snapshot on
Engineering Graphics and Design Teachers......................................................................................................................271
Philani Brian Mlambo, Mogale Simon Albert Maeko, Samuel Dumazi Khoza
Investigating the Impact of Teaching and Learning of Religious Institution [pondok] on the Society in Kelantan,
Malaysia.................................................................................................................................................................................. 290
Nik Yusri Musa, Ateerah Abdul Razak, Amanina Abdul Razak Mohamed, Asma Lailee Mohd Noor, Mohd Zain Mubarak,
Nur Azuki Yusuff, Noor Hisham Md Nawi, Marwan Ismail, Azhar Muhammad
A Comprehensive Approach to Eliminate English Second Language Learners’ Grammatical Difficulties............306
Nomasomi Hilda Matiso
Implementation of Virtual Worlds to Promote Distance Practice Teachers' Participation in the English Learning
Process.....................................................................................................................................................................................324
Ana Quinonez-Beltran, Carmen Benitez-Correa, Elsa Morocho-Cuenca
TikTok as a Source of English Language Content – Perceived Impacts on Students’ Competence: Views from
Indonesia.................................................................................................................................................................................340
Fathor Rasyid, Hidayatul Hanjariyah, Nurul Aini
Acquisition of Communicative Skills by Foreign Students in a Multicultural Learning Environment...................359
Ran Cao, Lyaziza Sarsenbayeva
De/colonising Theoretical Literatures and the Educational Qualifications to Unpack the Grotesque Skills Gap in
South Africa............................................................................................................................................................................378
Christiana Kappo-Abidemi, Christopher Babatunde Ogunyemi
Comprehensive Academic Thesis Writing Module for English Major Undergraduates in a Public University in
China....................................................................................................................................................................................... 394
Gao Jing, Lin Siew Eng
Assessment Strategies in Outcome-Based Education: Preferences and Practices Among University Lecturers in
Vietnam...................................................................................................................................................................................416
Phuong Hoang Yen, Nguyen Anh Thi, Le Thanh Thao, Nguyen Huong Tra, Pham Trut Thuy, Huynh Thi Anh Thu
Unlocking Classroom Potential: Exploring the Mediating Role of Teacher Mindset on Embracing Differentiated
Instruction...............................................................................................................................................................................433
Enung - Hasanah, M Ikhsan Al Ghazi, Suyatno Suyatno, Ika Maryani, Mohd Zailani Mohd Yusoff
Applying Technical Science Process in Teaching STEM Topics under Model School with Production Practice and
Social Life in Vietnam........................................................................................................................................................... 453
Dang Thi Thuan An, Dang Thi Thuan An, Huynh Van Son, Huynh Van Son, Pham Ngo Son, Pham Ngo Son, Nguyen
Mau Duc
1
©Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0
International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 22, No. 10, pp. 1-17, October 2023
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.10.1
Received Aug 24, 2023; Revised Oct 13, 2023; Accepted Oct 19, 2023
Assessing the Effects of Flipped Classroom to the
Primary Pupils’ English Learning Performance
Thavamani Parati , Mohd Nihra Haruzuan Mohamad Said and
Mohd Fadzil Abdul Hanid
School of Education
Faculty of Social Science and Humanities
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
Abstract. In this era, implementing technology in teaching and learning
process without affecting traditional teaching method is very important
in the 21st-century education system, which can prevent pupils’ from
being outdated, as well as developing their thinking skills. Pupils in
primary schools are having difficulty acquiring the fundamental abilities
in the English language, encompassing speaking, listening, reading, and
writing proficiencies. Therefore, it is crucial to identify effective strategies
for enhancing the process of learning the English language within
Malaysia's education system. This research concentrated on assessing the
impact of Flipped Classroom learning on the English language
proficiency of primary school students, specifically in four core language
skills. In this quantitative analysis, 31 Year 3 students from a primary
school located in the Kulai district were chosen through purposive
sampling as participants in the study. Data collection involved surveys,
pre-tests, and post-tests. The results indicated a moderately positive
correlation between overall performance on these tests and a positive
influence on Year 3 students' English skills in listening, speaking, reading,
and writing. Additionally, students showed a strong positive acceptance
of the Flipped Classroom learning method for these four essential English
skills. However, it was found that the Flipped Classroom approach did
not significantly alter the students' preferred learning methods. These
findings suggest that the Flipped Classroom offers a valuable addition to
the education sector, providing an alternative learning approach to
enhance second language education and improving English language
learning.
Keywords: Flipped Classroom; Listening; Speaking; Reading; Writing;
Performance; Achievement
1. Background of the study
Education is basic human needs which can produce individuals who are
intellectually, spiritually, emotionally, physically, and socially balanced and
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harmonious. However, in today's constantly changing environment, the
traditional industrial-era educational paradigms are no longer relevant.
Educational strategies should not only adapt, but transform to align the digital
age to assist our young people to becoming the adults who are successful in the
21st century. Creating a 21st-century education system entails that all pupils are
sufficiently equipped to thrive in a competitive environment, where highly
talented individuals have many opportunities while the rest of them have few.
The focus is on harnessing the potential of technology to enhance 21st-century
competencies, facilitate innovative teaching and learning, and establish robust
educational support systems (Vockley, 2007). One of the objectives outlined in the
Ministry of Education, (2012) is to guarantee that every Malaysian has fair and
equal opportunities to receive a top-notch education that meets international
standards, as well as to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to
scale up quality learning across the country.
However, despite of the digital age, we cannot avoid the traditional (face-to-face)
instructional method which still prefer and familiar by the pupils and teacher
nowadays which has a practice for thousands of years. Teachers for 21st century
should be more creative and careful enough in choosing suitable and effective
methods for teaching and learning, and at the same time, reaching the pupils’
satisfaction. One of the best and effective methods, which is very popular is the
reverse learning method called “Flipped Classroom”. Flipped classroom method
is created by Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams in the early days to provide
teaching and learning to pupils who do not attend school or face-to-face classes
(Bergmann & Sams, 2008). According Paez-Quinde et al., (2022), the flipped
classroom is an educational approach where students acquire new knowledge
outside of the class, as opposed to the traditional method where learning occurs
during class time. Its approach emphasizes on scheduling class time for activities,
problem-solving and other forms of instruction. On the other hand, Ruiz-Jiménez
et al., (2022) said that the flipped classroom method is a new pedagogical model
where the teachers share pre-established digital resources with pupils through a
digital platform outside of the classroom and related content taught
asynchronously.
Besides that, the flipped classroom approach helps in the creation of active
learning environment or classroom (Gustian et al., 2023; Siegle, 2014). This
learning method encourages active participation by creating a workshop-like
environment in which pupils can ask questions regarding their lessons and
engage in hands-on activities with them. It is the most approachable and simple
method of implementing technology in teaching and learning process without
affecting traditional teaching methods, which hold the direct contact between the
teachers and students, as well as between learners themselves, called the
backbone of education (Shabibi et al., 2017). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in
2020, the Malaysian government had issued a Movement Control Order (MCO)
to manage the pandemic in an orderly manner, which led to all schools needed to
be closed. On the other hand, teachers are expected to complete the syllabus or
curriculum. As a result, the flipped classroom is strongly suggested as the best
way to resolving the problem. It helps to uplift pupils' basic understanding about
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a content and let them to create new knowledge independently by doing mastery
learning with those digital materials before attending face-to-face class time after
the school reopens. Studies show that flipped classroom had proven that it helped
to motivate and increase pupils’ performance (Elian & Hamaidi, 2018; Graham
Brent Johnson, 2013).
The research gap lies in the absence of a systematic approach that integrates
flipped classroom learning and digital resources to facilitate the development of
21st-century skills, particularly the 4C's (Critical thinking, Creativity,
Collaboration, and Communication). Despite the potential of this approach to
enhance student engagement and performance (Robinson et al., 2019), challenges
such as students' limited exposure to technology and the need for tailored
materials to accommodate varying cognitive levels remain unaddressed.
Additionally, the study aims to explore the potential of flipped classroom learning
to establish stronger teacher-student communication and foster active learning,
which is crucial in a second language learning context (Wang & Yamat, 2019). By
addressing these gaps, this research endeavors to contribute valuable insights into
the effective utilization of flipped classroom learning in the Malaysian primary
education system, ultimately enhancing students' English language proficiency
and overall academic performance.
The main aim of this research is to determine the impacts of the flipped classroom
on Year 3 pupils in terms of their English skills and how it impacts their
performance and acceptance. Primary school pupils, especially in Malay schools
are facing challenges in learning English as the second language due to the
influence of their mother tongue, limitation of speaking ability, ignorance,
confusion with the language and so on. To overcome this issue, teachers should
engage pupils in learning the language constantly by using various and effective
approaches which may change the pupils’ perception positively about learning
the second language and abolish the limitation of using the language among them
by creating a quality learning process at school, as well as home. The factors that
cause pupils’ learning performance are such as, the form of questions, pupils'
perspectives toward examinations, poor learning environment, teachers' quality
and pupils' learning styles.
1.1 Conceptual Framework
This research had been implemented and chose appropriate theories and model
as a guide to identify the effectiveness of flipped classroom learning. Thus, the
framework for this research, is a revised version of Bloom’s Taxonomy and had
been mainly used as a lens for transmission of information, the Mastery learning
model, Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism theories were used
to explain how learning occurs to master each level according the Taxonomy.
Figure 1 below is the conceptual framework of this study.
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Figure 1: Synthesis of the models and theories associated with Flipped Learning
1.2 Scope of Research
This research is vital as it assesses the impact of the flipped classroom on primary
pupils' English learning performance. Mastering the English language, especially
in National schools, is challenging for primary students. Teachers must be
innovative in changing the learning environment and strategies to suit students'
cognitive levels and align with Malaysia's education system. The flipped
classroom combines traditional and modern learning approaches to help students
consistently develop their cognitive abilities using technology and traditional
tools. This approach ensures students remain relevant in the 21st century.
Additionally, it assists teachers in planning well-organized learning processes,
ultimately boosting students' English performance.
1.3 Implications and Limitations of the Research
The implications of this study in the realm of language education, especially in
English language learning within primary schools, are substantial. The Flipped
Classroom method demonstrates potential in improving student engagement and
proficiency across critical language skills, including listening, speaking, reading,
and writing.
This research will involve a small sample limited to Year 3 pupils studying at a
national primary school in the Kulai District. Therefore, the research findings are
constrained to the sample group selected based on their similar background and
English learning level, solely for assessing their viewpoint regarding the Flipped
Classroom approach and how it influences their academic results
2. Literature Review
Previous findings of researchers regarding those issues and theories aligned with
flipped classroom method in learning English had been discussed and used as a
reference to lead this research more efficiently. Both educators and students need
to acquire a fresh or broader set of skills, wherein the teacher designs interactive
learning experiences to involve pupils beyond the traditional classroom setting
and pupils are responsible for independently exploring resources outside of class,
attempting to obtain basic information before class, and then actively applying
that knowledge in the classroom (Brewer & Movahedazarhouligh, 2018).
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Flipped classroom method in teaching and learning process will lead the pupils
to do independent learning by applying project base activities. It will encourage
the pupils to search and read more resources besides text books or notes prepared
by the teachers. Through this way, they will learn how to organise knowledge,
develop presentation skills, increase their synthesize ideas, develop their
communication skills and more. Other than that, flipped classroom learning
explained four pillars of flip which makes it a more adaptable setting, conducive
learning atmosphere, purposeful curriculum, and skilled instructor (Flipped
Learning Network (FLN), 2014). Flipped classroom method bring a flexible
environment to the pupils, which make a comfortable space for them to learn at
home using various type of sources according to their flexible learning timeline.
The main principle in 21st-century learning in line with School Transformation
Programme 2025 are: critical thinking, collaborative, creativity, communication,
citizenship, character and one of the pedagogies is digital tools and resources.
Thus, the flipped classroom method contained all the requirement of MOE to
develop 21st-century education system. Flipped classroom method received
positive responses and helped to improve the English grammar (Shaari et al.,
2021; Vuong, 2023). Learning English, especially for pupils which English is not
their native language, needs more guidance and effective methods to deliver the
knowledge. Flipped learning is a versatile approach that can be effectively
employed at any educational level (Fatimah Abd Rahman et al., 2019).
According Mandasari & Wahyudin, (2021), flipped classroom brings satisfaction
to the pupils and easier to conduct learning process while providing a chance to
create an independent learning environment along with improving English
grammar knowledge. Learning English needs more practice with variety of study
materials. Hence, the flipped classroom method gives a chance to pupils to learn
independently using various resources that help them to understand better, faster
and clear. Flipped learning method also helps to improve pupils’ verbal English
communication skill (Tazijan et al., 2017). Besides that, Su Ping et al., (2020)
proved that flipped classroom improves pupils’ English writing performance by
fully engaging with them and increase their motivation level.
According to a study carried by Teo Woon Chun & Ramesh Sathappan, (2018), it
is proved that flipped classroom learning method shows a positive perception
among pupils, which provides an effective environment for them to communicate
and collaborate with their peers and masters in particular skills taught by the
teachers. Furthermore, pupils shared their perception about flipped classroom
learning method, which is by creating a situation that the teachers direct to them
as well as motivate, engage and structure their learning process (Cueva & Inga,
2022; Haghighi et al., 2019). According to Pavanelli, (2018), the flipped classroom
approach is seen by students as a valuable educational resource and this method
has enhanced their writing abilities within an engaging, cooperative environment.
Those interactive learning resources prepared give an opportunity to them to use
and explore the technology-based tools and learning materials. Moreover, those
resources and classroom activities also bring the pupils to share knowledge
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between their peers, help one another and turn it into a collaborative learning
environment. The pupils’ communication skills also improve tremendously here.
The flipped classroom learning approach proves to be a valuable tool for
enhancing students' foundational English skills, including listening, speaking,
reading, and writing. Yousufi (2020) emphasizes the remarkable impact of the
flipped classroom method on improving students' listening abilities, suggesting
that practicing listening activities and maintaining consistent engagement are
essential for skill enhancement. Sudarmaji (2021) also affirms the effectiveness of
the Flipped Classroom in bolstering students' English speaking skills by
promoting increased communication between teachers and peers, fostering
fluency and interactivity.
Ozturk (2021) further supports the use of the flipped classroom method, noting
its ability to motivate and involve students in reading activities. The tasks and
activities in this approach require students to independently read and follow
provided instructions, thereby encouraging more reading and vocabulary
acquisition. Additionally, Siswanto (2021) underscores that writing skills benefit
significantly from the flipped classroom, as it enhances students' participation,
confidence, and enthusiasm for learning. By providing diverse materials and
approaches and boosting students' interest and confidence in writing tasks, the
flipped classroom effectively nurtures and develops their English writing
abilities.
3. Methodology
The methodology employed by the researcher was discussed in detail, beginning
with the research design, the study's participants, research instruments, data
collection, and data analysis. The researcher chose a quantitative approach for this
research because the primary aim was to examine the impact of the flipped
classroom on English language learning by assessing pupils' performance based
on their test scores and gauging their perceptions of the learning method through
questionnaire responses.
3.1 Research Design
The study's research methodology heavily emphasizes a quantitative approach,
employing both test scores and survey responses as primary data sources. The
quantitative aspect of the research involves the administration of tests
meticulously crafted to assess pupils' performance across the four core language
competencies: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Aligned with the Year 3
English syllabus, these tests consist of a total of 40 marks, predominantly
comprising multiple-choice questions. By utilizing these test scores, the research
aims to quantitatively measure the influence of the flipped classroom method on
pupils' English language learning outcomes, providing concrete data to evaluate
its effectiveness. Additionally, this study adopts a quasi-experimental design,
utilizing a single group of participants to assess the impact of the intervention.
In tandem with the quantitative assessment, the research incorporates a survey
instrument, designed in the form of questionnaires, to collect invaluable insights
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into pupils' perceptions following their engagement with the flipped classroom
approach. These questionnaires are thoughtfully structured to capture pupils'
feedback and perspectives regarding the flipped classroom method in English
language learning. By analysing the quantitative data from the tests alongside the
qualitative data gathered from the surveys, the study provides an extensive
assessment of the influence and acceptance of the flipped classroom model within
the realm of language education in primary schools.
In this study, the instructional design model implemented by the researcher was
ADDIE model, which was developed by (Rossett, 1987) and used as a systematic
work guide for the purpose of developing learning activities of flipped classroom
learning method. The utilization of the ADDIE model process for product creation
continues to stand out as one of the successful and efficient approaches because
the process serves as a guiding framework for complicated circumstances plus
suitable for developing educational products and other learning resources
(Branch, 2010). The ADDIE model comprises five sequential stages in the work
process: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.
3.2 The participants of the study
The group samples were selected using a purposive method. A total of 31 third-
grade students from a primary school located in the Kulai district were selected
using purposive sampling to participate in this quantitative research. They were
randomly selected from Year 3 pupils in the primary school who demonstrated
similar levels of proficiency, standards, and ICT skills.
