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IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 12 December 2020

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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.

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International Journal
of
Learning, Teaching
And
Educational Research
p-ISSN:
1694-2493
e-ISSN:
1694-2116
IJLTER.ORG
Vol.19 No.12
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
(IJLTER)
Vol. 19, No. 12 (December 2020)
Print version: 1694-2493
Online version: 1694-2116
IJLTER
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER)
Vol. 19, No. 12
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part
of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations,
broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks.
Society for Research and Knowledge Management
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been
established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the
fields of learning, teaching and educational research.
Aims and Objectives
The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators,
teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the
world to present the results of their research activities in the following
fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment;
multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education;
knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning;
virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education;
digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e-
tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom
management issues, educational case studies, etc.
Indexing and Abstracting
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in
Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned
a unique DOI number.
Foreword
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and Educational Research.
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to
publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions
may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to
problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational
organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website
http://www.ijlter.org.
We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board
and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue.
We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration.
The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the
world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers.
We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal
with this issue.
Editors of the December 2020 Issue
VOLUME 19 NUMBER 12 December 2020
Table of Contents
Analysis of Lesson Plans from Rwandan Physics Teachers..............................................................................................1
Kizito Ndihokubwayo, Irénée Ndayambaje and Jean Uwamahoro
First-Year Accounting Student Teachers’ Perceptions of their Classroom Learning Environment........................... 30
Mapuya Medson
How Adolescent Students with Disabilities and /or Complex Needs Perceive the Notion of Resilience: A Study
in Greece and England......................................................................................................................................................... 43
Maria Georgiadi, Stefanos Plexousakis, Josie Maitland, Elias Kourkoutas and Angie Hart
Reshaping the University Curriculum through the Visiting Lectureship.....................................................................70
Valentyna I. Bobrytska, Hanna V. Krasylnykova, Nina G. Batechko, Nataliia А. Beseda and Yevhenii S. Spitsyn
Teaching Children with Special Needs in Nigerian Regular Classes: Impact of Gender, Marital Status, Experience,
and Specialty ......................................................................................................................................................................... 86
Kingsley Chinaza Nwosu, WP Wahl, Hasina Cassim, Emmanuel Nkemakolam Okwuduba and Gloria Uzoamaka Nnaemeka
Attainment of the Immediate Program Graduate Attributes and Learning Outcomes of Teacher Candidates
towards Global Competence Initiatives........................................................................................................................... 106
Gilbert C. Magulod, Leonilo B. Capulso, Josephine Pineda Dasig, Micheal Bhobet B. Baluyot, John Noel S. Nisperos, Ethel
Reyes-Chua, Mahyudin Ritonga, Randy Joy M. Ventayen, Assel Khassenova, Mashraky Mustary and Supat Chupradit
The Development of Instructional Leadership Scale of Elementary School Principals in Indonesia ...................... 126
Agung Purwa Widiyan, Saowanee Sirisooksilp and Pennee Kantavong Narot
Unlocking the Cultural Diversity Black Box: Application of Culturally Responsive Pedagogies in University
Classrooms in Zimbabwe .................................................................................................................................................. 146
Norman Rudhumbu
A Conceptual Research Model for Investigating the Impact of Online Teacherpreneurship Education on Students’
Teacherpreneurial Competencies and Intentions in Preservice Teacher Education .................................................. 163
Olusiji Adebola Lasekan, Reyaz Malik and Claudia Méndez Alarcon
Curriculum Structure and its Influence on Content Knowledge of Economics Student Teachers .......................... 190
Mothofela R Msimanga
Questions in English Medium Instruction Undergraduate Lectures in a Sri Lankan University: Why are they
important?............................................................................................................................................................................ 208
Abdul Majeed Mohamed Navaz
Exploring Pre-Service Teachers’ Emotional Competence and Motivation for the Choice of a Teaching Career... 230
Tea Pavin Ivanec
Convergence or Divergence in EFL Teachers’ and Learners’ Beliefs on Using Smartphones in Learning English:
The Case of Master1 Students - University of Tlemcen (Algeria) ................................................................................ 246
Fatima Zohra Belkhir-Benmostefa
Investigating Predictors of Academic Plagiarism among University Students.......................................................... 264
Sumayah Nabee, Joash Mageto and Noleen Pisa
Reimagining the Sustainable and Social Justice Mathematics Classrooms in the Fourth Industrial Revolution... 281
Tshele J. Moloi and Mogalatjane E. Matabane
Efficacy of Teachers’ In‐Service Training for Increasing Their Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia....................................................................................................................... 295
Tareq Melhem

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IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 12 December 2020

  • 1. International Journal of Learning, Teaching And Educational Research p-ISSN: 1694-2493 e-ISSN: 1694-2116 IJLTER.ORG Vol.19 No.12
  • 2. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 19, No. 12 (December 2020) Print version: 1694-2493 Online version: 1694-2116 IJLTER International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 19, No. 12 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks. Society for Research and Knowledge Management
  • 3. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of learning, teaching and educational research. Aims and Objectives The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators, teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the world to present the results of their research activities in the following fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment; multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education; knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning; virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education; digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e- tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom management issues, educational case studies, etc. Indexing and Abstracting The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned a unique DOI number.
  • 4. Foreword We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue. Editors of the December 2020 Issue
  • 5. VOLUME 19 NUMBER 12 December 2020 Table of Contents Analysis of Lesson Plans from Rwandan Physics Teachers..............................................................................................1 Kizito Ndihokubwayo, Irénée Ndayambaje and Jean Uwamahoro First-Year Accounting Student Teachers’ Perceptions of their Classroom Learning Environment........................... 30 Mapuya Medson How Adolescent Students with Disabilities and /or Complex Needs Perceive the Notion of Resilience: A Study in Greece and England......................................................................................................................................................... 43 Maria Georgiadi, Stefanos Plexousakis, Josie Maitland, Elias Kourkoutas and Angie Hart Reshaping the University Curriculum through the Visiting Lectureship.....................................................................70 Valentyna I. Bobrytska, Hanna V. Krasylnykova, Nina G. Batechko, Nataliia А. Beseda and Yevhenii S. Spitsyn Teaching Children with Special Needs in Nigerian Regular Classes: Impact of Gender, Marital Status, Experience, and Specialty ......................................................................................................................................................................... 86 Kingsley Chinaza Nwosu, WP Wahl, Hasina Cassim, Emmanuel Nkemakolam Okwuduba and Gloria Uzoamaka Nnaemeka Attainment of the Immediate Program Graduate Attributes and Learning Outcomes of Teacher Candidates towards Global Competence Initiatives........................................................................................................................... 106 Gilbert C. Magulod, Leonilo B. Capulso, Josephine Pineda Dasig, Micheal Bhobet B. Baluyot, John Noel S. Nisperos, Ethel Reyes-Chua, Mahyudin Ritonga, Randy Joy M. Ventayen, Assel Khassenova, Mashraky Mustary and Supat Chupradit The Development of Instructional Leadership Scale of Elementary School Principals in Indonesia ...................... 126 Agung Purwa Widiyan, Saowanee Sirisooksilp and Pennee Kantavong Narot Unlocking the Cultural Diversity Black Box: Application of Culturally Responsive Pedagogies in University Classrooms in Zimbabwe .................................................................................................................................................. 146 Norman Rudhumbu A Conceptual Research Model for Investigating the Impact of Online Teacherpreneurship Education on Students’ Teacherpreneurial Competencies and Intentions in Preservice Teacher Education .................................................. 163 Olusiji Adebola Lasekan, Reyaz Malik and Claudia Méndez Alarcon Curriculum Structure and its Influence on Content Knowledge of Economics Student Teachers .......................... 190 Mothofela R Msimanga Questions in English Medium Instruction Undergraduate Lectures in a Sri Lankan University: Why are they important?............................................................................................................................................................................ 208 Abdul Majeed Mohamed Navaz Exploring Pre-Service Teachers’ Emotional Competence and Motivation for the Choice of a Teaching Career... 230 Tea Pavin Ivanec
  • 6. Convergence or Divergence in EFL Teachers’ and Learners’ Beliefs on Using Smartphones in Learning English: The Case of Master1 Students - University of Tlemcen (Algeria) ................................................................................ 246 Fatima Zohra Belkhir-Benmostefa Investigating Predictors of Academic Plagiarism among University Students.......................................................... 264 Sumayah Nabee, Joash Mageto and Noleen Pisa Reimagining the Sustainable and Social Justice Mathematics Classrooms in the Fourth Industrial Revolution... 281 Tshele J. Moloi and Mogalatjane E. Matabane Efficacy of Teachers’ In‐Service Training for Increasing Their Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia....................................................................................................................... 295 Tareq Melhem
  • 7. 1 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 19, No. 12, pp. 1-29, December 2020 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.12.1 Analysis of Lesson Plans from Rwandan Physics Teachers Kizito Ndihokubwayo* African Center of Excellence for Innovative Teaching and Learning of Mathematics and Science (ACEITLMS) University of Rwanda College of Education (URCE), Rwanda https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2566-8045 Irénée Ndayambaje Rwanda Education Board (REB), Rwanda https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5300-9063 Jean Uwamahoro African Center of Excellence for Innovative Teaching and Learning of Mathematics and Science (ACEITLMS) University of Rwanda College of Education (URCE), Rwanda https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1730-6685 Abstract. Lesson planning is a crucial roadmap guiding the teacher before the implementation of the lesson. In the current study, we aimed at reviewing pedagogical documents used by Rwandan physics teachers. We gathered 32 lesson plans related to optics topics from five teachers and analyzed them using the lesson plan analysis protocol (LPAP) and lesson plan evaluation form (LPEF) jointly. We have found that teachers do not prepare these documents as required by the newly introduced competence-based curriculum. Teachers plan for low levels of Bloom's cognitive and affective taxonomy domains and do not follow effective inquiry techniques along the stages of the lesson activities. A detailed discussion on each teacher’s practice was provided, and we hope it can serve as a qualitative overview on teaching and learning planning for effective classroom implementation. Due to the importance of pedagogical documents on effective teaching, we went through a rigorous validation process and suggested a model lesson plan to be consulted by any physics teacher (please see Appendix C). We recommend that teachers consult this lesson plan and prepare accordingly before class. Keywords: pedagogical document; lesson plan; physics teacher; competence-based curriculum * Corresponding author: Kizito Ndihokubwayo; Email: ndihokubwayokizito@gmail.com
  • 8. 2 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Any teacher in any subject needs to prepare the lesson before implementing it in the classroom. There are many types of pedagogical documents that teachers need as their daily instruments. These include the scheme of work, lesson plan, class diary, mark sheet, attendance list, notebook, evaluation notebook, exercise notebook, and so forth. However, these documents are importantly used for different purposes according to different teachers and education systems across the world. A system of training teachers in the Rwandan education system date back to colonialism around the 1900s, when formal education was introduced. Before competence-based curriculum (CBC), the knowledge-based curriculum (KBC) also emphasized much on effective PDs. However, the current CBC (REB, 2015b) focuses on learner-centered as one of the millennium development goals implemented in 2000 (Abbott, Sapsford & Rwirahira, 2015; Nsengimana et al., 2020). As of 2016, all teachers were required to shift from knowledge-based approaches and adapt to competence-based approaches. Except for content knowledge, others related to pedagogical knowledge, instructional tool, and methods have all shifted towards learner engagement related approaches, including the ways of preparing PDs. Pedagogical documents are essential because they guide teachers to the expected destination. For instance, the work (SW) scheme guides teachers in a whole year or term (REB, 2015c). SW focuses on unit planning, while lesson plan (LP) focuses on topic planning (REB, 2015a). SW consists of what a teacher will teach in a term. It is a well-scheduled document in the form of a bunch of lessons, while an LP is a sheet of paper showing what the teacher will follow during a class of one or two periods (REB, 2017). Jacobs, Martin, and Otieno (2008) refer to a lesson plan to a teacher's day-to-day teaching practice focusing on pedagogical knowledge. PDs are vital because they guide teachers' daily work. The scheme of work should be well prepared to guide the teacher to schedule the lesson for an extended time frame, while a lesson plan should be well prepared to reflect what will be done in a real classroom. An investigation carried out in Rwanda during learning optics showed the low performance and conceptual understanding of geometric optics (Ndihokubwayo, Uwamahoro & Ndayambaje, 2020a) and physical optics (Ndihokubwayo et al., 2020). Therefore, we were interested in analyzing these documents used by some physics teachers to check the way teachers prepare their PDs, mainly LPs. Planning is key for any teacher for his/her professional development (Ruys, van Keer & Aelterman, 2012). Pramoolsook and Magday (2019) and Sawyer and Myers (2018) assume that a lesson plan is a precise reflection of what arises in the classroom. Thus, a link between teacher’s planning and students’ outcome should arise. This study will help teachers to value the preparation before the class takes place using various LP tools. Teachers generally prepare the lesson plans for evaluation purposes by school administrators (Causton-Theoharis, Theoharis & Trezek, 2008; Sawyer & Myers, 2018; Theoharis & Causton-Theoharis, 2011), such as monitoring classroom curriculum implementation. However, they can serve as a roadmap to teachers for effective classroom implementation. They can also ensure that lesson plans are available and clear for substitutes in case the teacher is absent (Jacobs et al., 2008). The LPs include references to page numbers to be covered in the textbook, problems to be assigned as homework, and lists of standards or objectives to be covered during the lesson delivery.