3.3 Research Instruments
The test questions were designed based on four fundamental language
competencies: listening, speaking, reading, and writing, in accordance with the
Year 3 English syllabus. This section of the test comprised a total of 40 marks and
included multiple-choice questions. Additionally, a survey instrument was
created by the researcher in the form of questionnaires to gather data on the
pupils' perceptions after they had used the flipped classroom method in their
English learning.
The questionnaires were generated through Google Forms and distributed to the
sample group. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. Part A collected
demographic information and details about the participants' experiences with the
flipped classroom method in English learning. Part B focused on the participants'
perceptions of their acceptance level of the flipped classroom method in English
learning, specifically in relation to the four basic language skills. Responses were
recorded on a 4-point Likert scale, with scores ranging from 1 to 4. This instrument
facilitated the participants in expressing their opinions about the learning method
and allowed the researcher to gather data for analysis.
Before commencing the actual research, twelve sets of questionnaires were
administered as a pilot test to a sample group of 12 students. Cronbach's alpha
was used to measure reliability, and the resulting Cronbach's alpha value in the
pilot test stood at 0.88, indicating a strong level of internal consistency for the
scale. Consequently, the questionnaire was deemed suitable for use within the
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scope of this research. Both before and after the study, the content and structure
of the questionnaire underwent rigorous examination and validation under the
supervision of the head of the English Panel at a school in the Kulai district.
Additionally, the researcher prepared a transcript and a marking guide to
enhance marking standards and standardize the grading system for both tests.
3.4 Data Collection
Instruments played a crucial role in data collection for this study. If the
instruments were unrelated or too complex for the participants to understand, it
could potentially jeopardize the entire research, leading to invalid data. In this
research, three distinct types of instruments were utilized. The pre-test and post-
test assessments were aligned with the English Common European Framework of
Reference (CEFR) learning content. Initially, the pre-test was administered before
the researcher implemented the treatment, while the post-test occurred after the
pupils had undergone the treatment, which involved the implementation of the
flipped classroom learning method. The interval between these two tests spanned
three weeks. Subsequently, a survey questionnaire was conducted after the pupils
had completed the post-test to gauge their perceptions of the treatment. This
questionnaire comprised two distinct sections, denoted as Part A and Part B.
The process of data collection was meticulously planned within a specific
timeframe and involved the following activities:
• 1 week: Introduction of the topic (Year 3 English: Topic 2 Every Day)
• 1 day: Briefing the pupils/samples about the intervention and creating a
WhatsApp group
• 1 day: Pre-Test
• 4 weeks: Intervention, involving the implementation of the Flipped
Classroom learning method to enhance Year 3 pupils' English skills
(Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing)
• 1 day: Post-Test
• 1 day: Questionnaire
The research commenced with obtaining approval from the school administration
to conduct the study among their selected Year 3 pupils. Ethical considerations
were adhered to, as it is essential for researchers to seek administrative approval
before conducting research within an educational setting. Following this, the
research proceeded with the selection of the sample group, which was done using
purposive sampling, as previously described. Subsequently, the research
involved the administration of both the pre-test and post-test to the sample group.
The post-test was conducted immediately after the pre-test, and it occurred
subsequent to the implementation of the flipped classroom method, as per the
researcher's planned timeline. Both tests were completed within approximately
one hour, with clear instructions provided to the sample group beforehand.
Following the test phase, the survey method was employed, utilizing a
questionnaire distributed via Google Forms to gather information about the
pupils' perceptions after experiencing the flipped classroom approach. The
researcher provided a concise briefing and explanation to the sample group prior
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to their completion of the survey, a process that typically took around 30 minutes
to finish. Subsequent data analysis of the pre-test, post-test, and survey responses
will be conducted using SPSS, with the final results discussed and summarized
by the researcher.
3.5 Data Analysis
In this research the collected data were analysed, computed, summarised and
transcribed using Statical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software.
3.5.1 Analysis of Primary Pupils’ Perception
The questionnaire form uses of 4-point of Likert scale and the scoring of items
used ordinal measurements. To analyse the primary pupils’ perception towards
flipped classroom learning method, the researcher used descriptive analysis to
find out the mean and standard deviation.
3.5.2 Analysis of Primary Pupils’ English Learning Performance
Both Pre-test and Post-test final results completed by samples of the research were
analysed by generalising the data to compare the significance of correlation level.
Firstly, Shapiro-Wilk normality test was conducted to find out the normality of
data. Subsequently, the researcher runs parametric test which is the Wilcoxon
signed-rank test since the data was normally distributed.
3.5.3 Analysis on the Relationship Between Primary Pupils’ English Overall
Performance Before and After Using Flipped Classroom
Researchers analyse the relationship between data from the sample before and
after applying the learning method. Therefore, firstly the Shapiro-Wilk normality
test was conducted to detect the normality of the data before run the analysis.
Next researcher followed by using either Spearman's rank-order correlation
coefficient (data are not regularly distributed) or Pearson's correlation coefficient
(data are normally distributed) to determine the relationship between primary
pupils' overall English performance on both exams.
3.5.4 Analysis of the Influence of Flipped classroom on Year 3 Pupils’ English
Overall Performance
For this analysis, the researcher conducted simple linear regression process to
analyse the data of overall score of both Pre-test and Post-test. This process started
with summary of the model in simple linear between the overall score of post-test
and pre-test to find out how strong the relationship between both tests. Next
researcher carried out the ANOVA test. The ANOVA test is to show the statical
differences between the means of post-test and pre-test. At the ending the
coefficients analysis was used to find out the strength of the linear relationship
between both tests. In addition, to present a clear and descriptive data, the
scatterplot chart was included in this analysis.
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4. Results
4.1 Analysis of Primary Pupils’ Perception
Table 1 present the pupils perceptions and acceptance of flipped classroom
learning method in English learning in terms of listening, speaking, reading, and
writing skills.
Table 1. Mean value and standard deviation based on English listening, speaking,
reading and writing skills
No English basic skills Overall Mean Std.Deviation
1 Listening Skills 3.81 .342
2 Speaking Skills 3.79 .409
3 Reading Skills 3.75 .414
4 Writing Skills 3.79 .410
The table above shows the respondents’ acceptance of flipped classroom learning
method in English learning based on four basic skills. The overall mean for all the
skills is 3.81, 3.79, 3.75 and 3.79. The standard deviation, for the all skills are 0.342,
0.409, 0.414 and 0.410. Based on these results, it shows that the pupils’ has positive
response towards implementing flipped classroom learning method in learning
four English basic skills.
4.2 Effect of flipped classroom learning method on pupils’ English performance
based on Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing Skills
Table 2. Negative Ranks and Positive Ranks data of listening, speaking, reading,
writing skills post-test and pre-test
Ranks Listening
Skill
Speaking
skill
Reading
skill
Writing
skill
Post test –
Pre test
Negative
mean
Ranks
.00 3.00 .00 .00
Positive
mean
Ranks
15.50 15.93 16.00 16.00
Sum of
Ranks
465.00 462.00 496.00 496.00
Table 3. Result of Wilcoxon signed-ranks test between listening, speaking, reading,
writing skills pre-test and post-test
Test
Statisticsª
Listening
Skill
Speaking
skill
Reading
skill
Writing
skill
Pre-test –
Pro-test
Z
-4.871 -4.735 -4.891 -4.909
Asymp.Sig.
(2-tailed)
.000 .000 .000 .000
Based on the table 2 and 3 above, the positive mean ranks of all the skills are 15.50,
15.93 and 16.00 which the mean are greater than negative mean ranks. Sum value
of positive ranks are 465.00, 462.00 and 496.00, exposing that there is improvement
in pupils’ scores from pre-test to post-test. According to the tests results, it can be
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shown that there was a statistically significant difference between the listening,
speaking, reading and writing skills pre-test did generate a statistically significant
different with the score of post-tests (Z= -4.871, p=0.000), (Z= -4.735, p=0.000), (Z
= -4.891, p=0.000), and (Z=-4.909, p=0.000). These results revealed the
effectiveness of the flipped classroom learning method and enhanced the reading,
writing, speaking, and listening skills of Year 3 pupils.
4.3 Relationship between the English overall performance of pupils before and
after using flipped classroom learning method
Table 4. Result of Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient between score of Pre-
tests and Post-tests
Correlations Pre-test Post-test
Spearman’s rho Pre-test Correlation
Coefficient
1.000 .445*
Sig. (2-tailed) . .012
N 31 31
Post-test Correlation
Coefficient
.445* 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .012 .
N 31 31
There exists a relationship between the total scores in both assessments. The
findings above indicate that there is a statistically significant moderate positive
correlation between the overall score on the pre-test and the overall score on the
post-test, or r=0.445, which is between 0.40 and 0.59. The impact of the flipped
classroom learning method on the overall English performance of Year 3 pupils
before and after its implementation was statistically significant (r=0.445, n=31,
p=0.012).
4.4 Influence of flipped classroom learning method on Year 3 Pupils’ English
Overall Performance
Table 5. Summary of the Model in a Simple Linear Regression Analysis between the
Overall Score of Post-test and the Overall Score of Pre-test
Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
Durbin-Watson
1 .353ª .124 .094 6.108 1.999
Table 6. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Table for a Simple Linear Regression
Examining the Overall Score of the Post-test in Relation to the Overall Score of the
Pre-test ANOVAª
Model Sum of
Square
df Mean
Square
F Sig.
1 Regression 153.518 1 153.518 4.115 .052
Residual 1081.966 29 37.309
Total 1235.484 30
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Table 7. Table of Coefficients in a Simple Linear Regression Analysis for the Overall
Score of the Post-test and the Overall Score of the Pre-test
Coefficientsª
Model
Unstandardized
B
Coefficients
Std. Error
Standardized
Coefficients
Beta
t Sig.
1 (Constant) 77.120 2.586 29.821 .000
Pre-test .180 .089 .353 2.028 .052
According to tables 5, 6 and 7 above, there is a moderate positive correlation is
evident between the overall scores of the pre-test and the post-test, as indicated
by the model summary in the simple linear regression analysis for the overall
score of the post-test and the overall score of the pre-test, with an R-value of 0.353.
While R square value is equal to 0.124, which means independent variable is the
overall score of pre-test less influence the dependent variable (overall score of
Post-test), which is only 12.4%. P value is 0.052, which is more than 0.001. Thus,
based on the linear regression analysis, it can be concluded that there is no linear
relationship between the overall score of the post-test and the overall score of the
pre-test. Hence, this outcome can also be supported by referencing Figure 2, a
scatterplot generated using SPSS. The horizontal line positioned at 0 indicates the
absence of a linear relationship between the overall scores of the post-test and pre-
test when subjected to linear regression analysis.
Figure 2: Displays a scatterplot illustrating a simple linear regression analysis
between the combined scores of the post-test and those of the pre-test
5. Discussion
In the initial section of the study, the results indicated a strong endorsement of the
Flipped Classroom learning approach, particularly in the context of Year 3
students' English listening skills. The data suggested that the participants
acknowledged the effectiveness of the Flipped Classroom method in enhancing
their English listening abilities. The statement was similar with the findings of
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(Yousufi, 2020) who stated that flipped classroom learning method shows a
remarkable effect on improving learners' listening skill. Furthermore, the second
part of the survey shows the Year 3 pupils’ acceptance of flipped classroom
learning method based on English speaking skills. This section also received
positive response from the items stated about the flipped classroom learning
method on English speaking skills of the respondents. This discovery shared a
comparable scenario with the research conducted on Abdullah et al., (2019) who
stated that technology tools used in flipped classroom learning method are
helpful, encourage and engaging learning environment to build up learners
abilities along with being the solution of learning and teaching of speaking skills
problem. Next, it is followed by the section which the items related with the Year
3 pupils’ acceptance of flipped classroom learning method based on English
reading skills, which the pupils gave positive feedbacks too. This finding can be
supported by the study of Öztürk & Çakıroğlu, (2021), find that flipped classroom
learning method encourage and engage pupils’ in reading activities and (Gok et
al., 2023) which conclude that flipped classroom learning method improve pupils’
English reading skills. The last section of the survey is about the Year 3 pupils’
acceptance of flipped classroom learning method based on English writing skill
and overall respondents gave positive feedback. The finding also similar with a
study carried by Siswanto, (2021) stated that writing skills has improve pupils'
participation, confidence and happiness to learn which lead them to develop their
English writing skills.
The Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to evaluate the effect of the flipped
classroom learning method on Year 3 pupils’ based on English listening skills.
Referring to the data, there is a significant difference between English listening
pre-test and English listening post-test. Therefore, this finding meant that flipped
classroom learning method is effective on Year 3 pupils’ English listening
performance. It can be justified by referring the mean value in listening post-test,
which is bigger than listening pre-test and it showed that there is a positive effect
on the pupils’ English listening performance after going through the flipped
classroom learning method. This finding is similar with the study of Yousufi,
(2020) who said that flipped classroom learning method brought a incredible
effect on improving learners' listening skill. Furthermore, the Wilcoxon signed-
ranks test was used to examine the effect of the flipped classroom learning
strategy on the English performance based on year 3 pupils’ speaking skills. The
data presented demonstrates a significant difference between the students'
performance in the speaking pre-test and their performance in the speaking post-
test. Hence, we can conclude that flipped classroom learning method is effective
by improve on Year 3 pupils’ English speaking skill. It can be proved by referring
to the mean value of speaking post-test, which is greater than speaking pre-test.
This finding justified that there is a positive outcome by using flipped classroom
learning method on Year 3 pupils’ English speaking skill. This statement also
aligned with the study of Sudarmaji et al., (2021) who stated that Flipped
Classroom is effective in increasing pupil’s performance on English speaking
skills.
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Next, using the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test, the effect of the flipped classroom
learning method of year 3 pupils’ on their English performance of reading skills
was examined. Next, the effect of flipped classroom learning method on Year 3
pupils’ English performance according to their reading skills was analysed by
using Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. The finding displayed that there is a significant
difference between Year 3 pupils’ performance on English reading pre-test and
English reading post-test. Refer to the mean value stated, there is a positive rising
in English reading post-test compared with the mean value of English reading
pre-test. Therefore, the findings show that there is a positive effect on pupils’
reading skills after using flipped classroom learning method and it’s similarly
aligned with the study of (Reflianto et al., 2021) said that flipped learning
improving students engagement and reading comprehension skills. Lastly, the
effect of flipped classroom learning method on Year 3 pupils’ English writing skill
performance had been examined by using Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Based on
the result, it showed that there is a significant difference between the pupils’
performance in English writing pre-test and English writing post-test. These
findings clearly indicate that there is an effect on flipped classroom learning
method on pupils’ English writing performance. The positive increase in mean
value of English writing post-test proved that there is a positive effect of flipped
classroom learning method on Year 3 pupils’ English writing skills. This research
is substantiated by the study on Indayani et al., (2022) said that pupils' writing
skills improved crucially when conducting teaching and learning process using
flipped classroom through a WhatsApp group.
According to Year 3 pupils’ English overall performance before and after applying
flipped classroom learning method had been analysed by using Spearman’s rank-
order correlation coefficient analysis. The result showed there is moderate
positive correlation between the overall pre-test score and overall post-test score.
That means the increase or decrease of overall students’ performance of post-test
are significantly related to the overall students’ performance of pre-test. The
overall students’ performance, slightly shows that the interrelation between both
tests are strong. The relationship between both tests reveal that the flipped
classroom learning method is an effective method of improving pupils’
performance in all English skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing). The
findings are totally align with a study of Mooneeb Ali et al., (2021) said that
learners who went through the learning process by utilizing the Flipped
classroom method got higher score in the test carried out and shows a good
performance.
After Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient analysis had been completed,
the linear regression analysis had been carried out by using both sets of overall
score pre-test and post-test data for the intent whether there is an influence of
flipped classroom learning method after used on Year 3 pupils’ English overall
performance. The discovery revealed that there is no influence of flipped
classroom learning method on Year 3 pupils’ overall performance in English and
this statement also supported from a study conducted by (Wagner, 2020),
suggested that the Flipped Classroom demonstrates more pronounced effects on
subjects in the STEM field (science, technology, engineering, mathematics)
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compared to languages and humanities. In conclusion, this research reveals that
the objective of the study has been accomplished. It can be proved by referring to
the pupils’ results in English achievement test, which has increased drastically
after utilising the flipped classroom learning method. Moreover, pupils also give
a positive perception towards the learning method after experienced the learning
method.
6. Conclusion
In light of the research problem, where English serves as a second language for
Malaysian pupils, with limited opportunities for practice and varying cognitive
learning levels, the findings emphasize the appropriateness and effectiveness of
implementing the flipped classroom learning approach in primary school English
language instruction. Year 3 pupils, facing challenges in language retention and
retrieval due to their linguistic backgrounds, showcased a notable level of
acceptance and satisfaction when engaging with the flipped classroom approach,
encompassing all four essential language skills: speaking, listening, reading, and
writing. Furthermore, the study illuminated a discernible positive impact on Year
3 pupils' English language performance following the adoption of the flipped
classroom learning method. Recognizing the individual differences in learning
pace and the need for additional support, this approach allows for tailored
resource selection, catering to students' diverse levels and educational
requirements. This alignment with the Malaysian educational framework
positions the flipped classroom as a compelling pedagogical tool, advocating for
its broader adoption in primary school language instruction. Notably, the flipped
classroom model extends its benefits beyond students, empowering educators to
curate dynamic teaching and learning experiences that align with 21st-century
learning objectives, integral to the Malaysian education system. This model's
capacity to foster an active and enriching learning environment ultimately
enhances the overall educational journey of primary school students. In summary,
this research underscores the suitability and efficacy of the flipped classroom
learning approach in addressing the challenges posed by English language
instruction for Year 3 pupils in Malaysia. By accommodating individual learning
needs, promoting active communication, and aligning with educational
objectives, the flipped classroom emerges as a valuable tool in the realm of
primary school language education.