  • 9. 3 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. The use of both lesson plan analysis protocol (LPAP) and lesson plan evaluation form (LPEF) is limited to LP only. Therefore, classroom observation should serve as a supplement to obtain data about the program under investigation. The lesson plan tools are used to prescribe the components of a program in terms of established models quantitatively and help determine the program's level of implementation (Boikhutso, 2010; Pramoolsook & Magday, 2019). A lesson plan analysis tool is a scalable and broader lens to support other tools that measure teaching behavior, such as classroom observation. However, it does not show evidence about lesson enactment until post-lesson information is delivered (Diem & Thathong, 2019; Jacobs et al., 2008). 1.1 Research problem It is essential to check what was planned before observation. The literature shows a strong relationship between teacher planning and student outcomes, as it is assumed that the teacher's lesson plan reflects the classroom activity (JICA, 2020). Therefore, LPs would be useful in program evaluation, such as tracking CBC implementation and teacher assessment. The SIIQS† project initiated lesson plan analysis through lesson study activity in Rwanda; however, there have been no studies evaluated of lesson plans for the physics CBC. Consecutive studies done in Rwanda found gaps both in pedagogical document preparation and classroom teaching practices. For instance, Byusa, Kampire, and Mwesigye (2020) found that the teachers do not take the PDs as their guide; instead, they only care about presenting them to education authorities such as district education officers, headteachers, or deputy headteacher in charge of studies. Ndihokubwayo, Uwamahoro and Ndayambaje (2020b) observed 42 physics classes using the RTOP tool and found that reformed teaching is 53% and teachers are running out of time and do not care about inquiry instruction. Nowadays, the inquiry is gradually receiving considerable room in many developing countries' science curriculum though it is at its early stage in Rwanda (Mugabo, 2012). 1.2 Research questions This study aims at reviewing Rwandan physics teachers’ lesson plans in line with the following research questions: i) To what extent do physics teachers' lesson plans reflect on a competence-based curriculum? ii) How do physics teachers prepare their lesson plans based on cognitive and practical Bloom Taxonomy's domains? iii) Do physics teachers introduce inquiry-based planned instruction in their lesson plans? This study bridges the gap between teacher lesson preparation and real classroom practices. It shows teachers an effective way of lesson planning. Therefore, we hypothesize that there will be no difference among teachers in terms of lesson preparation. This research's novelty is that we designed and validated a model lesson plan that any teacher can refer to. † SIIQS: Project for Supporting Institutionalizing and Improving the Quality of School-Based In- service Teacher Training Activity
  • 10. 4 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 2. Methods and Procedures This is basic and applied research (Orodho et al., 2016). It is basic in a way that it adds knowledge of Rwandan physics teachers’ lesson planning to existing literature while is applied in a way that we have designed a model lesson plan for teachers’ references. We have used a mixed methodology to present the data. Thus, we have documented the characteristics of the lesson plans and discussed the variability among teachers. 2.1 Sample scope To carry out this study, we got an ethical clearance from the research and innovation unit at the University of Rwanda College of Education (URCE) for and research permission from distinguished districts. We, in May 2019, have visited two schools in Kigali and the Eastern province, Rwanda. Our sample targeted 11 physics teachers from four districts in Rwanda selected purposively from schools accommodating advanced level—grade 10 and 11—science, including physics subject. We invited them to share with us the taught lesson plans related to optics. These LPs should have been used in the last term (from middle January and early April 2019). Eight teachers shared with us their lesson plans in hand or online. Three of eight teachers shared the LPs that are not relevant. One teacher shared mathematics LPs; two teachers shared LPs of mechanics related topics such as "Kinematics and simple harmonic motion," "Simple harmonic oscillation (Simple pendulum)," "Simple harmonic oscillator (Mass suspended from a coiled spring)" and "Representation, characteristics, and properties of sounds waves." Among these two teachers, one shared LPs related to optics but from 2018. We did not consider all of these LPs from three teachers for our analysis. Thus, our analysis took a case of five physics teachers' lesson plans. We have collected 32 LPs, representing approximately 54% of the sampled teachers (Appendix A). 2.2 Data sources We used two necessary LP analysis tools to carry out this study. The LPAP of Ndihokubwayo et al. (2020) and the LPEF of Ferrell (1992). LPAP analyses nine elements of a competence-based lesson plan. These 9 LPAP elements consist 27 items (Ndihokubway et al., 2020). The nine elements are sub-sectioned into three stages: preliminary elements, the body of the content, and the accessories. "A Lesson Plan Evaluation Form (LPEF) was developed to provide systematic quantitative data about classroom functioning (Ferrel 1992, p. 23)." The LPEF involves three models—curriculum, Bloom Taxonomy domains, and inquiry techniques—of learning used in developing a curriculum where each lesson plan is scrutinized to determine the level to which it reflected the discerned curriculum elements (Ferrell, 1992). The developer of LPEF used the Inquiry Model to weigh the degree to which the LPs reflected a chance to gather and organize data and formulate and test hypotheses. The LPAP components align with LP format for a competence-based curriculum (REB, 2019) while LPEF calls upon the inquiry- based physics instruction (Ferrell, 1992) and illuminates the outcome from teacher planned teaching practices. 2.3 Reliability analysis In analyzing these 32 LPs, we read all the documents and classified them according to the reserved scales (see Table 1). We used SPSS version 23.0 to analyze both reliability tests and data presented in the results section.
  • 11. 5 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Table 1: LPAP scales (Ndihokubwayo et al., 2020) Explanation Scale 1 Scale 2 Scale 3 Scale 4 Item1 Related to Key Unit Competence (KUC) Not written Written but not related to syllabus Written in summary and related to syllabus Written in full and related to syllabus Item2 Related to the format of the lesson title More than three Triple Double title Single title Item3-4 Relationship between lesson title and time, and the connection to the syllabus Definitely not Probably not Probably yes Definitely yes Item5 Related to Instructional Objective (IO) Not written Written but Not related to the topic Written and related to the topic Written and related to the topic and content Item6 Number of IO components None One to two Three to four All five Item7 Related to Special Education Needs (SEN) Not written "none" or "-" or the teacher writes a number only Describe only Write the number and describe Item8 Addressing SEN Not addressed Not clear where it was addressed Addressed in IO or Description of Teaching and Learning Activity (DTLA) Addressed in Introduction to the lesson (Intro), or Lesson development (Dev), or Conclusion of the lesson (Concl)) Item9 Related to DTLA Not written Written but not related Written but does not show well what will be done in the lesson Written and shows well what will be done in the lesson Item10-12 Writing the content of the lesson Not written Written but unclear (or not related) Written but not describe (outline) Written and well described Item13-14 Stages of the development and conclusion sections Components outlined in "Note" are absent Not clear/not identifiable Other components apart from those outlined in "Note." Components outlined in "Note" are present Item15-23 Teaching resources (TR), Formative assessment (FA), Active learning techniques (ALT)in the content of the lesson Not visualized Visualized but not clear At least one is visualized and clear More than one is visualized and clear Item24 If visualized, was the ALT used with purpose? Definitely not Probably not Probably yes Definitely yes Item25-26 Generic competences (GCs) and Cross-cutting issues (CCIs) Not written Not clear Outlined only Outlined and described Item27 Teacher self-evaluation (TSE) Not written Written but not clear The teacher writes a simple word "well or not well done" The teacher well describes with the next step
  • 12. 6 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. The criterion validity check has shown that the data from the LPAP were consistent with data from other more standardized evaluation tools such as Lesson Plan Evaluation Form (LPEF) and Science Lesson Plan Analysis Instrument (SLPAI). A positive correlation (Pearson product-moment coefficient r > .50) was detected across "Lesson approaches" of LPAP, "Inquiry techniques" of LPEF, and "Student inquiry" of the SLPAI items. Each lesson plan was assigned a number and separately rated by two raters from the African Center of Excellence for Innovative Teaching and Learning of Mathematics and Science (ACEITLMS) based at the University of Rwanda College of Education (URCE); among them, one is the first author of this study. These raters are experienced in analyzing lesson plans and are familiar with the LPAP. The Spearman's rho among the raters was computed and found to be .81, while the weighted kappa was found to be .72 across 27 LPAP items. Thus, the raters did not differ in the way in which they rated the lesson plans. The preliminaries (item1-9) got a reliability coefficient of .92 (and a weighted Kappa of .87) across 32 LPs averaged from two raters. The body of the content (item 10-24) got a reliability coefficient of .79 (and a weighted Kappa of .69), while the accessories (item 25-27) got .58 (and a weighted Kappa of .48). Table 2 presents detailed interrater reliability among 9 LPAP elements. Table 2: Interrater reliability statistics across LPAP elements LPAP elements Spearman's rho Weighted Kappa (K) Key unit competence 0.871 0.875 Title of the lesson 0.857 0.742 Instructional objective 0.969 0.968 Special Education Needs 1 1 Lesson description (DTLA) 0.897 0.758 Lesson stages 0.412 0.324 Lesson approaches 0.980 0.869 Generic competences and Cross-cutting issues 0.369 0.214 Lesson evaluation 1 1 The inter-rater reliability for LPEF was similarly based on the same LPAP raters scoring a sample of the same 32 LPs. The Spearman's rho among the raters was computed and found to be .93, while the weighted Kappa was found to be .79 across all selected LPEF items. Alongside rate agreement among raters, Cohen's Kappa is used to remove agreement by chance (Cohen, 1988). Its interpretation is moderate when K is >.5, reasonable when K is >.7, and excellent when K is >.8. For ordinal data, the Spearman-Brown coefficient is considered, and a weighted Kappa is computed to provide an ordinal outcome.
  • 13. 7 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. To supplement our study results, we have crafted and validated a model lesson plan that any physics teacher can refer to (see Appendix C). 3. Data Analysis and Results Each rater has rated all 32 LPs into four LPAP scales according to each of the 27 LPAP items. We have averaged the results from both raters and computed means for each item. All teachers did not use the REB LP format. This is the reason why tracking the steps of inquiry techniques was difficult. The new REB LP format appears in the textbooks printed in 2019 (REB, 2019). However, teachers did not yet adapt themselves to it. This may be the lack of emphasis from REB. Teachers should be well informed of their roles. This format has segments in the development and conclusion sections of the LP, where the development section of the LP comprises discovery activities, presentation learners' findings production, and exploitation of findings/production, and the conclusion section comprises conclusion/summary and assessment/homework. It can be found that there is a variety rate across all 27 items on a 4-point scale. Thus, some items were rated one (on scale 1) while others were rated four (on scale 4). This is to clarify that, for instance, most of the teachers did not write SEN or wrote "none" or "-" or a number only and scored below an average score of 2.0. However, none of this written SEN was addressed in the body of the lesson. Thus, both raters rated this item on scale-1. However, they connect the lesson title to the syllabus—as both raters rated this item into the scale-4. In other words, teachers consult the syllabus in formulating the lesson topic. All teachers write the IO in all the LPs, although they miss some components, mostly condition and standard (see Table 3). Table 3: LPAP mean scores from two raters Mean Rater1 Mean Rater2 Mean Rater1 &2 SD Rater1 &2 Item1 Written KUC and how it is written 3.6 3.7 3.6 0.95 Item2 Format of the lesson title 3.8 3.8 3.8 0.46 Item3 Lesson title time-bound 3.2 3.8 3.5 1.11 Item4 Syllabus connected to the lesson title 4 4 4 0 Item5 Written IO and how it is written 4 4 4 0 Item6 Number of IO components 3.5 3.4 3.5 0.5 Item7 Written SEN and description 1.8 1.8 1.8 0.84 Item8 Addressed SEN and the place where it is addressed 1 1 1 0 Item9 Written DTLA and how it is written 3.1 3.1 3.1 1.31 Item10 Lesson introduction 3.2 3.2 3.2 0.42 Item11 Lesson development 3.5 3.5 3.5 0.5 Item12 Lesson conclusion 3.2 3.2 3.2 0.42 Item13 Components of the lesson development 1.8 1.1 1.4 0.53 Item14 Components of the lesson conclusion 2.1 1.3 1.7 0.91 Item15 TR in Introduction to the lesson 1.3 1.3 1.3 0.67
  • 14. 8 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Item16 TR in Development of the lesson 2.4 2.4 2.4 1.14 Item17 TR in Conclusion of the lesson 1.6 1.6 1.6 0.92 Item18 FA in Introduction to the lesson 2.6 2.7 2.6 0.76 Item19 FA in Development of the lesson 3.1 3.1 3.1 0.64 Item20 FA in Conclusion of the lesson 2.9 3 3 0.28 Item21 ALT in Introduction to the lesson 2.9 2.9 2.9 0.44 Item22 ALT in Development of the lesson 3.1 3.2 3.2 1.01 Item23 ALT in Conclusion of the lesson 3.2 3.2 3.2 0.68 Item24 If visualized, was the ALT used with purpose? 4 2.3 3.1 1.17 Item25 GCs 4 3.7 3.8 0.37 Item26 CCIs 3.9 3.6 3.8 0.62 Item27 TSE 2.6 2.6 2.6 0.83 Active learning techniques (ALT) were mostly provided than formative assessment (FA) and teaching resources (TR) (refer to Appendix B for more detail). They were observed mostly in the Development and Conclusion of the lesson than in the Introduction. This was reflected by the high percentage of LPs in the Development of the lesson (47%) and the Conclusion of the lesson (28%). The TRs were not visualized compared to FA and ALT in both parts of the lesson—Introduction, Development, and Conclusion. This was reflected by the highest percentages of LPs rated into scale 1 "not visualized"—Introduction (87.5%), Development (37.5%), and Conclusion (68.8%) (see Figure 1). Figure 1: Distribution of LPs into the Lesson Approaches group. Scale-1 "Not visualized" scale-2 "Visualized but not clear" scale-3 "At least one is visualized and clear" scale-4 "More than one is visualized and clear." On the "If visualized, was the ALT used with purpose?" the scale-1 is "Definitely not," scale-2 is "Probably not" scale-3 is "Probably yes," and scale-4 is "Definitely yes." The descriptive statistics associated with LPAP scales across five physics teachers are reported in Table 4. We evaluated the assumption of normality to satisfy 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0%120.0% TR in Introduction of the lesson TR in Development of the lesson TR in Conclusion of the lesson FA in Introduction of the lesson FA in Development of the lesson FA in Conclusion of the lesson ALT in Introduction of the lesson ALT in Development of the lesson ALT in Conclusion of the lesson If visualized, was the ALT used with purpose? % of LPs Lesson Approaches Scale1 Scale2 Scale3 Scale4
  • 15. 9 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. distribution in these five teachers; the Skewness and Kurtosis were found negative. Skew is about distributional symmetry, while Kurtosis is the thickness of the tails and the center of the distribution (Blanca, Arnau, López-Montiel, Bono & Bendayan, 2013). Thus, the data are not normally distributed; instead, they are negatively skewed. Teachers are mostly ranked towards the scale-4 of LPAP. Similarly, the data are negative Kurtosis distribution as the data in distribution is short and wide. Table 4: Descriptive statistics Mean Std. Deviation Variance Skewness Kurtosis Statistic Std. Error Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic MeanTeacher1 2.778 .1945 1.0105 1.021 -.496 -.858 MeanTeacher2 2.926 .1910 .9924 .985 -.691 -.716 MeanTeacher3 2.919 .1803 .9368 .878 -.664 -.370 MeanTeacher4 2.892 .2035 1.0576 1.118 -.655 -.843 MeanTeacher5 2.639 .2182 1.1337 1.285 -.416 -1.253 In order to test the hypothesis that teachers plan their lesson similarly, we performed the correlation analysis and analysis of variances (ANOVA). A .929 Cronbach alpha coefficient was found. Thus, the correlation is highly positive among five teachers. The independent between-groups ANOVA did not yield a statistically significant difference, F(26, 4)=1.386, p=.244. Thus, we retain a null hypothesis of no difference between teachers in terms of LP preparation. The teachers' means are crossly related, ranging from Teacher 5 (M=2.639) to Teacher 2 (M=2.926). Among 32 LPs, only four LPs open the Introduction of the lesson by revising the last lesson. This is important from the constructivist point of view in a way that students should build on existing knowledge. Analyzing deep the formative assessment and active learning techniques, we employed the LPEF tool to compute scores on cognitive and affective levels of Bloom taxonomy to respond to the FA and the inquiry techniques as an ALT for most experiment-based LPs. The digits under table 4 are average scores from two raters at a 1-to 4-point Likert type scale from 1 "the item was definitely not appeared" to 4 "the item has definitely appeared." From the Bloom taxonomy perspectives' cognitive level, teachers plan for only delivering knowledge and assure that understanding is set in. This is shown by the mean score (4.0) across all 32 LPs. Even the application of what was learned was found below the average of 2.0. Similarly, at the adequate level of Bloom taxonomy perspectives, teachers care for making their students receive information (M=4.0) and attend (M=4.0) to and respond (M=3.1) asked questions (see Table 5).