Acknowledgment
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Ministry of
Higher Education and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia under UTM Encouragement
Research Grant Scheme (UTMER) (Q.J130000.3853.31J32).
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©Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0
International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 22, No. 10, pp. 18-36, October 2023
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.10.2
Received Aug 25, 2023; Revised Oct 9, 2023; Accepted Oct 24, 2023
Knowledge Management Using Storytelling with
Infographics to Develop Creativity of
Undergraduate Students
Virawan Amnouychokanant
Silpakorn University
Nakhon Pathom, Thailand
Abstract. Creativity is one of the most marketable skills in the digital
age. The main purpose of this study is to explore and enhance the
creativity of undergraduate students through knowledge management
using storytelling with infographics. In this study, an experiment was
conducted with 40 third- and fourth-year students from various majors
of the Faculty of Arts at Silpakorn University. All participants had
enrolled in the Multimedia Design and Production course. A one-group
quasi-experiment with a pretest and posttest design was used. Several
instruments were employed, including a creativity assessment form, a
self-creativity assessment form, an infographic assessment form, and an
infographic design attitudes questionnaire. Initially, participants were
asked to complete the self-creativity assessment form and the creativity
assessment form. During the sessions, all participants were taught using
storytelling with infographics. After they finished designing the
infographics, the instructor assessed the students’ work using a rubric
for infographic assessment. Additionally, students evaluated their own
work. At the end of the course, the students were asked to retake the
self-creativity assessment form and creativity assessment form. The
results showed that students’ creativity scores were significantly higher
in all components (e.g., originality, fluency, flexibility, and elaboration).
Moreover, most students received average scores in infographic design
at the advanced level. However, students were found to lack confidence
and courage in expressing diverging ideas. This highlights the
challenges for instructors and learning designers in researching and
developing suitable and effective methods to boost students’ confidence
and encourage thinking outside the box.
Keywords: creativity; infographics; knowledge management;
storytelling
1. Introduction
Innovation and technology have numerous benefits that impact various aspects
of our lives, society, and the economy. Conversely, various technologies have
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rendered many professions obsolete or will replace more professions in the
future (Verhoef et al., 2021; Vial, 2021). Consequently, undergraduate students
without an advantage over the inexorably improving technology may find it
difficult to survive the fierce competition in the labor market. Relying solely on
academic knowledge from the university is no longer sufficient; undergraduate
students must possess other skills in demand in the digital age.
Creativity stands as one of the most marketable skills in the labor market, as
creative individuals exhibit initiative, flexible imagination, and the ability to
generate new concepts or methods for problem-solving and improvement,
directly or indirectly benefiting organizations (Di Battista et al., 2023). Therefore,
a challenge in the digital age, where technology and creativity play pivotal roles
in development and competition, lies in developing preparatory programs for
undergraduate students to equip them for the labor market, aid self-discovery,
and enhance their skills and knowledge.
Currently, the information on the Internet is massive and dispersed. True and
false information seem to be blending on the Internet. With more people
consuming news online, a concerning consequence is the inadvertent spread of
fake news about health, international events, and political issues. Furthermore,
fake news on Twitter and LINE is more likely to be retweeted or shared (Rocha
et al., 2021; Pennycook & Rand, 2021; Pierri & Ceri, 2019). Communication
through LINE or Facebook groups can have more adverse effects on society due
to a high level of trust compared to interactions with strangers. Prolonged and
repeated interactions with like-minded individuals and exposure to the same
data set lead to a one-sided information reception or selective information
intake, commonly referred to as an “Echo Chamber.” This phenomenon entails
the selective reception of news and media, primarily from like-minded sources
and may lead individuals to perceive their ideas as the absolute and irrefutable
truth, leaving no room for dissenting voices (Terren & Borge-Bravo, 2021; Cinelli
et al., 2021). Another issue arises in close-group communication among senior
citizens, as they may struggle with search engine usage compared to other age
groups, leading to closed groups becoming sources of fake news. Additionally,
sharing misleading content might lead to cyberbullying and hate speech
(Giumetti & Kowalski, 2022; Craig et al., 2020; Matamoros-Fernández & Farkas,
2021; Paz et al., 2020; MacAvaney et al., 2019). Sharing incorrect or distorted
information immeasurably affects the world community. Therefore, students in
the digital age must possess knowledge and critical thinking skills to discern and
exchange factual and reasonable information in society.
Given the aforementioned reasons, the researcher emphasizes the importance of
classroom knowledge management, creating an environment where students
can search, screen, and share knowledge in the digital age, where information
volume is massive. The knowledge management process entails knowledge
identification, creation, acquisition, organization, codification, refinement,
sharing, and application (Ammirato et al., 2021; De Bem Machado et al., 2022). In
this study, the researcher integrated the design process with learning activities
and instructed students to summarize information or knowledge in infographic
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form. This is because infographics allow audiences to understand the content
quickly and clearly. Furthermore, human brains process and respond to pictures
faster than text, making infographics more likely to be read than plain text
information (Apriyanti et al., 2020; Dorneles et al., 2020; Habeeb, 2020).
Silpakorn University’s Faculty of Arts covers diverse fields of science, including
linguistics, library science, history, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and
drama and music. One of the core competencies of the institute is integrated
teaching and learning across sciences to develop the skills needed for 21st-
century learners. Faculty members of the Faculty of Arts focus on developing
students’ creative thinking as it is one of the most important skills for workers in
the digital age. This aligns with the World Economic Forum’s Future of Jobs
2023 report that creativity is the top job market skill (Di Battista et al., 2023).
In this study, I attempt to examine and develop the creativity of undergraduate
students of the Faculty of Arts, Silpakorn University through knowledge
management using storytelling with infographics. I aim to address the following
research questions:
1. What is the level of undergraduate students’ creativity after learning
activities?
2. What are the undergraduate students’ attitudes toward their own creativity
after learning activities?
3. How are the undergraduate students’ infographic design skills?
4. What are the undergraduate students’ attitudes toward their own infographic
design?
2. Literature Review
2.1 Creativity in the Digital Age
Many people tie the word “creativity” with “artistic skills,” such as drawing and
playing musical instruments, to the point they associate the usefulness of
creativity only with artistically capable people. However, creativity is accessible
to everyone and is among the most marketable skills today. The World
Economic Forum’s Future of Jobs 2023 report finds analytical thinking, creative
thinking, artificial intelligence, and big data will be top in-demand skills by 2027.
In 2023, companies consider analytical thinking to be the strongest core skill,
while ranking creative thinking second. However, by 2027, creative thinking is
projected to grow in importance slightly more rapidly than analytical thinking
(Di Battista et al., 2023).
Creativity is not limited to people in the art community, even doctors need
creativity because they have to face diverse situations about patient care.
Doctors often face complex, urgent problems that need immediate solutions. In
addition to the rapidly changing healthcare system, they need more creativity,
especially if the doctor has the job to create or develop an effective patient care
system. Such development requires a specific innovation for the context the
doctor is operating in (Ten Haven et al., 2022). In today’s rapidly changing
world, scientists need to leverage creativity to advance science and technology.
Scientists need to use their creativity to produce new knowledge or develop
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innovative solutions to address increasingly complex problems (Shen, 2023).
Creativity is key for many professions and not just for professionals in art and
design communities.
Advancements in the world community from the past to the digital age—full of
news, information, media, and technologies—could be attributed to the
creativity of persons that developed innovations, leading to more flexibility and
national development. Many countries have included creativity development in
international policy. This is covered in the educational policy, national education
plan, and curriculum and activities. The government provides support for
projects improving citizen creativity. Hence, it can be concluded that the more
creativity among the citizenry, the more development and prosperity for a
country. This is especially true in the 21st century, the era of innovation and
technology that has advanced by leaps and bounds. The students in this era
should receive creativity development support to live effectively in a world full
of competition and technological advancement (Gube & Lajoie, 2020; Puccio,
2017).
The researcher examined the components of creativity (Hendrik, 2022;
Handayani et al., 2021; Almeida et al., 2008) and found four major parts: 1)
originality: a new idea that born of imagination and thinking outside the box or
combination and adaptation of old ideas to a new one; 2) fluency: an ability to
think of things in quantity within a limited time; 3) flexibility: an ability to think
diversely and avoid repetition and redundancy, which is highly important; 4)
elaboration: an ability to think in details to fill up the gaps in the main concept.
Elaboration is related to attention to detail skills, which will be expressed in
finely crafted work. According to four components of creativity, the researcher is
interested in measuring the students’ creativity skills through these four
components.
2.2 The Knowledge Management in Classroom Context
“Knowledge management” is perceived to be a process designed to create,
organize, manage, and utilize knowledge within large organizations. In reality,
knowledge management is not location dependent. Knowledge management
could be done within small classrooms (Thongkoo et al., 2019). There are two
types of knowledge: 1) tacit knowledge gained through experience, gift, or
intuition of a person in understanding things. This is knowledge that cannot be
easily translated into words or text (e.g., working skills, crafting skills, or critical
thinking). 2) explicit knowledge can be collected and passed on through text,
theories, and manuals. Knowledge management requires a process and
knowledge management tool. Much research work in the past proposed
knowledge management through various processes and tools such as storage of
knowledge in a database, big data-based knowledge management (Sumbal et al.,
2021), ontology-based knowledge management (Osman et al., 2022), after action
reviews (Vukanović-Dumanović et al., 2022; Keiser & Arthur Jr, 2021),
mentoring system (Papadopoulou et al., 2016; Bencsik et al., 2014; Srivichai et al.,
2012), cross-functional team (Mohamed et al., 2004; Majchrzak et al., 2012),
workshop and brainstorming (White et al., 2022; Evans, 2012), and communities
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of practice (Arthur, 2016; Reaburn & McDonald, 2017; Lewis & Rush, 2013;
Annala & Mäkinen, 2017; McDonald & Cater-Steel, 2016). Very few works use
storytelling for knowledge management. In this study, the researcher is
interested in using storytelling with infographics as a knowledge management
tool to provide empirical evidence that can help clarify its efficiency in
classroom context.
2.3 Storytelling with Infographics
Storytelling with infographics has a significant impact on students’ creativity in
several ways. Infographics combine text, images, and visual elements to convey
information. This multimedia approach engages both the left and right brain
hemispheres, stimulating creativity. Visual cues can spark creative thinking by
making complex data or concepts more accessible and memorable (Aldalalah,
2021). Effective infographics distill complex information into concise, easy-to-
understand visuals. This simplification allows individuals to focus on creative
problem-solving rather than grappling with data overload (Barlow et al., 2021).
Infographics often include data and statistics, requiring students to analyze and
interpret information. This analytical thinking can spur creativity as students
explore patterns, draw conclusions, and generate new ideas based on the data
they encounter (Chicca & Chunta, 2020). Infographics follow a narrative
structure, presenting information in a logical sequence. This storytelling aspect
can help students organize their ideas creatively, enabling them to convey
complex concepts in a coherent and compelling way (Tsai et al., 2020).
Infographics frequently use visual metaphors to represent abstract concepts or
relationships. Encountering these metaphors can encourage students to think
metaphorically and make imaginative connections between different elements,
fostering creative thinking (Ocobock, 2020). Creating infographics often involves
gathering information from various sources and condensing it into a concise and
visually appealing format. This process requires students to synthesize
information creatively, highlighting key points and leaving out nonessential
details (Jones et al., 2019). Designing an infographic involves making decisions
about layout, color schemes, typography, and visual elements. This design
process encourages students to think creatively about how to present
information in a visually appealing and accessible way (Aldalalah, 2021).
Infographics require students to communicate information clearly and concisely.
Developing these communication skills is essential for creative thinking, as it
helps students express their ideas and insights effectively. Students may need to
overcome challenges when creating infographics, such as finding the best way to
represent complex data or choosing the most suitable visual elements. These
problem-solving activities can stimulate creativity by encouraging students to
find innovative solutions (Jones et al., 2019).
In summary, incorporating infographics into learning activities can be a valuable
tool for improving students' creativity by combining visual learning, data
analysis, narrative structure, and problem-solving. Infographics also draw from
multiple disciplines, combining data analysis, graphic design, and storytelling.
Engaging with infographics can expose students to diverse perspectives and
ideas, fostering creativity through cross-disciplinary learning.
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3. Methodology
3.1 Participants
My sample group comprised 40 undergraduate students enrolled in the
Multimedia Design and Production course. All participants were third- and
fourth-year students of the Faculty of Arts at Silpakorn University. Participants
comprised 10 men and 30 women, and they were taking different majors—
information and library science (16), linguistics (13), social sciences and history
(7), and performing arts (4).
3.2 Research Instruments
This research used the following measuring tools: 1) creativity assessment form
2) self-creativity assessment form 3) infographic assessment form, and 4)
infographic design attitudes questionnaire.
1) Creativity assessment form: The duration of the test was 30 minutes,
consisting of three parts—picture construction (10 mins), picture completion (10
mins), and circles (10 mins). Each part was detailed as follows. Part 1: Draw
additional pictures from the given geometric shapes. Try to be as unique as
possible. Next, name the picture. Part 2: Draw the pictures from the given lines
and name the pictures. Part 3: Draw 30 pictures from the given circle. Each
picture must be different. Next, name the pictures. Pictures needed to be named
in every activity of the creativity test to encourage students to practice their
creativity in using words and language in addition to expressing their ideas
through drawing. Table 1 shows a rubric for creativity assessment.
2) Self-creativity assessment form: this assessment was designed to measure
students’ attitudes toward their own creativity. Items in the assessment form
were designed using a 5-point Likert scale (5 = “strongly agree,” 4 = “agree,” 3 =
“neutral,” 2 = “disagree,” and 1 = “strongly disagree”). The reliability of the self-
creativity assessment form was 0.84. The reliabilities of each dimension were
0.89 (creativity dimension), 0.80 (emotional dimension), and 0.84 (personality
dimension). Table 2 shows the self-creativity assessment form.
3) Infographic assessment form: The evaluation of students’ infographics
included six aspects: design, composition, color, font, presentation, and source
reliability. Table 3 shows the rubric for infographic assessment.
4) Infographic design attitudes questionnaire: I designed this questionnaire to
measure students’ attitudes toward their own infographic design. Items were
designed using a 5-point Likert scale (5 = “strongly agree,” 4 = “agree,” 3 =
“neutral,” 2 = “disagree,” and 1 = “strongly disagree”). The assessment form
contains 13 items. The infographic design attitudes questionnaire had reliability
of 0.79, indicating acceptable internal consistency.
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Table 1: Rubric for creativity assessment
Creativity
components
Proficient
(3 points)
Developing
(2 points)
Basic
(1 point)
Originality
The work presents
new and unique
concepts.
The work presents
new ideas.
However, there are
some parts of the
work duplicated
with other students.
The work is the
same as most
students in the
class.
Fluency
Complete all
assignments within
the time limit.
Complete more
than half of the total
creativity test
within the time
limit.
Complete less
than half of the
total creativity test
when the time
runs out.
Flexibility
Create work in
many ways.
Create many styles
of work, but some
styles are repeated.
Not a wide
variety of
creations and
most of them have
duplicate
concepts.
Elaboration
The work has
exhaustive details.
Some parts of the
work lack
important details.
Most of the work
lacks details and
refinement.
Table 2: Survey items of the self-creativity assessment form
Items
1. Creativity dimension
1.1 Originality: I have great imagination and dare to think and do unconventional and
unique things.
1.2 Flexibility: I accept new ideas and do not stick to original concepts.
1.3 Fluency: I can develop many solutions within a limited time.
1.4 Elaboration: I work with refinement, thoroughness, and meticulousness.
2. Emotional dimension
2.1 Curiosity: I am observant and curious. I never give up looking for answers as long
as my curiosity remains.
2.2 Enthusiasm: I like seeking knowledge, and I am eager to learn.
2.3 Sensitivity: I often perceive changes in the surrounding environment quickly.
2.4 Humor: I am fun, friendly, and not stressed, and I like making others laugh.
3. Personality dimension
3.1 Self-confidence: I have confidence in my ideas.
3.2 Courage: I dare to decide even if my decisions differ from most people’s.
3.3 Commitment: I work hard and can endure difficult and time-consuming tasks.
3.4 Independence: I can express my opinions openly without any concern.
Table 3: Rubric for infographic assessment
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Items
Advanced
(4 points)
Proficient
(3 points)
Developing
(2 points)
Basic
(1 point)
Design
Interesting
theme and
consistent with
objectives and
target groups.
Interesting
theme, but
inconsistent
with objectives
and target
groups at some
points.
No theme, but
it aligns with
objectives and
target groups.
No theme and
inconsistent
with objectives
and target
groups.
Composition
The visual
weight is
distributed
evenly across
the
composition
and not too
cluttered.
The
composition is
not too
cluttered, but
one side seems
heavier than
the other.
The layout of
the
composition is
not as balanced
as it should be,
but it is not too
cluttered.
The layout of
the
composition is
excessively
disorganized
and cluttered.
Color
Use colors that
match the
content.
Use colors that
match the
content in
some parts.
Use too many
colors but
remain
consistent with
the content.
Use too many
colors that are
not suitable for
the content.
Font
The font styles
are appropriate
for the work.
Font sizes vary
according to
content
significance.
The font styles
are suitable for
the work, but
the font is the
same size for
the whole
work.
Font sizes vary
according to
content priority
but use too
many font
styles.
Use the same
font size for the
whole work
and use too
many font
styles.
Presentation
The
presentation of
information is
concise and
accurate.
The
presentation of
information is
concise and
accurate but is
misleading in
some parts.
The
presentation of
information is
concise and
accurate but is
misleading in
some parts.
There are some
misspellings.
Lack of
information
summary and
organization.
There are many
misspellings.
Source
reliability
Sources are
highly reliable.
Some sources
are not reliable.
Many sources
are not reliable.
No references.
3.3 Procedure
I conducted experimental research for 2.5 hours per week over 4 months.
Initially, participants were asked to complete the self-creativity assessment form
and creativity assessment form. The teaching and learning processes for this
course were synthesized into six key steps, as follows: 1) problem analysis, 2)
knowledge creation and acquisition, 3) knowledge codification and refinement,
4) design, 5) knowledge sharing, and 6) evaluation.
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1) Problem analysis is the step wherein students analyzed the current social
issues and turned them into infographics for storytelling. In this step, the
instructor allowed the students to freely select their topics to open their minds,
without limiting their ideas to a certain scope. However, the chosen topic for the
infographics must be informative and different from that of their classmates; 2)
Knowledge creation and acquisition is the step wherein students searched for
information from reputable sources. The instructor recommended that students
selected sources with clear author names and reputable organizational websites
that aligned with the chosen topic. For example, if the topic is about health and
disease, students were encouraged to refer to hospital websites, the Ministry of
Health’s website, or reputable health organizations. 3) Knowledge codification
and refinement involved students screening and compiling information
obtained in the previous step. They were required to understand the content
through reading and analysis. The instructor emphasizes that students should
not copy and paste to avoid plagiarism. 4) Design is the step wherein students
transformed the gathered information into infographics. The instructor then
recommended that students used free and opensource software to design
infographics. Using free and open-source software allowed students to access
resources for design without worrying about copyright issues. 5) Knowledge
sharing involves students presenting their work and exchanging knowledge
with each other and with the instructor. 6) Evaluation is the step where the
instructor assesses the students’ work using the rubric for infographic
assessment. Additionally, students evaluate their own work. At the end of the
course, the students were asked to retake the self-creativity assessment form and
creativity assessment form to compare the pretest and posttest results.
4. Results
4.1 Results of the Creativity Assessment
The researcher administered pretest and posttest creativity assessment forms to
the students for comparison, with the aim of assessing their originality, fluency,
flexibility, and elaboration scores. Table 1 presents the rubric used to assess
creativity. The creativity test obtained from 1 to 4 points is evaluated as basic
level. Creativity test scores ranging from 5 to 8 points are evaluated at the
developing level, while scores above 9 points are considered proficient level.
Table 4 presents the scores obtained in each creativity component. An average
score for each component ranging from 2.50 to 3.00 points is categorized as
proficient, scores from 1.50 to 2.49 points as developing, and scores below 1.50
points as basic. The results showed that students’ creativity scores were
significantly higher in all components. Moreover, they had average posttest
scores in all creativity components at the proficient level, except in fluency.
However, the difference between pretest and posttest scores proved that fluency
had the highest development among students. Before the learning activities,
most students could not finish the creativity assessment form within the time
limit. However, after engaging in learning through knowledge management
using storytelling with infographics, most students had improved their
creativity proficiency, enabling them to complete the creativity assessment form
within the time limit. This resulted in a higher fluency score compared to before
the learning activities began.
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Table 4: Results from the creativity assessment form
Creativity
components
M SD Interpretation t p
Originality (pre)
Originality (post)
1.95
2.70
0.316
0.464
Developing
Proficient
10.817 <0.001**
Fluency (pre)
Fluency (post)
1.08
2.35
0.350
0.483
Basic
Developing
14.552 <0.001**
Flexibility (pre)
Flexibility (post)
1.88
2.85
0.404
0.362
Developing
Proficient
12.854 <0.001**
Elaboration (pre)
Elaboration (post)
1.78
2.50
0.480
0.555
Developing
Proficient
9.067 <0.001**
Total (pre)
Total (post)
6.68
10.40
0.917
1.215
Developing
Proficient
21.241 <0.001**
** p ≤ 0.01
4.2 Results of the Students’ Attitudes toward Their Own Creativity
To gage the students' attitudes toward their creativity, the instructor had them
complete the self-creativity assessment form both before and after the learning
activities. The results showed that after the knowledge management learning
approach, the students exhibited a positive outlook on their creativity (see
details in Table 5). They possessed greater imagination and dare to think and do
unconventional and unique things. They developed more solutions within a
limited time. They believed they could work with more refinement,
thoroughness, and meticulousness. They liked seeking knowledge and are eager
to learn. They believed they worked hard and could endure difficult and time-
consuming tasks. They could also express their opinions openly without any
concern. However, the pretest and posttest scores of self-confidence and courage
had no statistically significant difference. This indicates that the instructor
should focus on enhancing the students’ confidence in expressing their creativity
as prolonged low confidence may limit their ability to think creatively.
Table 5: Results of the self-creativity assessment
Items M SD t p
Originality (pre)
Originality (post)
3.48
3.95
0.847
0.714
5.019 <0.001**
Fluency (pre)
Fluency (post)
3.33
3.80
0.797
0.791
3.219 0.003**
Flexibility (pre)
Flexibility (post)
4.35
4.40
0.580
0.672
0.467 0.643
Elaboration (pre)
Elaboration (post)
3.55
4.13
0.846
0.791
4.309 <0.001**
Curiosity (pre)
Curiosity (post)
4.00
4.30
0.716
0.723
2.223 0.032
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Enthusiasm (pre)
Enthusiasm (post)
4.05
4.50
0.714
0.555
4.201 <0.001**
Sensitivity (pre)
Sensitivity (post)
3.85
4.05
0.802
0.749
1.599 0.118
Humor (pre)
Humor (post)
3.95
4.25
0.815
0.981
2.223 0.032
Self-confidence (pre)
Self-confidence (post)
3.70
3.93
0.723
0.797
1.778 0.083
Courage (pre)
Courage (post)
3.65
3.80
0.802
0.823
1.030 0.309
Commitment (pre)
Commitment (post)
3.68
4.20
0.764
0.823
3.667 <0.001**
Independence (pre)
Independence (post)
3.75
4.15
0.809
0.700
2.726 0.010**
** p ≤ 0.01
4.3 Results of the Infographic Assessment
Table 3 presents the rubric used to assess the infographic. Works wherein the
obtained total score is lower than 7 points were considered basic. Works scored
7–12 points were evaluated as developing. Works scored 13–18 points were
evaluated as proficient level. Those scored more than 18 points were evaluated
as advanced. Table 6 shows the scores obtained in the sessions. Criteria for the
assessment infographic were divided into six categories: design, composition,
color, font, presentation, and source reliability. An average score in each item
ranging from 3.50 to 4.00 points was categorized as advanced, scores from 2.50
to 3.49 points as proficient, scores from 1.50 to 2.49 points as developing, and
scores below 1.50 points as basic. Figure 1 shows some examples of the students’
infographics. The title of infographics translated into English was shown under
each work. The analysis of the infographics produced by the students reveals
that most students received average scores in source reliability at the advanced
level, while average scores in other categories were at the proficient level. The
average total scores were at the advanced level. Infographic work assessment
showed that the students had good design skills and could select reputable
information sources. Nevertheless, the students had the lowest scores in
composition. Thus, the instructor should be more mindful of improving this skill
of the students.
Table 6: Results of the infographic assessment by the instructor
Items M SD Interpretation
Design 3.10 0.71 Proficient
Composition 3.05 0.71 Proficient
Color 3.28 0.75 Proficient
Font 3.10 0.67 Proficient
Presentation 3.15 0.83 Proficient
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Source reliability 3.70 0.79 Advanced
Total 19.58 3.45 Advanced
4.4 Attitudes toward Infographic Design
After designing the infographics, the researcher had the students evaluate their
infographic design. Table 7 presents their attitudes toward infographic design.
Average scores can then be interpreted as follows. Average scores of 1.00–1.49
points were considered as strongly disagree. Average scores of 1.50–2.49 points
were considered disagree. Average scores of 2.50–3.49 points are considered
neutral. Average scores of 3.50–4.49 points are considered agree. Average scores
of 4.50 to 5.00 points are considered strongly agree. The results showed that
more students had a positive attitude toward their work, believing that their
work was useful for others and acknowledging that with more practice in
designing, they could produce even better work. Furthermore, most of the
students demonstrated proficiency in using the design program and devoted
considerable time to designing and creating their work because they aspired for
their work to be the best.
Table 7: Attitudes toward infographic design
Items M SD Interpretation
I have more confidence in designing. 4.20 0.608 agree
I am proud of my work. 4.42 0.747 agree
I am satisfied with my work. 4.35 0.662 agree
Practicing design more makes my work
better.
4.65 0.580 strongly agree
The infographic came out exactly as I
expected.
4.10 0.744 agree
I am fluent in designing. 3.70 0.939 agree
It took me a long time to create a great de-
sign.
4.15 0.700 agree
It took me a long time to design because of
a lack of expertise in using the program.
3.40 1.172 neutral
I can solve problems on my own without
asking for help from the instructor.
3.70 0.823 agree
My work is creative and unique. 3.62 0.740 agree
My work is elaborate. 3.80 0.791 agree
My work is interesting. 4.03 0.660 agree
My work is helpful to others. 4.52 0.751 strongly agree
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Figure 1: Students’ infographics examples
5. Discussion
The findings suggest that students experienced increased creativity after
learning through knowledge management using storytelling with infographics.
This could be attributed to the learning process, which allowed the students to
freely express their creativity without limitations on the topic. The students
could express themselves freely relative to the knowledge that they had
researched and synthesized in infographic storytelling.
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Furthermore, students' higher levels of creativity may come from practicing
telling stories with infographics. Designing an infographic involves making
decisions about layout, color schemes, typography, and visual elements. This
design process encourages students to think creatively about how to present
information in a visually appealing and accessible way. Infographics often draw
from multiple disciplines. Engaging with infographics can expose students to
diverse perspectives and ideas, fostering creativity through cross-disciplinary
learning. This is consistent with the research of Yang et al. (2022), which
examined the effectiveness of digital storytelling on foreign language learners’
English speaking and creative thinking. In their study, digital storytelling was
realized in the form of an interdisciplinary project integrated into a partnership
between an English course and a computer course, with the class time of the
former devoted to the content design and that of the latter to the multimedia
design of learner-generated digital stories. The participants were required to
work in small groups to create their digital stories in the target language,
English, under an eight-week interdisciplinary curriculum. A two-group quasi-
experiment with a pretest and posttest design was then conducted to compare
the participants’ learning outcomes. The findings revealed the meaningful
learning opportunities that digital storytelling fostered in the students’
development to become proficient English speakers and creative thinkers.
Another notable observation was that the students demonstrated more fluent
thinking skills, enabling them to generate many ideas in a limited time. This
finding aligns with Handayani et al. (2021), who also noted that practicing
thinking skills through learning by doing fosters creativity, particularly fluency
in thinking. Students produce many ideas and various answers within a limited
time.
Moreover, in addition to their developed creativity, the students excelled in
obtaining information from reputable sources. This outcome could be attributed
to the knowledge creation and acquisition step, during which the teacher
provided guidance on obtaining information from reputable sources. As a result,
the students were able to disseminate accurate information, contributing to the
creation of a society where people share information and express their opinions
based on facts and reasons (Ammirato et al., 2021; De Bem Machado et al., 2022).
However, when the students evaluated their creativity before and after the
learning activities, it became evident that they still lacked the confidence and
courage to express differing ideas. This indicates the need for the instructor to
work on instilling more confidence in the students, as prolonged low confidence
might hinder their ability to think creatively and outside the box. This result
corresponds to the findings of Ten Haven et al. (2022), which emphasized the
importance of the courage to make mistakes and learn from trial and error as a
factor in promoting creativity. To foster creativity effectively, students must be
open-minded, confident in their own ideas, and willing to think
unconventionally. Cultivating such confidence in students is not an easy task,
and it presents challenges for instructors and learning designers in researching
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ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023
ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023

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ILJTER.ORG Volume 22 Number 10 October 2023

  • 1. International Journal of Learning, Teaching And Educational Research p-ISSN: 1694-2493 e-ISSN: 1694-2116 IJLTER.ORG Vol.22 No.10
  • 2. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 22, No. 10 (October 2023) Print version: 1694-2493 Online version: 1694-2116 IJLTER International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 22, No. 10 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks. Society for Research and Knowledge Management
  • 3. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of learning, teaching and educational research. Aims and Objectives The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators, teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the world to present the results of their research activities in the following fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment; multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education; knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning; virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education; digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e- tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom management issues, educational case studies, etc. Indexing and Abstracting The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned a unique DOI number.