  • 16. 10 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Table 5: Results from the Lesson Plan Evaluation Form 1: Definitely not, 2: Probably not, 3: Probably yes, and 4: Definitely yes LP code Cognitive Level of Bloom Taxonomy Affective Level of Bloom Taxonomy Inquiry techniques Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Receiving Attending Responding Valuing Organization Characterizatio n Data collection Data organization Hypothesizing Hypothesis testing PT1A 4 4 1 2 1 1 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PT1B 4 4 1 2 1 2 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PT1C 4 4 1 2 1 2 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PT1D 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PT1E 4 4 4 2 2 2 4 4 4 1 3 2 PT2A 4 4 3 2 1 1 4 4 3 1 3 1 3 3 1 1 PT2B 4 4 3 2 1 1 4 4 3 1 3 1 3 3 1 1 PT2C 4 4 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 PT2D 4 4 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 PT2E 4 4 1 1 1 3 4 4 4 1 1 1 PT2F 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PT2G 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 1 1 1 PT2H 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 1 1 1 PT2J 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 1 1 1 PT3A 4 4 2 1 1 2 4 4 3 1 1 1 PT3B 4 4 2 2 1 2 4 4 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 PT3C 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 1 1 1 PT3D 4 4 2 1 1 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  • 17. 11 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. PT3E 4 4 2 1 1 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PT3G 4 4 2 1 1 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 PT3I 4 4 3 2 1 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 PT3K 4 4 3 2 1 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 PT3M 4 4 2 1 1 1 4 4 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 PT3N 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 1 1 1 PT4A 4 4 2 2 2 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 4 2 PT4B 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 4 2 1 2 1 PT4C 4 4 3 2 3 3 4 4 2 4 2 2 3 PT4D 4 4 3 2 3 3 4 4 2 4 2 2 3 PT4E 4 4 3 2 3 3 4 4 2 4 2 2 3 PT4F 4 4 3 2 3 3 4 4 2 4 2 2 3 PT5A 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 4 2 1 1 1 PT5B 4 4 2 1 1 3 4 4 2 1 1 1 Mean 4.0 4.0 1.8 1.4 1.3 1.8 4.0 4.0 3.1 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.1 St. Dev 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.4 1.1 1.0 1.1 0.3
  • 18. 12 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. The space with no number refers to LPs that were not related to experimentation. We then noted that other LPs would implement inquiry techniques. However, such practice was not visualized. It seems that teachers are not aware of inquiry- based learning techniques and those who are aware of them think that it can only be implemented in experiment related lessons. Our results show that the use of inquiry techniques was below the average of 2.0. Contrary wise, in the Ferrell (1992) study, the LPEF analysis findings indicate that teachers follow an excellent teaching practice during their lesson planning. Only in four LPs, the teacher planned to ask students to hypothesize or predict the outcome of observation (see Table 5). This is in line with a study by Ndihokubwayo, Uwamahoro & Ndayambaje (2020), who, via RTOP results, found that teachers do not promote prediction among students. The inquiry is associated with science, a complex activity involving observation, questioning, examining various sources of information to reveal what is already known in the light of experimental evidence, investigating inferences by gathering/analyze/and interpret data, proposing answers and explanations, and communicating the outcome (Mugabo, 2012). 4. Discussion of Practical Implication Teacher 1 planned the lessons from the KUC "by the end of this unit; the learner should be able to explain the properties of lenses and image formation by lenses" from S4. Teacher 1 fully used group formulation in all LPs, where he emphasized on mixing girls and boys as a criterion of the group formulation. This may be caused by the gender inclusion expected in the 8 CCIs (REB, 2015b). This inclusion is subtle. However, teachers should go beyond this and ensure that boys and girls have the same learning rights. Contrary wise, Teacher 4 mentioned it. He wrote: "gender balance: boys and girls are given equal responsibilities." Teachers should also emphasize the inclusion of able students and struggling students to employ a specific ALT purposively (refer to Appendix B for more detail). In presenting the results, the teacher only uses the group leader. This act may discourage other students and pressure the group leader. It is better to randomly select the presenter so that everyone is ready to work as none knows who will present the group findings. In describing the competences to be accommodated, the teacher usually mentions: "skills in organizing scattered data to develop systematic, observation, and detailed presentation"; however, in the teacher or students' activity, there was not appearance of any doing an experiment, observing nature or inquiry. He also wrote that "skills in report presentation, for example, in Microsoft PowerPoint" while in the teacher or student activities, it appears presenting on the blackboard. An LP serves as a map guiding the teacher during the teaching process (Ndihokubwayo et al. 2020). However, it seems it is a formality. For instance, in the "learning materials" place, the teacher mentions some materials such as a calculator, internet connection. However, he does not describe how they will be used in the main lesson (teacher and learner activities). Straessle (2014) found that many teachers use written lesson plans but they do not often refer to them during class delivery. Therefore, teachers need to take LPs as their road map toward effective lesson delivery. Teachers should write their lesson plan with full consideration. They should revise it to check everything is in place. Refer to a model lesson plan in Appendix C3 as a standardized and full lesson plan.
  • 19. 13 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Teacher 2 planned the lessons from the KUC "by the end of this unit, the learner should be able to explain the properties of lenses and image formation by lenses" from S4, and "the learner should be able to analyze the nature of light" from S5. Teacher 2 outlined the activities to be done by students and teachers. She took the students into experiments and discussion of results through group work. She said the teacher should do the first activity of the experiment while students do the next step. However, this is good; however, this is good; she may be sure that students cannot do even the first step if the teacher guides them skillfully. She outlined the GCs and CCIs without explaining how they will be catered and achieved. Thus, their role according to each and specific activity is lost. Teacher 2 differs from Teacher 1 in the way that she planned for the experiment, although she did not provide the name of an experiment to be done or specifies its steps. The teacher considered writing a lab report as an assessment during the Conclusion of the lesson. The study of Amanda G. Sawyer showed that teachers vary in the choices of resources for lesson planning due to their different experiences. Teacher 3 planned the lessons from the KUC "by the end of this unit; the learner should be able to explain the properties of lenses and image formation by lenses" and "by the end of this unit, the learner should be able to analyze the function of the simple and compound microscope" from S4. In the lesson on Measuring the focal length of the convex lens, the teacher set the IO well (refer to Appendix B for more detail). For instance, he wrote, "given lenses and other necessary apparatus, learners should be able to determine the focal length of a convex lens effectively." This is in line with the Straessle (2014) study, where teachers did not differentiate among the components of lesson planning, although they care about clear learning objectives than other components. Most of the time, the teacher introduces before learners are assigned to the group works. He then emphasizes that students should follow his explanation actively. In some of the LPs, the teacher described the SEN though he did not address them in the lesson development. For instance, he wrote, "some students are quick while others are slow in learning." Somewhere he even specifies the number "five students have difficulties in understanding English" or "five students have disruptive behavior." Always the teacher summarizes or concludes the lesson, and students take notes. Teacher 4 planned the lessons from the KUC "by the end of this unit; the learner should be able to analyze the nature of light" from S5. Most of all the teachers used a particular ALT without purpose. For instance, Teacher 4 started by assigning students into groups. The use of such group work should take a source, for example, after assigning students with individual work, and the teacher notices difficulties among students to perform the given activity or exercise. Most of the teachers ask questions in the Conclusion and expect students to respond to those questions. However, these questions are not mentioned. These questions or exercises should be different from what was discussed in the lesson to avoid memorization and promote thinking. Thus,
  • 20. 14 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. students should use what was learned to answer questions or perform exercises and not copy what they learned. This will increase their critical thinking as they achieved competence, and the lesson will be viewed at a wide-angle (to be used in various contexts). Our results show that teachers do not plan for a significant assignment that reflects students' context and the use of what was learned clearly. The Straessle (2014) study revealed that when creating assignments, teachers use real-world connections significantly more frequently than any other facet. This real-world context should be reflected when teachers emphasize allowing students to connect themselves and what they learn to their real-life situations. Moreover, this is well outlined and recommended in the syllabus (REB, 2015a) daily use. Teacher 4 planned to request students to interpret their results. This is very important in promoting critical thinking. It alerts students that observation or experimentation is not a standalone lesson objective; instead, a further inference of the results is necessary to get the meaning of what they learn. Most of the teachers care about critical thinking as a GC. Only teacher 4 emphasizes long-life learning. For instance, "students will develop long-life learning by taking the initiative to update knowledge and skills with minimum external support." This is very crucial to motivate such senior five students to look further in their future. It may help them to plan for their future studies and career. Teacher 4 describes the "DTLA" well. For instance, in the lesson of "measuring the Plank's constant," he wrote the DTLA: "using an electronic circuit containing a LED power supply, digital millimeter, and a digital voltmeter, learners with the help of the teacher describe how to measure Plank's constant." This may guide anyone who reads the LP (for instance, before observing class) on what will be done during the teaching and learning process. Teacher 4 encourages the students to make a prediction. This helps students to observe and think by relating their prerequisite knowledge to a new observation. Teachers outline what will be done in the lesson but do not describe what and how they will be done. In the case of teaching activity, if, for example, the teacher is not available to teach the lesson, Deputy Of Studies will not have an opportunity to assign another teacher to teach such lessons as it is not well and fully elaborated. Teacher 5 planned the lessons from the KUC "by the end of this unit; the learner should be able to explain the properties of lenses and image formation by lenses" from S4 and "by the end of this unit, the learner should be able to analyze the nature of light" from S5. Teacher 5 planed to provide short notes to students and give time to copy notes. He is brief in planning all the LP steps, even in writing the KUC in full. Thus, he shortened the KUC. He wrote, "explain the properties of lenses." Most of the teachers start the introduction section by asking students questions about the previous lesson. None of the teachers uses the LP format segmenting the development section into discovery activities, presentation learners' findings production, exploitation findings production, and the conclusion section into conclusion/summary and assessment/homework. This shows why all LPs show a poor description of activities to be done during the teaching and learning process. Thus, if the teacher fills the LP format by planning for these components