  • 4. Foreword We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue. Editors of the October 2023 Issue
  • 5. VOLUME 22 NUMBER 10 October 2023 Table of Contents Assessing the Effects of Flipped Classroom to the Primary Pupils’ English Learning Performance........................... 1 Thavamani Parati, Mohd Nihra Haruzuan Mohamad Said, Mohd Fadzil Abdul Hanid Knowledge Management Using Storytelling with Infographics to Develop Creativity of Undergraduate Students ....................................................................................................................................................................................................18 Virawan Amnouychokanant “I find it very difficult to go to work; it is emotionally exhausting”: Understanding the Burnout and Underlying Emotions among Malaysian University Academics...........................................................................................................37 Fairuz A'dilah Rusdi, Ateerah Abdul Razak, Zaleha Embong Polymer Science in Action: Transforming the Learning Experience for Undergraduates with Active Learning Strategies...................................................................................................................................................................................54 Chaninan Pruekpramool, Theerapong Sangpradit, Panitarn Wanakamol, Supitcha Supansomboon Assessment of Learning about Sustainability in Students with Down Syndrome........................................................79 Cristina Arranz Barcenilla, Sara Gutiérrez-González, María Consuelo Saiz Manzanares, Lourdes Alameda Cuenca-Romero, Sarah Vandekerkhof A Systematic Review of Interventions Improving University Students’ EFL Writing Competence.......................... 93 Dandan Zhang, Joanna Tjin Ai Tan, Swagata Sinha Roy Nature of Science: A Comparative Analysis of the High School Physics Textbooks in Indonesia and Korea........113 Hartono Bancong, Sukmawati ., Nursalam ., Danilo Jr. Tadeo Exploring the Potential of Integrating Local Wisdom into the Development of Pocket Book Learning Media: A Systematic Literature Review.............................................................................................................................................. 130 Sukadari ., Mahilda Dea Komalasari, Nina Widyaningsih, Gulzhaina K Kassymova4, Fang Yuqi, Lily Muliana Mustafa, Nurudeen Babatunde Bamiro Teacher Training’s Content and Delivery Method Related to Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC): A Systematic Literature Review (SLR)..................................................................................................................152 Sook Wei Loi, Syar Meeze Mohd Rashid, Hasnah Toran Analysis of Vocational Student Performance Criteria on Work Skills Based on Industry Needs: An Analysis for Students' Skill Test Instruments.......................................................................................................................................... 174 Rolly Robert Oroh, Muhammad Muhdi Attaufiq, Metsi Daud, Rocky Frangky Roring Exploring Moodle Usage in Higher Education in the Post-pandemic Era: An Activity-theoretical Investigation of Systemic Contradictions....................................................................................................................................................... 190 Ishaq Salim Al-Naabi Collaborative Learning in Higher Education in the Fourth Industrial Revolution: A Systematic Literature Review and Future Research..............................................................................................................................................................209
  • 6. Adi Bandono, Mukhlis Mukhlis, A. K. susilo, A. R. Prabowo, Acep Maksum The Impact and Challenges of the Implementation of a High-Impact ePortfolio Practice on Graduate Students’ Learning Experiences............................................................................................................................................................231 Hawazen Alharbi Inclusion of Metaverses in the Development of the Flipped Classroom in the University environment: Bibliometric Analysis of Indexed Scientific Production in SCOPUS............................................................................. 247 Omar Chamorro-Atalaya, Víctor Durán-Herrera, Raul Suarez-Bazalar, Constantino Nieves-Barreto, Julio Tarazona-Padilla, Milagros Rojas-Carbajal, Yreneo Cruz-Telada, Juan Caller-Luna, Ronald Alarcón-Anco, José Antonio Arévalo-Tuesta Factors Contributing to Resistance in the use of Information and Communications Technology: A Snapshot on Engineering Graphics and Design Teachers......................................................................................................................271 Philani Brian Mlambo, Mogale Simon Albert Maeko, Samuel Dumazi Khoza Investigating the Impact of Teaching and Learning of Religious Institution [pondok] on the Society in Kelantan, Malaysia.................................................................................................................................................................................. 290 Nik Yusri Musa, Ateerah Abdul Razak, Amanina Abdul Razak Mohamed, Asma Lailee Mohd Noor, Mohd Zain Mubarak, Nur Azuki Yusuff, Noor Hisham Md Nawi, Marwan Ismail, Azhar Muhammad A Comprehensive Approach to Eliminate English Second Language Learners’ Grammatical Difficulties............306 Nomasomi Hilda Matiso Implementation of Virtual Worlds to Promote Distance Practice Teachers' Participation in the English Learning Process.....................................................................................................................................................................................324 Ana Quinonez-Beltran, Carmen Benitez-Correa, Elsa Morocho-Cuenca TikTok as a Source of English Language Content – Perceived Impacts on Students’ Competence: Views from Indonesia.................................................................................................................................................................................340 Fathor Rasyid, Hidayatul Hanjariyah, Nurul Aini Acquisition of Communicative Skills by Foreign Students in a Multicultural Learning Environment...................359 Ran Cao, Lyaziza Sarsenbayeva De/colonising Theoretical Literatures and the Educational Qualifications to Unpack the Grotesque Skills Gap in South Africa............................................................................................................................................................................378 Christiana Kappo-Abidemi, Christopher Babatunde Ogunyemi Comprehensive Academic Thesis Writing Module for English Major Undergraduates in a Public University in China....................................................................................................................................................................................... 394 Gao Jing, Lin Siew Eng Assessment Strategies in Outcome-Based Education: Preferences and Practices Among University Lecturers in Vietnam...................................................................................................................................................................................416 Phuong Hoang Yen, Nguyen Anh Thi, Le Thanh Thao, Nguyen Huong Tra, Pham Trut Thuy, Huynh Thi Anh Thu Unlocking Classroom Potential: Exploring the Mediating Role of Teacher Mindset on Embracing Differentiated Instruction...............................................................................................................................................................................433 Enung - Hasanah, M Ikhsan Al Ghazi, Suyatno Suyatno, Ika Maryani, Mohd Zailani Mohd Yusoff Applying Technical Science Process in Teaching STEM Topics under Model School with Production Practice and Social Life in Vietnam........................................................................................................................................................... 453 Dang Thi Thuan An, Dang Thi Thuan An, Huynh Van Son, Huynh Van Son, Pham Ngo Son, Pham Ngo Son, Nguyen Mau Duc
  • 7. 1 ©Authors This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 10, pp. 1-17, October 2023 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.10.1 Received Aug 24, 2023; Revised Oct 13, 2023; Accepted Oct 19, 2023 Assessing the Effects of Flipped Classroom to the Primary Pupils’ English Learning Performance Thavamani Parati , Mohd Nihra Haruzuan Mohamad Said and Mohd Fadzil Abdul Hanid School of Education Faculty of Social Science and Humanities Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia Abstract. In this era, implementing technology in teaching and learning process without affecting traditional teaching method is very important in the 21st-century education system, which can prevent pupils’ from being outdated, as well as developing their thinking skills. Pupils in primary schools are having difficulty acquiring the fundamental abilities in the English language, encompassing speaking, listening, reading, and writing proficiencies. Therefore, it is crucial to identify effective strategies for enhancing the process of learning the English language within Malaysia's education system. This research concentrated on assessing the impact of Flipped Classroom learning on the English language proficiency of primary school students, specifically in four core language skills. In this quantitative analysis, 31 Year 3 students from a primary school located in the Kulai district were chosen through purposive sampling as participants in the study. Data collection involved surveys, pre-tests, and post-tests. The results indicated a moderately positive correlation between overall performance on these tests and a positive influence on Year 3 students' English skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Additionally, students showed a strong positive acceptance of the Flipped Classroom learning method for these four essential English skills. However, it was found that the Flipped Classroom approach did not significantly alter the students' preferred learning methods. These findings suggest that the Flipped Classroom offers a valuable addition to the education sector, providing an alternative learning approach to enhance second language education and improving English language learning. Keywords: Flipped Classroom; Listening; Speaking; Reading; Writing; Performance; Achievement 1. Background of the study Education is basic human needs which can produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally, physically, and socially balanced and
  • 8. 2 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter harmonious. However, in today's constantly changing environment, the traditional industrial-era educational paradigms are no longer relevant. Educational strategies should not only adapt, but transform to align the digital age to assist our young people to becoming the adults who are successful in the 21st century. Creating a 21st-century education system entails that all pupils are sufficiently equipped to thrive in a competitive environment, where highly talented individuals have many opportunities while the rest of them have few. The focus is on harnessing the potential of technology to enhance 21st-century competencies, facilitate innovative teaching and learning, and establish robust educational support systems (Vockley, 2007). One of the objectives outlined in the Ministry of Education, (2012) is to guarantee that every Malaysian has fair and equal opportunities to receive a top-notch education that meets international standards, as well as to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to scale up quality learning across the country. However, despite of the digital age, we cannot avoid the traditional (face-to-face) instructional method which still prefer and familiar by the pupils and teacher nowadays which has a practice for thousands of years. Teachers for 21st century should be more creative and careful enough in choosing suitable and effective methods for teaching and learning, and at the same time, reaching the pupils’ satisfaction. One of the best and effective methods, which is very popular is the reverse learning method called “Flipped Classroom”. Flipped classroom method is created by Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams in the early days to provide teaching and learning to pupils who do not attend school or face-to-face classes (Bergmann & Sams, 2008). According Paez-Quinde et al., (2022), the flipped classroom is an educational approach where students acquire new knowledge outside of the class, as opposed to the traditional method where learning occurs during class time. Its approach emphasizes on scheduling class time for activities, problem-solving and other forms of instruction. On the other hand, Ruiz-Jiménez et al., (2022) said that the flipped classroom method is a new pedagogical model where the teachers share pre-established digital resources with pupils through a digital platform outside of the classroom and related content taught asynchronously. Besides that, the flipped classroom approach helps in the creation of active learning environment or classroom (Gustian et al., 2023; Siegle, 2014). This learning method encourages active participation by creating a workshop-like environment in which pupils can ask questions regarding their lessons and engage in hands-on activities with them. It is the most approachable and simple method of implementing technology in teaching and learning process without affecting traditional teaching methods, which hold the direct contact between the teachers and students, as well as between learners themselves, called the backbone of education (Shabibi et al., 2017). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the Malaysian government had issued a Movement Control Order (MCO) to manage the pandemic in an orderly manner, which led to all schools needed to be closed. On the other hand, teachers are expected to complete the syllabus or curriculum. As a result, the flipped classroom is strongly suggested as the best way to resolving the problem. It helps to uplift pupils' basic understanding about
  • 9. 3 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter a content and let them to create new knowledge independently by doing mastery learning with those digital materials before attending face-to-face class time after the school reopens. Studies show that flipped classroom had proven that it helped to motivate and increase pupils’ performance (Elian & Hamaidi, 2018; Graham Brent Johnson, 2013). The research gap lies in the absence of a systematic approach that integrates flipped classroom learning and digital resources to facilitate the development of 21st-century skills, particularly the 4C's (Critical thinking, Creativity, Collaboration, and Communication). Despite the potential of this approach to enhance student engagement and performance (Robinson et al., 2019), challenges such as students' limited exposure to technology and the need for tailored materials to accommodate varying cognitive levels remain unaddressed. Additionally, the study aims to explore the potential of flipped classroom learning to establish stronger teacher-student communication and foster active learning, which is crucial in a second language learning context (Wang & Yamat, 2019). By addressing these gaps, this research endeavors to contribute valuable insights into the effective utilization of flipped classroom learning in the Malaysian primary education system, ultimately enhancing students' English language proficiency and overall academic performance. The main aim of this research is to determine the impacts of the flipped classroom on Year 3 pupils in terms of their English skills and how it impacts their performance and acceptance. Primary school pupils, especially in Malay schools are facing challenges in learning English as the second language due to the influence of their mother tongue, limitation of speaking ability, ignorance, confusion with the language and so on. To overcome this issue, teachers should engage pupils in learning the language constantly by using various and effective approaches which may change the pupils’ perception positively about learning the second language and abolish the limitation of using the language among them by creating a quality learning process at school, as well as home. The factors that cause pupils’ learning performance are such as, the form of questions, pupils' perspectives toward examinations, poor learning environment, teachers' quality and pupils' learning styles. 1.1 Conceptual Framework This research had been implemented and chose appropriate theories and model as a guide to identify the effectiveness of flipped classroom learning. Thus, the framework for this research, is a revised version of Bloom’s Taxonomy and had been mainly used as a lens for transmission of information, the Mastery learning model, Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism theories were used to explain how learning occurs to master each level according the Taxonomy. Figure 1 below is the conceptual framework of this study.
  • 10. 4 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Figure 1: Synthesis of the models and theories associated with Flipped Learning 1.2 Scope of Research This research is vital as it assesses the impact of the flipped classroom on primary pupils' English learning performance. Mastering the English language, especially in National schools, is challenging for primary students. Teachers must be innovative in changing the learning environment and strategies to suit students' cognitive levels and align with Malaysia's education system. The flipped classroom combines traditional and modern learning approaches to help students consistently develop their cognitive abilities using technology and traditional tools. This approach ensures students remain relevant in the 21st century. Additionally, it assists teachers in planning well-organized learning processes, ultimately boosting students' English performance. 1.3 Implications and Limitations of the Research The implications of this study in the realm of language education, especially in English language learning within primary schools, are substantial. The Flipped Classroom method demonstrates potential in improving student engagement and proficiency across critical language skills, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. This research will involve a small sample limited to Year 3 pupils studying at a national primary school in the Kulai District. Therefore, the research findings are constrained to the sample group selected based on their similar background and English learning level, solely for assessing their viewpoint regarding the Flipped Classroom approach and how it influences their academic results 2. Literature Review Previous findings of researchers regarding those issues and theories aligned with flipped classroom method in learning English had been discussed and used as a reference to lead this research more efficiently. Both educators and students need to acquire a fresh or broader set of skills, wherein the teacher designs interactive learning experiences to involve pupils beyond the traditional classroom setting and pupils are responsible for independently exploring resources outside of class, attempting to obtain basic information before class, and then actively applying that knowledge in the classroom (Brewer & Movahedazarhouligh, 2018).
  • 11. 5 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Flipped classroom method in teaching and learning process will lead the pupils to do independent learning by applying project base activities. It will encourage the pupils to search and read more resources besides text books or notes prepared by the teachers. Through this way, they will learn how to organise knowledge, develop presentation skills, increase their synthesize ideas, develop their communication skills and more. Other than that, flipped classroom learning explained four pillars of flip which makes it a more adaptable setting, conducive learning atmosphere, purposeful curriculum, and skilled instructor (Flipped Learning Network (FLN), 2014). Flipped classroom method bring a flexible environment to the pupils, which make a comfortable space for them to learn at home using various type of sources according to their flexible learning timeline. The main principle in 21st-century learning in line with School Transformation Programme 2025 are: critical thinking, collaborative, creativity, communication, citizenship, character and one of the pedagogies is digital tools and resources. Thus, the flipped classroom method contained all the requirement of MOE to develop 21st-century education system. Flipped classroom method received positive responses and helped to improve the English grammar (Shaari et al., 2021; Vuong, 2023). Learning English, especially for pupils which English is not their native language, needs more guidance and effective methods to deliver the knowledge. Flipped learning is a versatile approach that can be effectively employed at any educational level (Fatimah Abd Rahman et al., 2019). According Mandasari & Wahyudin, (2021), flipped classroom brings satisfaction to the pupils and easier to conduct learning process while providing a chance to create an independent learning environment along with improving English grammar knowledge. Learning English needs more practice with variety of study materials. Hence, the flipped classroom method gives a chance to pupils to learn independently using various resources that help them to understand better, faster and clear. Flipped learning method also helps to improve pupils’ verbal English communication skill (Tazijan et al., 2017). Besides that, Su Ping et al., (2020) proved that flipped classroom improves pupils’ English writing performance by fully engaging with them and increase their motivation level. According to a study carried by Teo Woon Chun & Ramesh Sathappan, (2018), it is proved that flipped classroom learning method shows a positive perception among pupils, which provides an effective environment for them to communicate and collaborate with their peers and masters in particular skills taught by the teachers. Furthermore, pupils shared their perception about flipped classroom learning method, which is by creating a situation that the teachers direct to them as well as motivate, engage and structure their learning process (Cueva & Inga, 2022; Haghighi et al., 2019). According to Pavanelli, (2018), the flipped classroom approach is seen by students as a valuable educational resource and this method has enhanced their writing abilities within an engaging, cooperative environment. Those interactive learning resources prepared give an opportunity to them to use and explore the technology-based tools and learning materials. Moreover, those resources and classroom activities also bring the pupils to share knowledge
  • 12. 6 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter between their peers, help one another and turn it into a collaborative learning environment. The pupils’ communication skills also improve tremendously here. The flipped classroom learning approach proves to be a valuable tool for enhancing students' foundational English skills, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Yousufi (2020) emphasizes the remarkable impact of the flipped classroom method on improving students' listening abilities, suggesting that practicing listening activities and maintaining consistent engagement are essential for skill enhancement. Sudarmaji (2021) also affirms the effectiveness of the Flipped Classroom in bolstering students' English speaking skills by promoting increased communication between teachers and peers, fostering fluency and interactivity. Ozturk (2021) further supports the use of the flipped classroom method, noting its ability to motivate and involve students in reading activities. The tasks and activities in this approach require students to independently read and follow provided instructions, thereby encouraging more reading and vocabulary acquisition. Additionally, Siswanto (2021) underscores that writing skills benefit significantly from the flipped classroom, as it enhances students' participation, confidence, and enthusiasm for learning. By providing diverse materials and approaches and boosting students' interest and confidence in writing tasks, the flipped classroom effectively nurtures and develops their English writing abilities. 3. Methodology The methodology employed by the researcher was discussed in detail, beginning with the research design, the study's participants, research instruments, data collection, and data analysis. The researcher chose a quantitative approach for this research because the primary aim was to examine the impact of the flipped classroom on English language learning by assessing pupils' performance based on their test scores and gauging their perceptions of the learning method through questionnaire responses. 3.1 Research Design The study's research methodology heavily emphasizes a quantitative approach, employing both test scores and survey responses as primary data sources. The quantitative aspect of the research involves the administration of tests meticulously crafted to assess pupils' performance across the four core language competencies: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Aligned with the Year 3 English syllabus, these tests consist of a total of 40 marks, predominantly comprising multiple-choice questions. By utilizing these test scores, the research aims to quantitatively measure the influence of the flipped classroom method on pupils' English language learning outcomes, providing concrete data to evaluate its effectiveness. Additionally, this study adopts a quasi-experimental design, utilizing a single group of participants to assess the impact of the intervention. In tandem with the quantitative assessment, the research incorporates a survey instrument, designed in the form of questionnaires, to collect invaluable insights
  • 13. 7 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter into pupils' perceptions following their engagement with the flipped classroom approach. These questionnaires are thoughtfully structured to capture pupils' feedback and perspectives regarding the flipped classroom method in English language learning. By analysing the quantitative data from the tests alongside the qualitative data gathered from the surveys, the study provides an extensive assessment of the influence and acceptance of the flipped classroom model within the realm of language education in primary schools. In this study, the instructional design model implemented by the researcher was ADDIE model, which was developed by (Rossett, 1987) and used as a systematic work guide for the purpose of developing learning activities of flipped classroom learning method. The utilization of the ADDIE model process for product creation continues to stand out as one of the successful and efficient approaches because the process serves as a guiding framework for complicated circumstances plus suitable for developing educational products and other learning resources (Branch, 2010). The ADDIE model comprises five sequential stages in the work process: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. 3.2 The participants of the study The group samples were selected using a purposive method. A total of 31 third- grade students from a primary school located in the Kulai district were selected using purposive sampling to participate in this quantitative research. They were randomly selected from Year 3 pupils in the primary school who demonstrated similar levels of proficiency, standards, and ICT skills. 3.3 Research Instruments The test questions were designed based on four fundamental language competencies: listening, speaking, reading, and writing, in accordance with the Year 3 English syllabus. This section of the test comprised a total of 40 marks and included multiple-choice questions. Additionally, a survey instrument was created by the researcher in the form of questionnaires to gather data on the pupils' perceptions after they had used the flipped classroom method in their English learning. The questionnaires were generated through Google Forms and distributed to the sample group. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. Part A collected demographic information and details about the participants' experiences with the flipped classroom method in English learning. Part B focused on the participants' perceptions of their acceptance level of the flipped classroom method in English learning, specifically in relation to the four basic language skills. Responses were recorded on a 4-point Likert scale, with scores ranging from 1 to 4. This instrument facilitated the participants in expressing their opinions about the learning method and allowed the researcher to gather data for analysis. Before commencing the actual research, twelve sets of questionnaires were administered as a pilot test to a sample group of 12 students. Cronbach's alpha was used to measure reliability, and the resulting Cronbach's alpha value in the pilot test stood at 0.88, indicating a strong level of internal consistency for the scale. Consequently, the questionnaire was deemed suitable for use within the
  • 14. 8 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter scope of this research. Both before and after the study, the content and structure of the questionnaire underwent rigorous examination and validation under the supervision of the head of the English Panel at a school in the Kulai district. Additionally, the researcher prepared a transcript and a marking guide to enhance marking standards and standardize the grading system for both tests. 3.4 Data Collection Instruments played a crucial role in data collection for this study. If the instruments were unrelated or too complex for the participants to understand, it could potentially jeopardize the entire research, leading to invalid data. In this research, three distinct types of instruments were utilized. The pre-test and post- test assessments were aligned with the English Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) learning content. Initially, the pre-test was administered before the researcher implemented the treatment, while the post-test occurred after the pupils had undergone the treatment, which involved the implementation of the flipped classroom learning method. The interval between these two tests spanned three weeks. Subsequently, a survey questionnaire was conducted after the pupils had completed the post-test to gauge their perceptions of the treatment. This questionnaire comprised two distinct sections, denoted as Part A and Part B. The process of data collection was meticulously planned within a specific timeframe and involved the following activities: • 1 week: Introduction of the topic (Year 3 English: Topic 2 Every Day) • 1 day: Briefing the pupils/samples about the intervention and creating a WhatsApp group • 1 day: Pre-Test • 4 weeks: Intervention, involving the implementation of the Flipped Classroom learning method to enhance Year 3 pupils' English skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing) • 1 day: Post-Test • 1 day: Questionnaire The research commenced with obtaining approval from the school administration to conduct the study among their selected Year 3 pupils. Ethical considerations were adhered to, as it is essential for researchers to seek administrative approval before conducting research within an educational setting. Following this, the research proceeded with the selection of the sample group, which was done using purposive sampling, as previously described. Subsequently, the research involved the administration of both the pre-test and post-test to the sample group. The post-test was conducted immediately after the pre-test, and it occurred subsequent to the implementation of the flipped classroom method, as per the researcher's planned timeline. Both tests were completed within approximately one hour, with clear instructions provided to the sample group beforehand. Following the test phase, the survey method was employed, utilizing a questionnaire distributed via Google Forms to gather information about the pupils' perceptions after experiencing the flipped classroom approach. The researcher provided a concise briefing and explanation to the sample group prior
  • 15. 9 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter to their completion of the survey, a process that typically took around 30 minutes to finish. Subsequent data analysis of the pre-test, post-test, and survey responses will be conducted using SPSS, with the final results discussed and summarized by the researcher. 3.5 Data Analysis In this research the collected data were analysed, computed, summarised and transcribed using Statical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. 3.5.1 Analysis of Primary Pupils’ Perception The questionnaire form uses of 4-point of Likert scale and the scoring of items used ordinal measurements. To analyse the primary pupils’ perception towards flipped classroom learning method, the researcher used descriptive analysis to find out the mean and standard deviation. 3.5.2 Analysis of Primary Pupils’ English Learning Performance Both Pre-test and Post-test final results completed by samples of the research were analysed by generalising the data to compare the significance of correlation level. Firstly, Shapiro-Wilk normality test was conducted to find out the normality of data. Subsequently, the researcher runs parametric test which is the Wilcoxon signed-rank test since the data was normally distributed. 3.5.3 Analysis on the Relationship Between Primary Pupils’ English Overall Performance Before and After Using Flipped Classroom Researchers analyse the relationship between data from the sample before and after applying the learning method. Therefore, firstly the Shapiro-Wilk normality test was conducted to detect the normality of the data before run the analysis. Next researcher followed by using either Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient (data are not regularly distributed) or Pearson's correlation coefficient (data are normally distributed) to determine the relationship between primary pupils' overall English performance on both exams. 3.5.4 Analysis of the Influence of Flipped classroom on Year 3 Pupils’ English Overall Performance For this analysis, the researcher conducted simple linear regression process to analyse the data of overall score of both Pre-test and Post-test. This process started with summary of the model in simple linear between the overall score of post-test and pre-test to find out how strong the relationship between both tests. Next researcher carried out the ANOVA test. The ANOVA test is to show the statical differences between the means of post-test and pre-test. At the ending the coefficients analysis was used to find out the strength of the linear relationship between both tests. In addition, to present a clear and descriptive data, the scatterplot chart was included in this analysis.
  • 16. 10 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 4. Results 4.1 Analysis of Primary Pupils’ Perception Table 1 present the pupils perceptions and acceptance of flipped classroom learning method in English learning in terms of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. Table 1. Mean value and standard deviation based on English listening, speaking, reading and writing skills No English basic skills Overall Mean Std.Deviation 1 Listening Skills 3.81 .342 2 Speaking Skills 3.79 .409 3 Reading Skills 3.75 .414 4 Writing Skills 3.79 .410 The table above shows the respondents’ acceptance of flipped classroom learning method in English learning based on four basic skills. The overall mean for all the skills is 3.81, 3.79, 3.75 and 3.79. The standard deviation, for the all skills are 0.342, 0.409, 0.414 and 0.410. Based on these results, it shows that the pupils’ has positive response towards implementing flipped classroom learning method in learning four English basic skills. 4.2 Effect of flipped classroom learning method on pupils’ English performance based on Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing Skills Table 2. Negative Ranks and Positive Ranks data of listening, speaking, reading, writing skills post-test and pre-test Ranks Listening Skill Speaking skill Reading skill Writing skill Post test – Pre test Negative mean Ranks .00 3.00 .00 .00 Positive mean Ranks 15.50 15.93 16.00 16.00 Sum of Ranks 465.00 462.00 496.00 496.00 Table 3. Result of Wilcoxon signed-ranks test between listening, speaking, reading, writing skills pre-test and post-test Test Statisticsª Listening Skill Speaking skill Reading skill Writing skill Pre-test – Pro-test Z -4.871 -4.735 -4.891 -4.909 Asymp.Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 Based on the table 2 and 3 above, the positive mean ranks of all the skills are 15.50, 15.93 and 16.00 which the mean are greater than negative mean ranks. Sum value of positive ranks are 465.00, 462.00 and 496.00, exposing that there is improvement in pupils’ scores from pre-test to post-test. According to the tests results, it can be
  • 17. 11 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter shown that there was a statistically significant difference between the listening, speaking, reading and writing skills pre-test did generate a statistically significant different with the score of post-tests (Z= -4.871, p=0.000), (Z= -4.735, p=0.000), (Z = -4.891, p=0.000), and (Z=-4.909, p=0.000). These results revealed the effectiveness of the flipped classroom learning method and enhanced the reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills of Year 3 pupils. 4.3 Relationship between the English overall performance of pupils before and after using flipped classroom learning method Table 4. Result of Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient between score of Pre- tests and Post-tests Correlations Pre-test Post-test Spearman’s rho Pre-test Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .445* Sig. (2-tailed) . .012 N 31 31 Post-test Correlation Coefficient .445* 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .012 . N 31 31 There exists a relationship between the total scores in both assessments. The findings above indicate that there is a statistically significant moderate positive correlation between the overall score on the pre-test and the overall score on the post-test, or r=0.445, which is between 0.40 and 0.59. The impact of the flipped classroom learning method on the overall English performance of Year 3 pupils before and after its implementation was statistically significant (r=0.445, n=31, p=0.012). 4.4 Influence of flipped classroom learning method on Year 3 Pupils’ English Overall Performance Table 5. Summary of the Model in a Simple Linear Regression Analysis between the Overall Score of Post-test and the Overall Score of Pre-test Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Durbin-Watson 1 .353ª .124 .094 6.108 1.999 Table 6. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Table for a Simple Linear Regression Examining the Overall Score of the Post-test in Relation to the Overall Score of the Pre-test ANOVAª Model Sum of Square df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 153.518 1 153.518 4.115 .052 Residual 1081.966 29 37.309 Total 1235.484 30
  • 18. 12 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Table 7. Table of Coefficients in a Simple Linear Regression Analysis for the Overall Score of the Post-test and the Overall Score of the Pre-test Coefficientsª Model Unstandardized B Coefficients Std. Error Standardized Coefficients Beta t Sig. 1 (Constant) 77.120 2.586 29.821 .000 Pre-test .180 .089 .353 2.028 .052 According to tables 5, 6 and 7 above, there is a moderate positive correlation is evident between the overall scores of the pre-test and the post-test, as indicated by the model summary in the simple linear regression analysis for the overall score of the post-test and the overall score of the pre-test, with an R-value of 0.353. While R square value is equal to 0.124, which means independent variable is the overall score of pre-test less influence the dependent variable (overall score of Post-test), which is only 12.4%. P value is 0.052, which is more than 0.001. Thus, based on the linear regression analysis, it can be concluded that there is no linear relationship between the overall score of the post-test and the overall score of the pre-test. Hence, this outcome can also be supported by referencing Figure 2, a scatterplot generated using SPSS. The horizontal line positioned at 0 indicates the absence of a linear relationship between the overall scores of the post-test and pre- test when subjected to linear regression analysis. Figure 2: Displays a scatterplot illustrating a simple linear regression analysis between the combined scores of the post-test and those of the pre-test 5. Discussion In the initial section of the study, the results indicated a strong endorsement of the Flipped Classroom learning approach, particularly in the context of Year 3 students' English listening skills. The data suggested that the participants acknowledged the effectiveness of the Flipped Classroom method in enhancing their English listening abilities. The statement was similar with the findings of
  • 19. 13 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter (Yousufi, 2020) who stated that flipped classroom learning method shows a remarkable effect on improving learners' listening skill. Furthermore, the second part of the survey shows the Year 3 pupils’ acceptance of flipped classroom learning method based on English speaking skills. This section also received positive response from the items stated about the flipped classroom learning method on English speaking skills of the respondents. This discovery shared a comparable scenario with the research conducted on Abdullah et al., (2019) who stated that technology tools used in flipped classroom learning method are helpful, encourage and engaging learning environment to build up learners abilities along with being the solution of learning and teaching of speaking skills problem. Next, it is followed by the section which the items related with the Year 3 pupils’ acceptance of flipped classroom learning method based on English reading skills, which the pupils gave positive feedbacks too. This finding can be supported by the study of Öztürk & Çakıroğlu, (2021), find that flipped classroom learning method encourage and engage pupils’ in reading activities and (Gok et al., 2023) which conclude that flipped classroom learning method improve pupils’ English reading skills. The last section of the survey is about the Year 3 pupils’ acceptance of flipped classroom learning method based on English writing skill and overall respondents gave positive feedback. The finding also similar with a study carried by Siswanto, (2021) stated that writing skills has improve pupils' participation, confidence and happiness to learn which lead them to develop their English writing skills. The Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to evaluate the effect of the flipped classroom learning method on Year 3 pupils’ based on English listening skills. Referring to the data, there is a significant difference between English listening pre-test and English listening post-test. Therefore, this finding meant that flipped classroom learning method is effective on Year 3 pupils’ English listening performance. It can be justified by referring the mean value in listening post-test, which is bigger than listening pre-test and it showed that there is a positive effect on the pupils’ English listening performance after going through the flipped classroom learning method. This finding is similar with the study of Yousufi, (2020) who said that flipped classroom learning method brought a incredible effect on improving learners' listening skill. Furthermore, the Wilcoxon signed- ranks test was used to examine the effect of the flipped classroom learning strategy on the English performance based on year 3 pupils’ speaking skills. The data presented demonstrates a significant difference between the students' performance in the speaking pre-test and their performance in the speaking post- test. Hence, we can conclude that flipped classroom learning method is effective by improve on Year 3 pupils’ English speaking skill. It can be proved by referring to the mean value of speaking post-test, which is greater than speaking pre-test. This finding justified that there is a positive outcome by using flipped classroom learning method on Year 3 pupils’ English speaking skill. This statement also aligned with the study of Sudarmaji et al., (2021) who stated that Flipped Classroom is effective in increasing pupil’s performance on English speaking skills.