  • 21. 15 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. of development and conclusion sections, the LP would be clearer and directive to any other teacher or any classroom observer. 5. Conclusion and limitations In this study, LPAP findings showed that physics teachers' lesson plans do not reflect well on the competence-based curriculum. Teachers do not follow the REB LP format, do not cater to slow learners, and are reluctant to use effective active learning techniques. There is no need to limit teachers on which lesson plan format to use; however, REB needs to guide them effectively during in-service teacher training. Probably, what is essential is not the format, rather what to consider while planning a lesson. Our findings show that the LPEF analysis indicates that teachers do not use higher levels of the cognitive and affective domains. Teachers do not consider following inquiry techniques too. Data from the lesson plan analysis should be supplemented by classroom observation. Although reviewing lesson plans added little to the accuracy of rating a teacher's performance, however, this is a reasonable prediction that if a good preparation were considered, the reformed teaching would also increase. The limitations of our study lie on small sample disabling us to generalize our results. Therefore, further studies should focus on the scheme of work as an important pedagogical document and check its alignment to the lesson plan with a sounding teachers’ sample as well as lesson delivery. Acknowledgment This research was financially supported by the African Center of Excellence for Innovative Teaching and Learning of Mathematics and Science (ACEITLMS) of the University of Rwanda (UR). We would like to extend our gratitude to the individuals who evaluated the lesson plan presented in this research. Without their comments, critics, and views, the lesson presented would not have rich information and fruitful to our dedicated teachers. This is why Ms. Pascasie Nyirahabimana, Mr. Hashituky Telesphore Habiyaremye, Mr. Jean Nepomscène Twahirwa, Mr. Jean de Dieu Nkurikiyimana, and Ms. Jeannette Nyirahagenimana, all their inputs are acknowledged. We highly appreciate the editor and reviewers from IJLTER; their comments and suggestions were valuable and helped us improve this study. We also thank Mr. Fidèle Ukobizaba and Miss Juliette Itangishatse, who commented on the manuscript before sending it to the IJLTER for review and publication. This work was also inspired by JICA experts that worked for the SIIQS project; therefore, they are acknowledged. 6. References Abbott, P., Sapsford, R., & Rwirahira, J. (2015). Rwanda’s potential to achieve the millennium development goals for education. International Journal of Educational Development, 40, 117–125. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2014.12.007 Birindwa, C., & Atwebembeire, A. (2016a). Physics for Rwanda Secondary Schools: Teacher’s Guide Book 4. Kigali: Fountain Publishers Rwanda Ltd. Birindwa, C., & Atwebembeire, A. (2016b). Physics for Rwanda Secondary Schools Learner’s Book 4. Kigali: Fountain Publishers Rwanda Ltd. Blanca, M. J., Arnau, J., López-Montiel, D., Bono, R., & Bendayan, R. (2013). Skewness and
  • 22. 16 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. kurtosis in real data samples. Methodology, 9, 78–84. doi:10.1027/1614- 2241/a000057 Boikhutso, K. (2010). The theory into practice dilemma: Lesson planning challenges facing botswana student-teachers. Improving Schools, 13(3), 205–220. doi:10.1177/1365480210385668 Byusa, E., Kampire, E., & Mwesigye, A. R. (2020). Analysis of Teaching Techniques and Scheme of Work in Teaching Chemistry in Rwandan Secondary Schools. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(6), 1–9. doi:10.29333/ejmste/7833 Causton-Theoharis, J. N., Theoharis, G. T., & Trezek, B. J. (2008). Teaching pre-service teachers to design inclusive instruction: A lesson planning template. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 12(4), 381–399. doi:10.1080/13603110601156509 Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. Diem, H. T. T., & Thathong, K. (2019). Enhancing the pre-service biology teachers to construct better lesson plans: A lesson study. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 18(11), 218–231. doi:10.26803/ijlter.18.11.13 Ferrell, B. G. (1992). Gifted Child Quarterly. Gifted Child Quarterly, 36(1), 23–26. doi:10.1177/001698629203600106 Jacobs, C. L., Martin, S. N., & Otieno, T. C. (2008). Instrument for Formative and Summative Program Evaluation of a Teacher Education Program. Science Teacher Education, 92, 1097–1126. doi:10.1002/sce.20277 JICA. (2020). The Project for Supporting Institutionalizing and Improving Quality of SBI Activity ( SIIQS ) Project Completion Report The Project for Supporting Institutionalizing and Improving Quality of SBI Activity (SIIQS) Project Completion Report. Kigali. Retrieved from https://openjicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12327383.pdf Mugabo, R. L. (2012). Introduction of Inquiry-based Science Teaching in Rwandan Lower Secondary Schools: Teachers’ attitudes and perceptions. University of KwaZulu-Natal. Ndihokubwayo, K., Byukusenge, C., Byusa, E., Habiyaremye, H. T., Mbonyiryivuze, A., & Mukagihana, J. (2020). Lesson Plan Analysis Protocol (LPAP): Training Manual. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/347388283_LPAP_Training_Manual _Final_version_Suplementary_materials?channel=doi&linkId=5fda6b89299bf140 8816e04d&showFulltext=true Ndihokubwayo, K., Uwamahoro, J., & Ndayambaje, I. (2020a). Effectiveness of PhET Simulations and YouTube Videos to Improve the Learning of Optics in Rwandan Secondary Schools. African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 24(2), 253–265. doi:10.1080/18117295.2020.1818042 Ndihokubwayo, K., Uwamahoro, J., & Ndayambaje, I. (2020b). Implementation of the Competence-Based Learning in Rwandan Physics Classrooms: First Assessment Based on the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(9), 1–8. doi:10.29333/ejmste/8395 Ndihokubwayo, K., Uwamahoro, J., Ndayambaje, I., & Ralph, M. (2020). Light phenomena conceptual assessment: an inventory tool for teachers. Physics Education, 55(3), 035009. doi:10.1088/1361-6552/ab6f20 Nsengimana, T., Rugema Mugabo, L., Hiroaki, O., & Nkundabakura, P. (2020). Reflection on science competence-based curriculum implementation in Sub-Saharan African countries. International Journal of Science Education, Part B, 0(0), 1–14. doi:10.1080/21548455.2020.1778210 Orodho, A., Nzabarirwa, W., Odundo, P., Waweru, P. N., & Ndayambaje, I. (2016).
  • 23. 17 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods. A Step by Step Guide to Scholarly Excellence. Nairobi: Kanezja Publishers & Entreprises. Pramoolsook, I., & Magday, W. D. (2019). Move confirmation and teaching strategy identification of english student-teachers’ lesson plans in the Philippines: A rhetorical framework for novice teachers. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 18(12), 150–173. doi:10.26803/ijlter.18.12.10 Ruys, I., van Keer, H., & Aelterman, A. (2012). Examining pre-service teacher competence in lesson planning pertaining to collaborative learning. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 44(3), 349–379. doi:10.1080/00220272.2012.675355 REB. (2015a). Advanced level Physics syllabus. Kigali, Rwanda: Rwanda Education Board, Ministry of Education. REB. (2015b). Comptence-Based Curriculum. Curriculum Framework Pre-Primary to Upper Secondary. Kigali, Rwanda: Rwanda Education Board, Ministry of Education. REB. (2015c). Roll out of the Competence-Based Curriculum: Teacher Training Manual (1st phase). Kigali. Rwanda: Rwanda Education Board, Ministry of Education. REB. (2017). Teacher Training Manual - Reflections on Teaching Practice and Focus on Assessement (3rd Phase). Kigali, Rwanda: Rwanda Education Board, Ministry of Education. REB. (2019). Subsidiary Mathematics Senior 6 Teacher’ s Guide. Kigali, Rwanda: Rwanda Education Board, Ministry of Education. Sawyer, A. G., & Myers, J. (2018). Seeking comfort: How and why preservice teachers use internet resources for lesson planning. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 39(1), 16–31. doi:10.1080/10901027.2017.1387625 Straessle, M. W. J. (2014). Teachers’ perspectives of effective lesson planning: A comparative analysis (College of William and Mary in Virginia). College of William and Mary in Virginia. doi:10.25774/w4-8swa-7371 Theoharis, G., & Causton-Theoharis, J. (2011). Preparing pre-service teachers for inclusive classrooms: Revising lesson-planning expectations. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(7), 743–761. doi:10.1080/13603110903350321 Appendices Appendix A: Pedagogical document reviewed We have requested LPs from 11 teachers. We analyzed 32 lesson plans from five teachers, where 24 were from S4 while eight were from S5. Fourteen LPs were single lessons of 40 minutes period, 10 were double periods of 80 minutes each, while 8 had triple periods of 120 minutes each. Table A1: Lesson Plans collected alongside the optics content no Topic Date Min S4 lesson plans 1 Magnification of the lens, Power of the lens, and exercises on formula of the lens 6/2/2019 40 2 Determination of the focal length of the lens 8/2/2019 40 3 Refraction through a prism (deviation of light by a prism) 15/2/2019 40 4 The angle of minimum deviation and determination of the refractive index 16/2/2019 40 5 Summary (Exercises) of all topics in this unit by giving exercises 21/2/2098 40
  • 24. 18 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 1 Minimum deviation angles in prisms 6/1/2019 40 2 Physical features and types of thin lenses 21/1/2019 40 3 The image formed by a thin lens 23/1/2019 40 4 The formula of a thin lens 28/1/2019 40 5 Refraction of light through a prism 29/1/2019 40 6 Angles of minimum deviation and refractive index 30/1/2019 40 7 Deviation of light by a small angle of the prism 4/2/2019 40 8 Refractive index of the material 5/2/2019 40 1 Thin lens 25/1/2019 80 1 Thin lens equation 22/1/2019 120 2 Measurement of the focal length of a convex lens 29/1/2019 120 3 Defects of lenses and their correction. Refraction through prism 5/2/2019 120 4 Refraction through a prism, a term associated with refraction through a prism 7/2/2019 120 5 Deviation of light rays by a glass prism. The angle of minimum deviation and determination of the refractive index 12/02/2019 120 6 The angle of minimum deviation of a glass prism 14/2/2019 120 7 Lens maker's equation (Full lens equation) 19/2/2019 120 8 Definition of an optical instrument and angular magnification, the human eye, and visual angle 25/2/2019 80 9 Formation of the image by a lens camera Slide projector 28/2/2019 120 10 The terrestrial telescope, Galilean and reflecting telescope 11/3/2019 80 S5 lesson plans 1 Compton effect and photon interaction 25/1/2019 40 1 Wave and particle nature of light 18/1/2019 80 1 The measure of Planck's constant 22/1/2019 80 2 Representation, characteristics, and properties of sounds waves 28/1/2019 80 3 Blackbody radiation 31/1/2019 80 4 Guidelines for doing physics practical 31/1/2019 80 5 Compton effect and photon interaction 7/2/2019 80 6 Electron microscope 12/2/2019 80 Appendix B: Lack of IO and Presence of TR, FA, and ALT among reviewed LPs In this appendix, we presented what IO components lacked in LPs written by five teachers (Table B1) and the presence of TR, FA, and ALT among five teachers' LPs (Table B2). Table B1 Lack of IO
  • 25. 19 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Condition Who Action Content Standard/criterion T1 5 4 T2 5 10 T3 1 T4 1 1 T5 2 2 Table B2 The presence of TR, FA, and ALT TR FA ALT T1 Pen, Pencil (1) Questioning (5) Group discussion (4) Pen, Pencil, Prism (2) Group activities (2) Group activities (2) Pen, Pencil, Prism, Calculator (2) T2 Prism, pens, paper (3) Questioning (9) Lab activities (1) Ruler, textbooks (1) Group activities (8) Discussion (2) Charts (2) Group activities (9) Blackboard, Chalk Board (1) Presentation (2) Demonstration (1) Providing examples (1) T3 Chalks, notebooks, figures Questioning (5) Group activities (9) Chalks, notebooks, figures, experiment protocol Group activities (5) Presentation (3) Chalks, notebooks, pens. Exercises, quiz (4) Chalks, notebooks, pens, prism Calculator, notebooks, pens, Equilateral Glass Prism Calculator, notebooks, pens. Chart, simple microscope, Calculator, notebooks, pens. Lens Camera, slide projector, pens (2) T4 String Questioning (6) Group discussion (4) White and black clothes, sunlight (2) Presentation (2) Marbles Group activities (1) Simple magnifying glasses Brainstorming (3) Roleplay (4) Note-taking (6) T5 Questioning (2) Group discussion (2) Presentation (1) Roleplay (1) Note-taking (2) Appendix C: Model Lesson Plan Preparation for class may take many forms. Notably, there are 2 phases before a teacher enters the class and the other two after he/she enters the class. These are pre-plan, lesson planning, and lesson delivery, and teacher assessment (REB, 2017). The pre-plan is when a teacher thinks about what he/she will do, what is
  • 26. 20 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. needed, which method, materials, or teaching aids he/she will use, how he/she will cater to students, manage class, including varieties among students. After pre-planning mentally, the teacher needs to plan on the paper. This is the lesson planning phase. To write the model Physics LP, we have chosen to only focus on one topic (Determination of the refractive index of the prism) and planned to be taught in 2 periods (see Table C1). We consulted the syllabus (Rwanda Education Board, 2015a, pp. 23-24), student textbook (Birindwa & Atwebembeire, 2016b, pp. 49-58), and the teacher's guide (Birindwa & Atwebembeire, 2016, pp. 1-2 and 18-20). Table C1 Scheme of work for Unit 1 Thin lenses s/n Syllabus Student's book Teacher's guide (no of periods) 1 Characteristics of lenses Characteristics of lenses (pp. 4-6) Terms used in lenses (pp. 7-11) Types of lenses and their characteristics (2) 2 Types of lenses: converging (double convex, plan convex, convex meniscus) and diverging (double concave, plano-concave, concave meniscus) 3 Refraction of light through lenses. Refraction of light through lenses (p. 12) Properties of images formed by lenses (pp. 13-16) Terms used in lenses, refraction of light by lenses, Images formed by lenses (2) 4 Ray drawing and properties of images formed by lenses for an object located at different positions. Ray diagrams and properties of images formed by lenses (pp. 16-19) Ray diagrams for a convex lens (pp. 20-23) Ray diagrams and images formed by lenses (2) 5 Graphical determination of the focal length of lenses Accurate construction of ray diagrams (pp. 23- 24) Graphical determination of the focal length of a convex Lens (2) 6 Thin lens equation, Power of lens, magnification, and sign convention. The thin lens formula (pp. 24-25) The sign convention (p. 25) Derivation of the lens formula (pp. 26-29) Magnification (pp. 29- 30) Applications of the lens formula (pp. 30-33) Power of the lens (p. 33) Determination of the focal length of the lens (pp. 34-37) Thin lens formula (equation), the sign convention (2) Magnification, Power of the lens (2) Determination of focal length of a concave lens (2)
  • 27. 21 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 7 Lens combination and effective focal length Combination of lenses (pp. 37-40) Defects of lenses and their corrections (pp. 40-42) Combination of lenses, and effective focal length of the lens combination (2) 8 Derivation of lenses formulae 9 Defects and correction of lenses Defects of lenses and their corrections, refraction through glass prisms (Introduction and terms associated with refraction through the prisms) (2) 10 Applications of combined lenses 11 Refraction through prisms Refraction through prisms (pp. 43-44) 12 Terms associated with the refraction of passing through a prism Terms associated with refraction through a prism (pp. 44-45) General formulae for the prism (pp. 45-49) 13 Deviation of light rays by a glass prism. Deviation of light by a prism (pp. 49-51) Determination of refractive index of the prism; Deviation of light by the prism, Minimum deviation, Determination of refractive index of a material of a glass prism using minimum deviation (2) 14 The angle of minimum deviation and the determination of the refractive index of a prism The angle of minimum deviation and determination of refractive index n of a material of the prism (pp. 51-53) The angle of minimum deviation and the refractive index n of the material (pp. 53-54) Deviation of light by a small angle prism (pp. 54-57) Determination of refractive index of a material of a prism (pp. 57-58) 15 Dispersion of light by a prism Dispersion of light by a prism (pp. 58-59) Dispersion of light, Applications of total internal reflection by a prism (2) 16 Applications of total internal reflection of light by a prism Applications of total internal reflection of light by a prism (pp. 59- 60) Use of prisms in periscopes (pp. 60-61) 17 Problem-solving related to combined thin lenses and refraction of light Exercises (pp. 62-68) Problem-solving related to combined thin lenses and refraction of light (2) The unit of thin lenses comprises 17 topics (REB, 2015a, pp. 23-24) to be completed in 24 periods (one period is 40 minutes). Six topics are related to prism—refraction through prisms, terms associated with the refraction of passing through a prism, deviation of light rays by a glass prism, angle of minimum deviation and the
  • 28. 22 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. determination of the refractive index of a prism, dispersion of light by a prism, and applications of total internal reflection of light by a prism. Table C2 is the sample lesson plan. This is one LP (Table D1) from sampled 32 LPs. It is the one we referred to during preparing the model physics lesson plan (Table C3). Table C2: Sample LP
  • 29. 23 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Note that the lesson plan we drafted is in the format recommended by the REB. We followed their format, but the content was prepared as an example by ourselves to support the LP under Table C2. So, the mistakes or misinformation that may be brought by our content has no way to be attributed to REB or teacher's LP under Table C2. However, we have validated it to the extent it can serve as a model lesson plan to be consulted by any physics teacher for proper planning. Our LP draft was shared with seven people. These were three URCE assistant physics lecturers (among them one teach teaching methods in addition to physics), one consultant who worked for the SIIQS3 project, and three master students at ACEITLMS/URCE who were physics teachers in secondary schools before 2019. After receiving their validation reports (five reports from five people who responded to our request), we have considered their suggestions and input to enrich our LP draft and provide the current model LP (see Table C3). 3 SIIQS refers to the Project for Supporting Institutionalizing and Improving the Quality of SBI (School-Based In-service Teacher Training) Activity. This project was piloted jointly by Rwanda Education Board (REB) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) from 2017 to 2019
  • 30. 24 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Table C3: Model lesson plan School name: ………X……………………….. Teacher's name: …………X……................................................... Term Date Subject Class Unit No Lesson No Duration Class size I 12 February 2019 Physics Senior 4 PCB 1 10 of 12 80 Minutes 45 Type of Special Educational Needs to be catered for in this lesson and number of learners in each category One student has visual impairment (short-sightedness) while ten students are slow to understand physics concepts together with the other seven students fear mathematical formulae Unit title Thin lenses Key Unit Competence By the end of this unit, the learner should be able to explain the properties of lenses and image formation by lenses Title of the lesson Determination of refractive index of the Prism; Deviation of light by the Prism, Minimum deviation, Determination of refractive index of a material of a glass prism using minimum deviation Instructional Objective Through experiments using materials such as glass prism of refracting angle 60o, a sheet of paper, soft board, pins, and pencils, ruler, and protractor; through a series of exercises; learners should be able to: • determine the refractive index of a material of a prism correctly. • measure the angle of deviation d accurately • plot a graph of deviation d against the angle of incidence accurately • clearly explain the deviation formula and minimum deviation produced by a prism and its relationship with the refractive index • determine the refractive index of a material of a glass prism using the minimum deviation formula easily. Plan for this Class (location: in / outside) This lesson will be conducted inside the classroom Learning Materials Glass prism, pins, white papers, soft board, pencils, ruler, protractor, calculators, notebooks (for all learners)
  • 31. 25 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. References Physics for Rwandan secondary schools Learner's Book 4, Fountain Publishers Timing for each step Description of teaching/learning activities In groups, students perform experiments to determine the refractive index of the prism. The teacher provides materials, gives instructions, and guides students while students are busy working towards lesson objectives. Generic competences and Cross-cutting issues to be addressed + a short explanation Teacher's activities Teacher's activities Learner's activities 1. Introduction (10 min) Ask questions about the previous lesson: -Describe a prism as an apparatus that refracts light -Write and interpret the Snell's law and the angle of the prism Guide students in answering questions and clarifying for better conceptual understanding. Identify students with poor understanding (slow learners). Make sure everyone understands before the next lesson; otherwise, consider them in the next lesson. Make sure students with short-sightedness are sitting in front. Answer to asked questions -In optics, a prism is a transparent material like glass or plastic that refracts light. At least two of the flat surfaces must have an angle of less than 90o between them. The exact angle between the surfaces depends on the application. -Note that given i1, r1, and i2, r2 as angles of incidence and refraction at F and G as shown and n is the prism refractive index, then Snell's law holds. That is; Sin i1 = n sin r1, and Sin i2 = n sin r2. Angle A: This is called the refracting angle or angle of the prism. It is the angle between the inclined surfaces of the prism. r1 + r2 = A. GC: Communication skills will be developed through answering questions CC: Inclusive Education will be catered for throughout the lesson
  • 32. 26 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 2. Development of the lesson (65 min) 2.1 discovery activities (20 min) Form groups (seven groups of 6-7 students) by considering a mixture of both boys and girls, smart and slow learners. Give instructions on what they are going to do (experiment). Assign different experiment tasks to different groups of students in order to keep time and call attention. Ask students to follow the procedures and record findings in their notebooks. Remind them that they have different tasks and be ready to teach their colleagues what every group did and found. Guide each group to achieve expected results and monitor the experiment procedure. Note down the difficulties that groups face and individuals' capabilities to learn which groups will present in the next session. Follow instructions and form groups as requested. Participate actively in groups by helping each other to perform experiments and following the procedure referred to in textbooks. Experiment 1 (to be done by group 1, 4, and 7) Determination of refractive index of a material of a prism (activity 32, p. 57 student's book) Experiment 2 (to be done by group 2 and 5) Deviation of light by the prism (activity 30, p. 50 student's book) Experiment 3 (to be done by group 3 and 6) Minimum deviation (activity 31, p. 51 student's book) Ask for guidance and record data on the notebook. GC: Cooperation will be developed through working together performing experiment GC: Interpersonal relations and life skills will be developed by supporting each other perform experiment
  • 33. 27 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 2.2 presentation learners' findings production (15 min) Make sure students respect the time and spare time for them to share their findings. Depending on the teacher's notes (during monitoring experimentation), assign one of the groups who performed experiment 1 to present on what they did and found. It is better to allow the group that got difficulties in order to raise discussion in the next session. Let the group that faced more challenges take the first floor to present and turn those challenges into an opportunity to better understand concepts. Group 1 or 4 or 7 shares what they did related to experiment 1 in front of the class Group 2 or 5 shares what they did related to experiment 2 in front of the class Group 3 or 6 shares what they did related to experiment 3 in front of the class Other students follow actively and participate in discussions by asking for clarification. GC: Communication skills will be developed during students presentation GC: Creativity and innovation will be developed through generating the ideas in case of being challenged 2.3 exploitation findings production (20 min) Start the discussion by motivating the rest of the class to challenge the presenters. Guide discussion of students. Give an activity for all the groups. This will make students use what they found in the experimentation. Activity: Determination of refractive index of a material of a glass prism using minimum deviation by working out exercises as group work. Ask clarification, and others respond Discuss the presented findings. Derive the relation between minimum deviation and the refractive index of the material: n = 𝑆𝑖𝑛 (𝐷𝑚𝑖𝑛+𝐴) 2 /𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐴 2 GC: Cooperation and Interpersonal relations and life skills will be developed through discussion and challenging each other GC: Critical thinking and problem solving will be developed through the derivation of formula and solving exercises
  • 34. 28 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Guide the learners to derive the relation between minimum deviation and the refractive index of the material by specifically encouraging students that fear mathematical formulae. It is better the teacher presents at least two diagrams of the prism, the first one in the normal way and the second one at minimum deviation so that they explore the difference between them and the students can measure the angles of those two prisms and then find the conditions for minimum deviation in addition to that the teacher must help the students to be familiar in the derivation of 4 formulas of prism before attacking minimum deviation. Monitor how they use what was learned to adapt to a new situation in solving exercises. If possible, the teacher must clarify the presentation of students by adding scientific information. He/she can show a video to the students for good exploration and clarification. Derive the formulas and use them in the exercises on notebooks and a chalkboard (work through exercise on page 60 in student's book). GC: Lifelong learning will be developed through exploiting other opportunities available to better improve the knowledge as well as skills
  • 35. 29 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 2.4 conclusion/ summary (10 min) Call for volunteer students to sum up what was learned. A better way is to call some students whom you found had some challenges. Another way is to ask one student from groups that did, let say, experiment 1 to talk about what he/she learned from the work done by students who did experiment 2 or 3. Another better way is to ask everyone to write a summary of today’s lesson. Help students contextual and appreciate the competences gained and skills got in today's lesson. Motivate learners to record notes. Groups evaluate each other Students share what they learned new in the lesson Propose what to do for a better understanding. Share the importance of today's lesson. Share how to apply what they learned in everyday life. Record notes on the individual notebook. GC: Interpersonal relations and life skills will be developed through challenging each other; therefore, this will promote the Development of the higher-order thinking skills GC: Lifelong learning will be developed via contextualizing the learned concepts 3. assessment /homework (5 min) Assign homework as an individual work. Record the homework in an individual notebook. Teacher self-evaluation The lesson was well done; about ten students still have difficulties in mathematical formulae; before the next lesson (lesson 11: Dispersion of light), I will make corrections of homework by engaging them during the first 15 minutes.