  • 20. 14 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Next, using the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test, the effect of the flipped classroom learning method of year 3 pupils’ on their English performance of reading skills was examined. Next, the effect of flipped classroom learning method on Year 3 pupils’ English performance according to their reading skills was analysed by using Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. The finding displayed that there is a significant difference between Year 3 pupils’ performance on English reading pre-test and English reading post-test. Refer to the mean value stated, there is a positive rising in English reading post-test compared with the mean value of English reading pre-test. Therefore, the findings show that there is a positive effect on pupils’ reading skills after using flipped classroom learning method and it’s similarly aligned with the study of (Reflianto et al., 2021) said that flipped learning improving students engagement and reading comprehension skills. Lastly, the effect of flipped classroom learning method on Year 3 pupils’ English writing skill performance had been examined by using Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Based on the result, it showed that there is a significant difference between the pupils’ performance in English writing pre-test and English writing post-test. These findings clearly indicate that there is an effect on flipped classroom learning method on pupils’ English writing performance. The positive increase in mean value of English writing post-test proved that there is a positive effect of flipped classroom learning method on Year 3 pupils’ English writing skills. This research is substantiated by the study on Indayani et al., (2022) said that pupils' writing skills improved crucially when conducting teaching and learning process using flipped classroom through a WhatsApp group. According to Year 3 pupils’ English overall performance before and after applying flipped classroom learning method had been analysed by using Spearman’s rank- order correlation coefficient analysis. The result showed there is moderate positive correlation between the overall pre-test score and overall post-test score. That means the increase or decrease of overall students’ performance of post-test are significantly related to the overall students’ performance of pre-test. The overall students’ performance, slightly shows that the interrelation between both tests are strong. The relationship between both tests reveal that the flipped classroom learning method is an effective method of improving pupils’ performance in all English skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing). The findings are totally align with a study of Mooneeb Ali et al., (2021) said that learners who went through the learning process by utilizing the Flipped classroom method got higher score in the test carried out and shows a good performance. After Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient analysis had been completed, the linear regression analysis had been carried out by using both sets of overall score pre-test and post-test data for the intent whether there is an influence of flipped classroom learning method after used on Year 3 pupils’ English overall performance. The discovery revealed that there is no influence of flipped classroom learning method on Year 3 pupils’ overall performance in English and this statement also supported from a study conducted by (Wagner, 2020), suggested that the Flipped Classroom demonstrates more pronounced effects on subjects in the STEM field (science, technology, engineering, mathematics)
  • 21. 15 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter compared to languages and humanities. In conclusion, this research reveals that the objective of the study has been accomplished. It can be proved by referring to the pupils’ results in English achievement test, which has increased drastically after utilising the flipped classroom learning method. Moreover, pupils also give a positive perception towards the learning method after experienced the learning method. 6. Conclusion In light of the research problem, where English serves as a second language for Malaysian pupils, with limited opportunities for practice and varying cognitive learning levels, the findings emphasize the appropriateness and effectiveness of implementing the flipped classroom learning approach in primary school English language instruction. Year 3 pupils, facing challenges in language retention and retrieval due to their linguistic backgrounds, showcased a notable level of acceptance and satisfaction when engaging with the flipped classroom approach, encompassing all four essential language skills: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Furthermore, the study illuminated a discernible positive impact on Year 3 pupils' English language performance following the adoption of the flipped classroom learning method. Recognizing the individual differences in learning pace and the need for additional support, this approach allows for tailored resource selection, catering to students' diverse levels and educational requirements. This alignment with the Malaysian educational framework positions the flipped classroom as a compelling pedagogical tool, advocating for its broader adoption in primary school language instruction. Notably, the flipped classroom model extends its benefits beyond students, empowering educators to curate dynamic teaching and learning experiences that align with 21st-century learning objectives, integral to the Malaysian education system. This model's capacity to foster an active and enriching learning environment ultimately enhances the overall educational journey of primary school students. In summary, this research underscores the suitability and efficacy of the flipped classroom learning approach in addressing the challenges posed by English language instruction for Year 3 pupils in Malaysia. By accommodating individual learning needs, promoting active communication, and aligning with educational objectives, the flipped classroom emerges as a valuable tool in the realm of primary school language education. Acknowledgment The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Ministry of Higher Education and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia under UTM Encouragement Research Grant Scheme (UTMER) (Q.J130000.3853.31J32). 7. References Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2008). Remixing Chemistry Class: Two Colorado Teachers Make Vodcasts of Their Lectures to Free Up Class Time for Hands-On Activities. Learning & Leading with Technology, 36(4), 22–27. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ904290.pdf Branch, R. M. (2010). Instructional design: The ADDIE approach. In Instructional Design: The ADDIE Approach. Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-09506-6
  • 22. 16 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Brewer, R., & Movahedazarhouligh, S. (2018). Successful stories and conflicts: A literature review on the effectiveness of flipped learning in higher education. In Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (Vol. 34, Issue 4, pp. 409–416). Blackwell Publishing Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12250 Collado-Valero, J., Rodríguez-Infante, G., Romero-González, M., Gamboa-Ternero, S., Navarro-Soria, I., & Lavigne-Cerván, R. (2021). Flipped classroom: Active methodology for sustainable learning in higher education during social distancing due to COVID-19. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105336 Cueva, A., & Inga, E. (2022). Information and Communication Technologies for Education Considering the Flipped Learning Model. Education Sciences, 12(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030207 Davies, R. S., Dean, D. L., & Ball, N. (2013). Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(4), 563–580. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-013-9305-6 Elian, S. A., & Hamaidi, D. A. (2018). The effect of using flipped classroom strategy on the academic achievement of fourth grade students in Jordan. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(2), 110–125. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v13i02.7816 Fatimah Abd Rahman, S., Md Yunus, M., & Hashim, H. (2019). An Overview of Flipped Learning Studies in Malaysia. Arab World English Journal, 10(4), 194–203. https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol10no4.15 Flipped Learning Network (FLN). (2014). The four pillars of FLI-PTM. https://flippedlearning.org/wp- content/uploads/2016/07/FLIP_handout_FNL_Web.pdf Graham Brent Johnson. (2013). Student Perceptions Of The Flipped Classroom [The University of British. ]. https://assets.techsmith.com/Docs/pdf- landingpages/Student_Perceptions_of_the_flipped_Classroom- _Graham_Johnson.pdf Gustian, K., Rusmawaty, D., Mulawarman, U., Kuaro, J., Kelua, G., Samarinda Ulu, K., Samarinda, K., & Timur, K. (2023). The Benefits of Flipped Classroom Model for Efl Learners. Journal on Education, 05(04). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31004/joe.v5i4.2411 Haghighi, H., Jafarigohar, M., Khoshsima, H., & Vahdany, F. (2019). Impact of flipped classroom on EFL learners’ appropriate use of refusal: achievement, participation, perception. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(3), 261–293. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1504083 Mandasari, B., & Wahyudin, A. Y. (2021). Flipped Classroom Learning Model: Implementation and Its Impact on EFL Learners’ Satisfaction on Grammar Class. Ethical Lingua, 8(1), 150–158. https://ethicallingua.org/25409190/article/view/234 Ministry of Education. (2012). Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025. www.moe.gov.my Paez-Quinde, C., Chasipanta-Nieves, A., Hernandez-Davila, C. A., & Arevalo-Peralta, J. (2022). Flipped classroom in the meaningful learning of the students of the Basic Education Career: Case study Technical University of Ambato. IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON, 2022-March, 785–789. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUCON52537.2022.9766792 Pavanelli, R. (2018). The Flipped Classroom: A Mixed Methods Study of Academic Performance and Student Perception in EAP Writing Context. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.30845/ijll.v5n2p3
  • 23. 17 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Robinson, C. D., Scott, W., & Gottfried, M. A. (2019). Taking It to the Next Level: A Field Experiment to Improve Instructor-Student Relationships in College. AERA Open, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858419839707 Rossett, A. (1987). Training Needs Assessment. Educational Technology. https://books.google.com.my/books?hl=en&lr=&id=IWBppwNMC- QC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=Rossett+ Ruiz-Jiménez, M. C., Martínez-Jiménez, R., Licerán-Gutiérrez, A., & García-Martí, E. (2022). Students’ attitude: Key to understanding the improvement of their academic RESULTS in a flipped classroom environment. International Journal of Management Education, 20(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2022.100635 Shaari, N. D., Shaari, A. H., & Abdullah, M. R. (2021). Investigating the impact of flipped classroom on dual language learners’ perceptions and grammatical performance. Studies in English Language and Education, 8(2), 690–709. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v8i2.18872 Shabibi, J., Thurya, S., Al-Shabibi, M., Al-Ayasra, A.-K., & Al-Shabibi, J. M. (2017). The Impact of Using Flipped Classroom in the Learning Process: A scoping Review. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/352799143 Siegle, D. (2014). Technology: Differentiating instruction by flipping the classroom. Gifted Child Today, 37(1), 51–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/1076217513497579 Struyven, K., Dochy, F., & Janssens, S. (2005). Students’ perceptions about evaluation and assessment in higher education: A review. In Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education (Vol. 30, Issue 4, pp. 325–341). https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930500099102 Su Ping, R. L., Verezub, E., Adi Badiozaman, I. F. bt, & Chen, W. S. (2020). Tracing EFL students’ flipped classroom journey in a writing class: Lessons from Malaysia. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 57(3), 305–316. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2019.1574597 Tazijan, F. N., Abdullah, C. H., Zainol, N., Noor, S. M., & Johari, N. R. (2017). Building Communication Skills through Flipped Classroom Article Information. International Academic Research Journal of Social Science, 3(1), 142–147. http://www.iarjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/IARJSS2017_1_142-147.pdf Teo Woon Chun, & Ramesh Sathappan. (2018). The effectiveness of using Flipped Classroom Approach to teach adjectives to Malaysian Year 4 Chinese ESL learners. English Teacher, 47(2), 53–63. https://melta.org.my/journals/TET/downloads/tet47_02_03.pdf Vockley, M. (2007). Maximizing the Impact: The Pivotal Role of Technology in a 21st Century Education System. https://www.immagic.com/eLibrary/ARCHIVES/GENERAL/SETDA_US/S0712 11S.pdf Vuong, N. H. A. (2023). Moodle As a Potential Online Platform Used In The Flipped Classrooms In The Vietnamese EFL Teaching Context. European Journal of Education Studies, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v10i3.4710 Wang, F., & Yamat, H. (2019). Identifying English Vocabulary Levels of Malaysia Year 5 Primary School Students. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 9(12). https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v9-i12/6669 Yousufi, U. (2020). An Integrative Review of Flipped Classroom Model. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(2), 90–97. https://doi.org/10.12691/education-8-2-4
  • 24. 18 ©Authors This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 22, No. 10, pp. 18-36, October 2023 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.22.10.2 Received Aug 25, 2023; Revised Oct 9, 2023; Accepted Oct 24, 2023 Knowledge Management Using Storytelling with Infographics to Develop Creativity of Undergraduate Students Virawan Amnouychokanant Silpakorn University Nakhon Pathom, Thailand Abstract. Creativity is one of the most marketable skills in the digital age. The main purpose of this study is to explore and enhance the creativity of undergraduate students through knowledge management using storytelling with infographics. In this study, an experiment was conducted with 40 third- and fourth-year students from various majors of the Faculty of Arts at Silpakorn University. All participants had enrolled in the Multimedia Design and Production course. A one-group quasi-experiment with a pretest and posttest design was used. Several instruments were employed, including a creativity assessment form, a self-creativity assessment form, an infographic assessment form, and an infographic design attitudes questionnaire. Initially, participants were asked to complete the self-creativity assessment form and the creativity assessment form. During the sessions, all participants were taught using storytelling with infographics. After they finished designing the infographics, the instructor assessed the students’ work using a rubric for infographic assessment. Additionally, students evaluated their own work. At the end of the course, the students were asked to retake the self-creativity assessment form and creativity assessment form. The results showed that students’ creativity scores were significantly higher in all components (e.g., originality, fluency, flexibility, and elaboration). Moreover, most students received average scores in infographic design at the advanced level. However, students were found to lack confidence and courage in expressing diverging ideas. This highlights the challenges for instructors and learning designers in researching and developing suitable and effective methods to boost students’ confidence and encourage thinking outside the box. Keywords: creativity; infographics; knowledge management; storytelling 1. Introduction Innovation and technology have numerous benefits that impact various aspects of our lives, society, and the economy. Conversely, various technologies have
  • 25. 19 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter rendered many professions obsolete or will replace more professions in the future (Verhoef et al., 2021; Vial, 2021). Consequently, undergraduate students without an advantage over the inexorably improving technology may find it difficult to survive the fierce competition in the labor market. Relying solely on academic knowledge from the university is no longer sufficient; undergraduate students must possess other skills in demand in the digital age. Creativity stands as one of the most marketable skills in the labor market, as creative individuals exhibit initiative, flexible imagination, and the ability to generate new concepts or methods for problem-solving and improvement, directly or indirectly benefiting organizations (Di Battista et al., 2023). Therefore, a challenge in the digital age, where technology and creativity play pivotal roles in development and competition, lies in developing preparatory programs for undergraduate students to equip them for the labor market, aid self-discovery, and enhance their skills and knowledge. Currently, the information on the Internet is massive and dispersed. True and false information seem to be blending on the Internet. With more people consuming news online, a concerning consequence is the inadvertent spread of fake news about health, international events, and political issues. Furthermore, fake news on Twitter and LINE is more likely to be retweeted or shared (Rocha et al., 2021; Pennycook & Rand, 2021; Pierri & Ceri, 2019). Communication through LINE or Facebook groups can have more adverse effects on society due to a high level of trust compared to interactions with strangers. Prolonged and repeated interactions with like-minded individuals and exposure to the same data set lead to a one-sided information reception or selective information intake, commonly referred to as an “Echo Chamber.” This phenomenon entails the selective reception of news and media, primarily from like-minded sources and may lead individuals to perceive their ideas as the absolute and irrefutable truth, leaving no room for dissenting voices (Terren & Borge-Bravo, 2021; Cinelli et al., 2021). Another issue arises in close-group communication among senior citizens, as they may struggle with search engine usage compared to other age groups, leading to closed groups becoming sources of fake news. Additionally, sharing misleading content might lead to cyberbullying and hate speech (Giumetti & Kowalski, 2022; Craig et al., 2020; Matamoros-Fernández & Farkas, 2021; Paz et al., 2020; MacAvaney et al., 2019). Sharing incorrect or distorted information immeasurably affects the world community. Therefore, students in the digital age must possess knowledge and critical thinking skills to discern and exchange factual and reasonable information in society. Given the aforementioned reasons, the researcher emphasizes the importance of classroom knowledge management, creating an environment where students can search, screen, and share knowledge in the digital age, where information volume is massive. The knowledge management process entails knowledge identification, creation, acquisition, organization, codification, refinement, sharing, and application (Ammirato et al., 2021; De Bem Machado et al., 2022). In this study, the researcher integrated the design process with learning activities and instructed students to summarize information or knowledge in infographic
  • 26. 20 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter form. This is because infographics allow audiences to understand the content quickly and clearly. Furthermore, human brains process and respond to pictures faster than text, making infographics more likely to be read than plain text information (Apriyanti et al., 2020; Dorneles et al., 2020; Habeeb, 2020). Silpakorn University’s Faculty of Arts covers diverse fields of science, including linguistics, library science, history, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and drama and music. One of the core competencies of the institute is integrated teaching and learning across sciences to develop the skills needed for 21st- century learners. Faculty members of the Faculty of Arts focus on developing students’ creative thinking as it is one of the most important skills for workers in the digital age. This aligns with the World Economic Forum’s Future of Jobs 2023 report that creativity is the top job market skill (Di Battista et al., 2023). In this study, I attempt to examine and develop the creativity of undergraduate students of the Faculty of Arts, Silpakorn University through knowledge management using storytelling with infographics. I aim to address the following research questions: 1. What is the level of undergraduate students’ creativity after learning activities? 2. What are the undergraduate students’ attitudes toward their own creativity after learning activities? 3. How are the undergraduate students’ infographic design skills? 4. What are the undergraduate students’ attitudes toward their own infographic design? 2. Literature Review 2.1 Creativity in the Digital Age Many people tie the word “creativity” with “artistic skills,” such as drawing and playing musical instruments, to the point they associate the usefulness of creativity only with artistically capable people. However, creativity is accessible to everyone and is among the most marketable skills today. The World Economic Forum’s Future of Jobs 2023 report finds analytical thinking, creative thinking, artificial intelligence, and big data will be top in-demand skills by 2027. In 2023, companies consider analytical thinking to be the strongest core skill, while ranking creative thinking second. However, by 2027, creative thinking is projected to grow in importance slightly more rapidly than analytical thinking (Di Battista et al., 2023). Creativity is not limited to people in the art community, even doctors need creativity because they have to face diverse situations about patient care. Doctors often face complex, urgent problems that need immediate solutions. In addition to the rapidly changing healthcare system, they need more creativity, especially if the doctor has the job to create or develop an effective patient care system. Such development requires a specific innovation for the context the doctor is operating in (Ten Haven et al., 2022). In today’s rapidly changing world, scientists need to leverage creativity to advance science and technology. Scientists need to use their creativity to produce new knowledge or develop
  • 27. 21 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter innovative solutions to address increasingly complex problems (Shen, 2023). Creativity is key for many professions and not just for professionals in art and design communities. Advancements in the world community from the past to the digital age—full of news, information, media, and technologies—could be attributed to the creativity of persons that developed innovations, leading to more flexibility and national development. Many countries have included creativity development in international policy. This is covered in the educational policy, national education plan, and curriculum and activities. The government provides support for projects improving citizen creativity. Hence, it can be concluded that the more creativity among the citizenry, the more development and prosperity for a country. This is especially true in the 21st century, the era of innovation and technology that has advanced by leaps and bounds. The students in this era should receive creativity development support to live effectively in a world full of competition and technological advancement (Gube & Lajoie, 2020; Puccio, 2017). The researcher examined the components of creativity (Hendrik, 2022; Handayani et al., 2021; Almeida et al., 2008) and found four major parts: 1) originality: a new idea that born of imagination and thinking outside the box or combination and adaptation of old ideas to a new one; 2) fluency: an ability to think of things in quantity within a limited time; 3) flexibility: an ability to think diversely and avoid repetition and redundancy, which is highly important; 4) elaboration: an ability to think in details to fill up the gaps in the main concept. Elaboration is related to attention to detail skills, which will be expressed in finely crafted work. According to four components of creativity, the researcher is interested in measuring the students’ creativity skills through these four components. 2.2 The Knowledge Management in Classroom Context “Knowledge management” is perceived to be a process designed to create, organize, manage, and utilize knowledge within large organizations. In reality, knowledge management is not location dependent. Knowledge management could be done within small classrooms (Thongkoo et al., 2019). There are two types of knowledge: 1) tacit knowledge gained through experience, gift, or intuition of a person in understanding things. This is knowledge that cannot be easily translated into words or text (e.g., working skills, crafting skills, or critical thinking). 2) explicit knowledge can be collected and passed on through text, theories, and manuals. Knowledge management requires a process and knowledge management tool. Much research work in the past proposed knowledge management through various processes and tools such as storage of knowledge in a database, big data-based knowledge management (Sumbal et al., 2021), ontology-based knowledge management (Osman et al., 2022), after action reviews (Vukanović-Dumanović et al., 2022; Keiser & Arthur Jr, 2021), mentoring system (Papadopoulou et al., 2016; Bencsik et al., 2014; Srivichai et al., 2012), cross-functional team (Mohamed et al., 2004; Majchrzak et al., 2012), workshop and brainstorming (White et al., 2022; Evans, 2012), and communities
  • 28. 22 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter of practice (Arthur, 2016; Reaburn & McDonald, 2017; Lewis & Rush, 2013; Annala & Mäkinen, 2017; McDonald & Cater-Steel, 2016). Very few works use storytelling for knowledge management. In this study, the researcher is interested in using storytelling with infographics as a knowledge management tool to provide empirical evidence that can help clarify its efficiency in classroom context. 2.3 Storytelling with Infographics Storytelling with infographics has a significant impact on students’ creativity in several ways. Infographics combine text, images, and visual elements to convey information. This multimedia approach engages both the left and right brain hemispheres, stimulating creativity. Visual cues can spark creative thinking by making complex data or concepts more accessible and memorable (Aldalalah, 2021). Effective infographics distill complex information into concise, easy-to- understand visuals. This simplification allows individuals to focus on creative problem-solving rather than grappling with data overload (Barlow et al., 2021). Infographics often include data and statistics, requiring students to analyze and interpret information. This analytical thinking can spur creativity as students explore patterns, draw conclusions, and generate new ideas based on the data they encounter (Chicca & Chunta, 2020). Infographics follow a narrative structure, presenting information in a logical sequence. This storytelling aspect can help students organize their ideas creatively, enabling them to convey complex concepts in a coherent and compelling way (Tsai et al., 2020). Infographics frequently use visual metaphors to represent abstract concepts or relationships. Encountering these metaphors can encourage students to think metaphorically and make imaginative connections between different elements, fostering creative thinking (Ocobock, 2020). Creating infographics often involves gathering information from various sources and condensing it into a concise and visually appealing format. This process requires students to synthesize information creatively, highlighting key points and leaving out nonessential details (Jones et al., 2019). Designing an infographic involves making decisions about layout, color schemes, typography, and visual elements. This design process encourages students to think creatively about how to present information in a visually appealing and accessible way (Aldalalah, 2021). Infographics require students to communicate information clearly and concisely. Developing these communication skills is essential for creative thinking, as it helps students express their ideas and insights effectively. Students may need to overcome challenges when creating infographics, such as finding the best way to represent complex data or choosing the most suitable visual elements. These problem-solving activities can stimulate creativity by encouraging students to find innovative solutions (Jones et al., 2019). In summary, incorporating infographics into learning activities can be a valuable tool for improving students' creativity by combining visual learning, data analysis, narrative structure, and problem-solving. Infographics also draw from multiple disciplines, combining data analysis, graphic design, and storytelling. Engaging with infographics can expose students to diverse perspectives and ideas, fostering creativity through cross-disciplinary learning.