  • 36. 30 ©2020 The author and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 19, No. 12, pp. 30-42, December 2020 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.12.2 First-Year Accounting Student Teachers’ Perceptions of their Classroom Learning Environment Medson Mapuya Sol Plaatje University. Kimberley. South Africa https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7331-5113 Abstract. This study assessed the perceptions of first-year accounting student teachers about their classroom learning environment. The study was prompted by studies which argue that the academic performance of students is correlated with their perceptions of the learning environment and the context in which teaching and learning takes place. The population for the study was first-year Accounting students at a university of technology in South Africa. The study employed a mixed- method approach, and data were collected from students using a Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) which covered 42 items. The findings from the quantitative part of the study revealed that the students view their learning environment positively. Evidence to this effect is demonstrated by the mean obtained in the categories of the learning environment which were all above three. The themes which emerged from the qualitative findings also corroborated the quantitative findings. However, the qualitative data further reveal that the students felt far away from issues directly related to their teaching and learning. Consequently, a more student-participative approach to the planning and designing of instruction is recommended to mitigate the identified challenges. Keywords: Student teachers; Learning environment; Perceptions; Constructivism 1. Introduction Actually, it has been acknowledged that the performance of first-year accounting student teacher in accounting is to some extent unsatisfactory as shown in the results of the second semester of 2016. The average class performance in Accounting was 51%, while it was 69% in Business Management and 67% in Economics. This is a very low class average as compared to the other two major subjects which form part of the programme. Furthermore, in the final exam of 2016, there were twenty-one students who sat for the re-evaluation examination in Accounting 1 against three in Economics 1 and none in Business Management
  • 37. 31 ©2020 The author and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 1. Nationally, this problem is highlighted in the statistics provided by Masondo and Fengu (2019), Raborife (2017) and Seepe (2005), the National Council on Higher Education, (2013), as well as the sentiments of Mapuya (2018) and Makola (2016). Since Accounting 1 is a compulsory module in the programme, students’ poor performance in this module has raised some concerns and thus necessitated this study. Based on the exiting literature, it has been found that such a failure is closely associated with learners’ perceptions and the outlooks they have towards the learning environment. Hence, the present research paper discusses what the literature says about the issue under investigation, and attempts to find out first- year accounting students teachers’ perceptions about their classroom learning environment. In this concern, the investigator put forward the following research question: 1. How do first-year Accounting student teachers perceive their classroom learning environment? 2. Theoretical Framework Masondo and Fengu (2019) and Hodgson, Lam and Chow (2010) argue that first- year students need to adjust from highly structured and supportive learning environments in their secondary schools which promote learning dependence to a complex learning environment at university which emphasizes autonomous learning. To this effect, Killen (2016), Mapuya (2018), and Millet (2015) warn that the perceptions of students about their learning environment have a significant impact on their transition to university life and their overall development and academic progression. Furthermore, Killen (2016) and Millet (2015) agree that the dynamics of adjusting to the social, academic and learning environments constitute the difference between a negative and positive experience for most first- year students. These dynamics also influence how students ultimately perceive the learning environment. 2.1. Meaning of a Learning Environment The term ‘learning environment’ has been approached differently by different researchers. To start with, it is used to refer to a few contextual aspects or elements of the teaching and learning process (Mapuya, 2018). It refers to the social atmosphere or climate in which teaching and learning takes place (Killen, 2016; Rankin, 2005; Millet, 2015; Arisoy, 2007). It also denotes the physical setting of the classroom and its social norms (Litmanen, Loyens & Lonka, 2014). Lastly, it refers to the physical activities in the classroom, the teaching strategies used in the teaching and learning process, the type of learning in which students are engaged and the assessment methods used to evaluate teaching and learning (Doppelt, Christian & Schunn, 2008; Cleveland & Fisher, 2014). These definitions offer a more holistic and comprehensive all-inclusive view of the learning environment, but the one put forward by Doppelt et al. (2008) and Cleveland and Fisher (2014) is found to be more relevant and applicable to this study.
  • 38. 32 ©2020 The author and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 2.2. Benefits of Knowledge about the Learning Environment and Why it is Necessary The learning environment includes several elements such as social relationships, the classroom interactions, the general approach to learning activities and the physical attributes of the classroom that contribute to learning. It comprises what is perceived or experienced by both the students and the lecturer and stands out to be a learning variable which can exacerbate or mitigate academic success of students (Abraham, Ramnarayan, Vinod, & Torke, 2008; Bakhashialiabad et al, 2015). A comprehensive description of the learning environment should incorporate the culture within a lecture hall and its existing ethos, distinctive features and student interactions. It should also include how the lecturer organizes the educational environment to enhance and stimulate teaching and student learning, the type of learning in which students are engaged and the assessment methods used to evaluate teaching and learning (Litmanen et al., 2014; Doppelt et al., 2008; Cleveland & Fisher, 2014). Bakhashialiabad et al. (2015) corroborated with the view of Du toit (2018) who contended that the contextual variables of the teaching and learning process and the psycho-social engagements in the classroom have a significant effect on the students’ ability to learn and achieve their goals. Bakhashialiabad et al. (2015) provided a two-side view of the learning environment which includes both the physical and psychological aspects to illuminate the implications for teaching and learning. They identified the physical domain of the learning environment which refers to variables such as facilities, spaces, ventilation, furniture, lighting, and all the other features which influence the students’ comfort and safety and ultimately their learning experience and personal development. On the other hand, the psychological environment focuses on the variables within the classroom context in terms of the social relationships among the stakeholders in the classroom. This is also referred to as the classroom social interactions and relationships. Most researchers and educational psychologists who have explored the learning environment through the socio-ecological paradigm developed by Moos (1974) subscribe to the conclusion that the learning environment can be a powerful indicator of academic achievement of students and their attitudes (Myint & Goh, 2001; Brown, Williams & Lynch, 2011; Penlington, Joyce, Tudor & Thompson, 2012; Arisoy, 2007; Pintrich & Schunk, 2002; Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). The dominant view that emerged from investigations in chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics education corroborates with the finding that the perceptions of students regarding the climate and atmosphere in which they learn is a major qualifier of differences in academic achievement than factors related to the characteristics of students (McLoughlin& Luca, 2004; Abraham, Ramnarayan & Torke, 2008; Lin, 2003; Bakhashialiabad et al., 2015; Lakhan & Ekundayo 2013). 2.3. Research on Learning Environments Many studies have been conducted on the learning environment and how it is related to the academic performance of the students. Among others, the investigations by Radovan and Makovec (2015), Dahlin, Fjell & Runeson (2010), Nel, Nel & Hugo (2010), Urdan (2004) and Bakhshialiabad, Bakhshi &
  • 39. 33 ©2020 The author and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Hassanshahi (2015) have produced compelling evidence to argue that a significant relationship exists between students’ perspectives of the learning environment, and the development of their cognitive and effective domains and their overall academic performance. Bakhashialiabad et al. (2015) confirmed that meaningful and successful learning is positively correlated to the students’ perceptions of the learning environment. Penlingthon, Joyce, Tudor and Thompson (2012) indicated that studies on learning environments have connected the perceptions of students about their learning environment to their quality of learning. In other terms, students tend to learn much better and more efficiently when they have some positive perceptions of their learning environment. Rakici (2004) claimed that the students’ attitudes towards teaching and learning activities are directly associated with their perceptions of the learning environment in their classrooms. Den Brok (2006) and Arisoy (2007) added that gender is a significant factor that consistently influenced the students’ perceptions of the learning environment, irrespective of the interest in the learning environment. Rakici (2004) and Den Brok (2006) revealed that girls rated their learning environment and the teacher’s interpersonal behaviour more favourably than their male counterparts. The girls who participated in an investigation by Arisoy (2007) showed positive perceptions that are superior to those of boys. However, they were also more motivated to learn than the boys. These claims were later reinforced by Brown, Williams and Lynch (2011) whose findings demonstrated that female students indicated a more positive perception of the learning environment than males. It was also found that the students viewed the learning environment of male educators as more cooperative than that of female educators. Also, male educators were also rated as being stricter in the classrooms than female educators. With regard to the above said, Arisoy, (2007) and Rakici (2004) suggested that Moos (1974) developed the socio-ecological approach to illustrate the influence the environment has on the perspectives of individuals who occupy it and how it can be modified to improve their quality of life. As observed by Lakhan & Ekundayo (2013), Moos (1974) argued that the psychosocial environment has three central dimensions that focus on the majority of settings in which people find themselves in their daily lives, namely: a relationship dimension, a personal development dimension, and systems maintenance and systems change dimension. 2.4. The Relationship Dimension Rodavan & Makovec (2015) and Lakhan &Ekundayo, (2013) asserted that the relationship dimension assesses and evaluates the degree to which students are involved in the learning environment. It considers the extent to which students assist and support each other to promote their education. In the same line of thought, Rakici (2004) contends that the relationship dimension is concerned with the nature and type of interactions and relationships between the people who occupy a given environment. Rodavan & Makovec (2015) further note that this dimension emphasizes the nature, quality and power of personal relations in any