  • 29. 23 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 3. Methodology 3.1 Participants My sample group comprised 40 undergraduate students enrolled in the Multimedia Design and Production course. All participants were third- and fourth-year students of the Faculty of Arts at Silpakorn University. Participants comprised 10 men and 30 women, and they were taking different majors— information and library science (16), linguistics (13), social sciences and history (7), and performing arts (4). 3.2 Research Instruments This research used the following measuring tools: 1) creativity assessment form 2) self-creativity assessment form 3) infographic assessment form, and 4) infographic design attitudes questionnaire. 1) Creativity assessment form: The duration of the test was 30 minutes, consisting of three parts—picture construction (10 mins), picture completion (10 mins), and circles (10 mins). Each part was detailed as follows. Part 1: Draw additional pictures from the given geometric shapes. Try to be as unique as possible. Next, name the picture. Part 2: Draw the pictures from the given lines and name the pictures. Part 3: Draw 30 pictures from the given circle. Each picture must be different. Next, name the pictures. Pictures needed to be named in every activity of the creativity test to encourage students to practice their creativity in using words and language in addition to expressing their ideas through drawing. Table 1 shows a rubric for creativity assessment. 2) Self-creativity assessment form: this assessment was designed to measure students’ attitudes toward their own creativity. Items in the assessment form were designed using a 5-point Likert scale (5 = “strongly agree,” 4 = “agree,” 3 = “neutral,” 2 = “disagree,” and 1 = “strongly disagree”). The reliability of the self- creativity assessment form was 0.84. The reliabilities of each dimension were 0.89 (creativity dimension), 0.80 (emotional dimension), and 0.84 (personality dimension). Table 2 shows the self-creativity assessment form. 3) Infographic assessment form: The evaluation of students’ infographics included six aspects: design, composition, color, font, presentation, and source reliability. Table 3 shows the rubric for infographic assessment. 4) Infographic design attitudes questionnaire: I designed this questionnaire to measure students’ attitudes toward their own infographic design. Items were designed using a 5-point Likert scale (5 = “strongly agree,” 4 = “agree,” 3 = “neutral,” 2 = “disagree,” and 1 = “strongly disagree”). The assessment form contains 13 items. The infographic design attitudes questionnaire had reliability of 0.79, indicating acceptable internal consistency.
  • 30. 24 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Table 1: Rubric for creativity assessment Creativity components Proficient (3 points) Developing (2 points) Basic (1 point) Originality The work presents new and unique concepts. The work presents new ideas. However, there are some parts of the work duplicated with other students. The work is the same as most students in the class. Fluency Complete all assignments within the time limit. Complete more than half of the total creativity test within the time limit. Complete less than half of the total creativity test when the time runs out. Flexibility Create work in many ways. Create many styles of work, but some styles are repeated. Not a wide variety of creations and most of them have duplicate concepts. Elaboration The work has exhaustive details. Some parts of the work lack important details. Most of the work lacks details and refinement. Table 2: Survey items of the self-creativity assessment form Items 1. Creativity dimension 1.1 Originality: I have great imagination and dare to think and do unconventional and unique things. 1.2 Flexibility: I accept new ideas and do not stick to original concepts. 1.3 Fluency: I can develop many solutions within a limited time. 1.4 Elaboration: I work with refinement, thoroughness, and meticulousness. 2. Emotional dimension 2.1 Curiosity: I am observant and curious. I never give up looking for answers as long as my curiosity remains. 2.2 Enthusiasm: I like seeking knowledge, and I am eager to learn. 2.3 Sensitivity: I often perceive changes in the surrounding environment quickly. 2.4 Humor: I am fun, friendly, and not stressed, and I like making others laugh. 3. Personality dimension 3.1 Self-confidence: I have confidence in my ideas. 3.2 Courage: I dare to decide even if my decisions differ from most people’s. 3.3 Commitment: I work hard and can endure difficult and time-consuming tasks. 3.4 Independence: I can express my opinions openly without any concern. Table 3: Rubric for infographic assessment
  • 31. 25 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Items Advanced (4 points) Proficient (3 points) Developing (2 points) Basic (1 point) Design Interesting theme and consistent with objectives and target groups. Interesting theme, but inconsistent with objectives and target groups at some points. No theme, but it aligns with objectives and target groups. No theme and inconsistent with objectives and target groups. Composition The visual weight is distributed evenly across the composition and not too cluttered. The composition is not too cluttered, but one side seems heavier than the other. The layout of the composition is not as balanced as it should be, but it is not too cluttered. The layout of the composition is excessively disorganized and cluttered. Color Use colors that match the content. Use colors that match the content in some parts. Use too many colors but remain consistent with the content. Use too many colors that are not suitable for the content. Font The font styles are appropriate for the work. Font sizes vary according to content significance. The font styles are suitable for the work, but the font is the same size for the whole work. Font sizes vary according to content priority but use too many font styles. Use the same font size for the whole work and use too many font styles. Presentation The presentation of information is concise and accurate. The presentation of information is concise and accurate but is misleading in some parts. The presentation of information is concise and accurate but is misleading in some parts. There are some misspellings. Lack of information summary and organization. There are many misspellings. Source reliability Sources are highly reliable. Some sources are not reliable. Many sources are not reliable. No references. 3.3 Procedure I conducted experimental research for 2.5 hours per week over 4 months. Initially, participants were asked to complete the self-creativity assessment form and creativity assessment form. The teaching and learning processes for this course were synthesized into six key steps, as follows: 1) problem analysis, 2) knowledge creation and acquisition, 3) knowledge codification and refinement, 4) design, 5) knowledge sharing, and 6) evaluation.
  • 32. 26 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 1) Problem analysis is the step wherein students analyzed the current social issues and turned them into infographics for storytelling. In this step, the instructor allowed the students to freely select their topics to open their minds, without limiting their ideas to a certain scope. However, the chosen topic for the infographics must be informative and different from that of their classmates; 2) Knowledge creation and acquisition is the step wherein students searched for information from reputable sources. The instructor recommended that students selected sources with clear author names and reputable organizational websites that aligned with the chosen topic. For example, if the topic is about health and disease, students were encouraged to refer to hospital websites, the Ministry of Health’s website, or reputable health organizations. 3) Knowledge codification and refinement involved students screening and compiling information obtained in the previous step. They were required to understand the content through reading and analysis. The instructor emphasizes that students should not copy and paste to avoid plagiarism. 4) Design is the step wherein students transformed the gathered information into infographics. The instructor then recommended that students used free and opensource software to design infographics. Using free and open-source software allowed students to access resources for design without worrying about copyright issues. 5) Knowledge sharing involves students presenting their work and exchanging knowledge with each other and with the instructor. 6) Evaluation is the step where the instructor assesses the students’ work using the rubric for infographic assessment. Additionally, students evaluate their own work. At the end of the course, the students were asked to retake the self-creativity assessment form and creativity assessment form to compare the pretest and posttest results. 4. Results 4.1 Results of the Creativity Assessment The researcher administered pretest and posttest creativity assessment forms to the students for comparison, with the aim of assessing their originality, fluency, flexibility, and elaboration scores. Table 1 presents the rubric used to assess creativity. The creativity test obtained from 1 to 4 points is evaluated as basic level. Creativity test scores ranging from 5 to 8 points are evaluated at the developing level, while scores above 9 points are considered proficient level. Table 4 presents the scores obtained in each creativity component. An average score for each component ranging from 2.50 to 3.00 points is categorized as proficient, scores from 1.50 to 2.49 points as developing, and scores below 1.50 points as basic. The results showed that students’ creativity scores were significantly higher in all components. Moreover, they had average posttest scores in all creativity components at the proficient level, except in fluency. However, the difference between pretest and posttest scores proved that fluency had the highest development among students. Before the learning activities, most students could not finish the creativity assessment form within the time limit. However, after engaging in learning through knowledge management using storytelling with infographics, most students had improved their creativity proficiency, enabling them to complete the creativity assessment form within the time limit. This resulted in a higher fluency score compared to before the learning activities began.
  • 33. 27 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Table 4: Results from the creativity assessment form Creativity components M SD Interpretation t p Originality (pre) Originality (post) 1.95 2.70 0.316 0.464 Developing Proficient 10.817 <0.001** Fluency (pre) Fluency (post) 1.08 2.35 0.350 0.483 Basic Developing 14.552 <0.001** Flexibility (pre) Flexibility (post) 1.88 2.85 0.404 0.362 Developing Proficient 12.854 <0.001** Elaboration (pre) Elaboration (post) 1.78 2.50 0.480 0.555 Developing Proficient 9.067 <0.001** Total (pre) Total (post) 6.68 10.40 0.917 1.215 Developing Proficient 21.241 <0.001** ** p ≤ 0.01 4.2 Results of the Students’ Attitudes toward Their Own Creativity To gage the students' attitudes toward their creativity, the instructor had them complete the self-creativity assessment form both before and after the learning activities. The results showed that after the knowledge management learning approach, the students exhibited a positive outlook on their creativity (see details in Table 5). They possessed greater imagination and dare to think and do unconventional and unique things. They developed more solutions within a limited time. They believed they could work with more refinement, thoroughness, and meticulousness. They liked seeking knowledge and are eager to learn. They believed they worked hard and could endure difficult and time- consuming tasks. They could also express their opinions openly without any concern. However, the pretest and posttest scores of self-confidence and courage had no statistically significant difference. This indicates that the instructor should focus on enhancing the students’ confidence in expressing their creativity as prolonged low confidence may limit their ability to think creatively. Table 5: Results of the self-creativity assessment Items M SD t p Originality (pre) Originality (post) 3.48 3.95 0.847 0.714 5.019 <0.001** Fluency (pre) Fluency (post) 3.33 3.80 0.797 0.791 3.219 0.003** Flexibility (pre) Flexibility (post) 4.35 4.40 0.580 0.672 0.467 0.643 Elaboration (pre) Elaboration (post) 3.55 4.13 0.846 0.791 4.309 <0.001** Curiosity (pre) Curiosity (post) 4.00 4.30 0.716 0.723 2.223 0.032
  • 34. 28 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Enthusiasm (pre) Enthusiasm (post) 4.05 4.50 0.714 0.555 4.201 <0.001** Sensitivity (pre) Sensitivity (post) 3.85 4.05 0.802 0.749 1.599 0.118 Humor (pre) Humor (post) 3.95 4.25 0.815 0.981 2.223 0.032 Self-confidence (pre) Self-confidence (post) 3.70 3.93 0.723 0.797 1.778 0.083 Courage (pre) Courage (post) 3.65 3.80 0.802 0.823 1.030 0.309 Commitment (pre) Commitment (post) 3.68 4.20 0.764 0.823 3.667 <0.001** Independence (pre) Independence (post) 3.75 4.15 0.809 0.700 2.726 0.010** ** p ≤ 0.01 4.3 Results of the Infographic Assessment Table 3 presents the rubric used to assess the infographic. Works wherein the obtained total score is lower than 7 points were considered basic. Works scored 7–12 points were evaluated as developing. Works scored 13–18 points were evaluated as proficient level. Those scored more than 18 points were evaluated as advanced. Table 6 shows the scores obtained in the sessions. Criteria for the assessment infographic were divided into six categories: design, composition, color, font, presentation, and source reliability. An average score in each item ranging from 3.50 to 4.00 points was categorized as advanced, scores from 2.50 to 3.49 points as proficient, scores from 1.50 to 2.49 points as developing, and scores below 1.50 points as basic. Figure 1 shows some examples of the students’ infographics. The title of infographics translated into English was shown under each work. The analysis of the infographics produced by the students reveals that most students received average scores in source reliability at the advanced level, while average scores in other categories were at the proficient level. The average total scores were at the advanced level. Infographic work assessment showed that the students had good design skills and could select reputable information sources. Nevertheless, the students had the lowest scores in composition. Thus, the instructor should be more mindful of improving this skill of the students. Table 6: Results of the infographic assessment by the instructor Items M SD Interpretation Design 3.10 0.71 Proficient Composition 3.05 0.71 Proficient Color 3.28 0.75 Proficient Font 3.10 0.67 Proficient Presentation 3.15 0.83 Proficient
  • 35. 29 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Source reliability 3.70 0.79 Advanced Total 19.58 3.45 Advanced 4.4 Attitudes toward Infographic Design After designing the infographics, the researcher had the students evaluate their infographic design. Table 7 presents their attitudes toward infographic design. Average scores can then be interpreted as follows. Average scores of 1.00–1.49 points were considered as strongly disagree. Average scores of 1.50–2.49 points were considered disagree. Average scores of 2.50–3.49 points are considered neutral. Average scores of 3.50–4.49 points are considered agree. Average scores of 4.50 to 5.00 points are considered strongly agree. The results showed that more students had a positive attitude toward their work, believing that their work was useful for others and acknowledging that with more practice in designing, they could produce even better work. Furthermore, most of the students demonstrated proficiency in using the design program and devoted considerable time to designing and creating their work because they aspired for their work to be the best. Table 7: Attitudes toward infographic design Items M SD Interpretation I have more confidence in designing. 4.20 0.608 agree I am proud of my work. 4.42 0.747 agree I am satisfied with my work. 4.35 0.662 agree Practicing design more makes my work better. 4.65 0.580 strongly agree The infographic came out exactly as I expected. 4.10 0.744 agree I am fluent in designing. 3.70 0.939 agree It took me a long time to create a great de- sign. 4.15 0.700 agree It took me a long time to design because of a lack of expertise in using the program. 3.40 1.172 neutral I can solve problems on my own without asking for help from the instructor. 3.70 0.823 agree My work is creative and unique. 3.62 0.740 agree My work is elaborate. 3.80 0.791 agree My work is interesting. 4.03 0.660 agree My work is helpful to others. 4.52 0.751 strongly agree
  • 36. 30 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Figure 1: Students’ infographics examples 5. Discussion The findings suggest that students experienced increased creativity after learning through knowledge management using storytelling with infographics. This could be attributed to the learning process, which allowed the students to freely express their creativity without limitations on the topic. The students could express themselves freely relative to the knowledge that they had researched and synthesized in infographic storytelling.
  • 37. 31 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Furthermore, students' higher levels of creativity may come from practicing telling stories with infographics. Designing an infographic involves making decisions about layout, color schemes, typography, and visual elements. This design process encourages students to think creatively about how to present information in a visually appealing and accessible way. Infographics often draw from multiple disciplines. Engaging with infographics can expose students to diverse perspectives and ideas, fostering creativity through cross-disciplinary learning. This is consistent with the research of Yang et al. (2022), which examined the effectiveness of digital storytelling on foreign language learners’ English speaking and creative thinking. In their study, digital storytelling was realized in the form of an interdisciplinary project integrated into a partnership between an English course and a computer course, with the class time of the former devoted to the content design and that of the latter to the multimedia design of learner-generated digital stories. The participants were required to work in small groups to create their digital stories in the target language, English, under an eight-week interdisciplinary curriculum. A two-group quasi- experiment with a pretest and posttest design was then conducted to compare the participants’ learning outcomes. The findings revealed the meaningful learning opportunities that digital storytelling fostered in the students’ development to become proficient English speakers and creative thinkers. Another notable observation was that the students demonstrated more fluent thinking skills, enabling them to generate many ideas in a limited time. This finding aligns with Handayani et al. (2021), who also noted that practicing thinking skills through learning by doing fosters creativity, particularly fluency in thinking. Students produce many ideas and various answers within a limited time. Moreover, in addition to their developed creativity, the students excelled in obtaining information from reputable sources. This outcome could be attributed to the knowledge creation and acquisition step, during which the teacher provided guidance on obtaining information from reputable sources. As a result, the students were able to disseminate accurate information, contributing to the creation of a society where people share information and express their opinions based on facts and reasons (Ammirato et al., 2021; De Bem Machado et al., 2022). However, when the students evaluated their creativity before and after the learning activities, it became evident that they still lacked the confidence and courage to express differing ideas. This indicates the need for the instructor to work on instilling more confidence in the students, as prolonged low confidence might hinder their ability to think creatively and outside the box. This result corresponds to the findings of Ten Haven et al. (2022), which emphasized the importance of the courage to make mistakes and learn from trial and error as a factor in promoting creativity. To foster creativity effectively, students must be open-minded, confident in their own ideas, and willing to think unconventionally. Cultivating such confidence in students is not an easy task, and it presents challenges for instructors and learning designers in researching