  • 40. 34 ©2020 The author and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. given context. These relations can either be negative or positive, depending on the effect they have on both the students and the lecturer. Den Brok, (2006) agreed with Lakhan & Ekundayo, (2013) in which the elements which Moos (1974) included in this category evaluate and examine the types and levels of personal relationships among the students in the classroom. 2.5. The Personal Development Dimension The personal development dimension evaluates and analyses the degree to which the learning environment creates and offers students opportunities to develop their self-esteem and self-enhancement. It covers all the aspects through which the learning environment encourages the growth, development and promotion of students. Lakhan & Ekundayo, (2013) suggested that at the university, this dimension includes competition, academic success and task orientation. Rakici (2004) complemented and added that under this dimension, self-discovery, anger aggression and personal status are also important qualifiers. Lakhan & Ekundayo, (2013) subscribed to an earlier view of autonomy by Allegrante, Hanson, Sleet & Marks (2010), in which they agreed that autonomy assesses the degree to which students are encouraged to be independent and self-sufficient scholars. This view of autonomy is consistent with a social constructivist oriented teaching and learning approach. It is also in harmony with the graduate attributes envisaged by the Central University of Technology (CUT), Free State and some of the educational imperatives of the National Curriculum Statement (Grades R - 12), and the Curriculum Assessment Policy Statement (2015). Moos (1974) identified the variable of autonomy under the personal development dimension to be particularly prevalent and important in universities. The practical orientation of the personal development dimension looks at the degree to which the learning programme prepares and orients students towards training for employment, focusing on the future and working towards the achievement of concrete goals (Den Brok, 2006). This is also consistent with the CUT graduate attributes and the educational goals and objectives pronounced in the National Curriculum Statement (Grades R - 12) and the Curriculum Assessment Policy Statement (2015). All schools and universities continuously strive to realize and achieve the practical orientation of the learning environment. Arisoy (2007) and Lakhan & Ekundayo, (2013) pointed out that the personal problem orientation element of the personal development dimension evaluates the extent to which students are encouraged to be conscious of their feelings and problems and make attempts to understand them. This is an important element of the learning environment, especially in light of the complex and diverse nature of the various problems encountered by first-year students in universities as identified by Pieterse, (2015), Makola (2016), Bojuwoye, (2002) and Bitzer, (2003). 2.6. The Systems Maintenance and System Change Dimension The third dimension of the environment as propounded by Moos (1974) is the systems maintenance and system change dimension. This dimension encompasses components such as organization, order, clarity in expectations of both the students and the lecturer and control of the environment and physical comfort. Rakici (2004) further noted that it also includes innovation of the learning environment at the university and that student influence is a variable which is
  • 41. 35 ©2020 The author and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. related to system change at universities. Radovan and Makovec (2015) added that the system maintenance and system change dimension refers to the rules, the surveillance mechanisms, the ability and manner in which the system responds to changes. These changes can be in terms of learning needs and the overall strategies used to implement into the curriculum. They are reflected and shown in the differentiation of lessons, how clear the classroom rules and instructions are and how differences in terms of thinking are accepted in the classroom. This further affirms the need to create classroom learning environments which embrace students’ diversity and always keep pace with their individual needs. With reference to the above said, the relationship, personal development and systems maintenance and change dimensions of the learning environment directly affect how students perceive that specific environment, their learning experience and ultimately their academic success (Bakhashialiabad et al, 2015; Brown et al., 2011; Penlingthon et al., 2012). In this regard, specific reference must be made to Bakhashialiabad et al. (2015) who hypothesized that the contextual variables and realities of the teaching and learning process point to the efficiency of the education process. 3. Methodology 3.1. Research Design An exploratory mixed-methods research design was used in this study. It was indeed found to be compatible and consistent with the theoretical framework of the study and the set research question. This method also enabled the researcher to collect both quantitative and qualitative data which were required to answer the research question. As advanced by Creswell (2013), combining both quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study results in a comprehensive understanding of the problem being investigated than can be achieved by either method alone. 3.2. Participants The participants of this study were 112 first-year Accounting students at a University of Technology in South Africa. 3.3. Research Instruments A constructivist learning environment questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. The administration of this questionnaire also enabled the researcher to measure how first-year accounting student teachers perceived their teaching and learning context through the use of a five-point Likert-type scale. Quantitative data were obtained from the ratings given by the students to each of the 42 statements posed to them while qualitative data were gathered from the open-ended section of the constructivist learning environment questionnaire. This research instrument was adapted to be used in this study because its developers have tested it for reliability and validity, and therefore the researcher wanted to test its applicability to university students in South Africa. Although it was initially developed and intended for secondary school students, it was found to be useful and relevant to first-year students because there is a small gap in terms of transition between them and the secondary school students (Aldridge,
  • 42. 36 ©2020 The author and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Fraser, Bell & Dorman, 2012). It was also used by Walker and Fraser (2005) and Aldridge, Fraser, Bell and Dorman (2012) in various investigations which also sought to obtain the perceptions of students about their learning environments and learning experiences. 3.4. Data Collection Procedure and Analysis The questionnaires were administered by the researcher in person. To guarantee a 100% return rate for the questionnaires, the researcher and the students unanimously agreed that the questionnaires would be completed in class during a free double period. The students handed in the questionnaires immediately after completion. As noted by Creswell (2012), the first step in processing data from Section B of the questionnaires used in this study was editing. The editing of the questionnaires comprises of three main checks, namely completeness, accuracy and uniformity. To ensure that every question was answered, the researcher conducted a completeness check. On the other hand, to determine whether all questions had been answered as accurately as possible, an accuracy check was carried out. A uniformity check was meant to establish the extent to which all the students have interpreted the questions and instructions in a similar way (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2013). The responses to the open-ended section of the questionnaires were coded before being assigned unique codes for further analysis. Babbie (2013) notes that this coding process requires the researcher to provide interpretations of responses, a requirement which can lead to misinterpretation and researcher bias (Manion & Morrison, 2013). Measures of central tendency and descriptive statistics (McMillan & Schumacher, 2010; Terre Blanche et al., 2011; Johnson & Christensen, 2014) were used to analyze and describe the students’ ratings of the various statements that were presented to them 4. Findings The study findings are presented on the complete questionnaire used in the study. However, when discussing the findings, reference will only be made to findings on learning to learn (shared control) and learning to communicate (student negotiation). These are the sections of the questionnaire which directly address the research question posed in the study. Table 1. Presentation of students’ ratings of 42 statements Statements Mean Standard Deviation A. LEARNING ABOUT THE WORLD (Real Life, Personal Voice) In this class 1 I learn about the world outside of school. 4.21 0.75 2 My learning starts with problems about the world outside of school. 3.62 1.19 3 I learn how Accounting can be part of my out-of-school life. 4.32 0.83
  • 43. 37 ©2020 The author and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 4 I get a better understanding of the world outside of school. 4.07 0.98 5 I learn interesting things about the world outside of school. 3.91 1.02 6 What I learn has nothing to do with my out-of-school life. 2.48 1.40 B. LEARNING ABOUT ACCOUNTING (Uncertainty) In this class 7 I learn that Accounting cannot provide perfect answers to problems. 3.14 1.42 8 I learn that Accounting has changed over time. 3.58 1.30 9 I learn that Accounting is influenced by people's values and opinions 3.42 1.37 10 I learn about the different Accounting concepts used by people in other cultures. 3.63 1.33 11 I learn that modern Accounting is different from the Accounting of long ago. 3.58 1.44 12 I learn that Accounting is about inventing theories. 3.38 1.36 C. LEARNING TO SPEAK OUT( Critical voice) In this class 13 It is acceptable to ask the teacher "Why do we have to learn this?" 4.24 1.15 14 It is acceptable to question the way I am being taught. 4.27 0.98 15 It is acceptable to complain about activities that are confusing. 4.34 1.03 16 It is acceptable to complain about anything that prevents me from learning. 4.46 0.87 17 It is acceptable to express my opinion. 4.63 0.74 18 It is acceptable to speak up for my rights. 4.32 1.08 D. LEARNING TO LEARN (Shared control) In this class 19 I help the lecturer plan what I am going to learn. 2.74 1.33 20 I help the lecturer decide how well I am learning. 2.77 1.28 21 I help the lecturer decide which activities are best for me. 2.60 1.38 22 I help the lecturer decide how much time I spend on activities. 2.62 1.40 23 I help the lecturer decide which activities I do. 2.36 1.29 24 I help the lecturer assess my learning. 2.94 1.50 E. LEARNING TO COMMUNICATE (Student negotiation) In this class 25 I get the chance to talk to other students. 4.43 0.84 26 I talk with other students about how to solve problems. 4.47 0.84 27 I explain my ideas to other students. 4.21 0.93 28 I ask other students to explain their ideas. 4.31 0.89 29 Other students ask me to explain my ideas. 4.08 0.97 30 Other students explain their ideas to me. 4.22 0.93 F. ATTITUDE IN LEARNING ACCOUNTING (Commitment) In this class 31 I am interested in Accounting lessons. 4.98 0.19