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30120130405035

  1. 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), pp. 301-312 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET ©IAEME PALM OIL AND CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM OIL ARE POTENTIAL FEED STOCKS FOR FUTURE BIODIESEL IN COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES: A REVIEW H. Suresh Babu Rao1, Dr. T. Venkateswara Rao2 and Dr. K. Hema Chandra Reddy3 1 (Department of Mechanical Engineering, A.I.T.S-Rajampet, India) 2 (Department of Mechanical Engineering, DBSIT-Kavali, India) 3 (Department of Mechanical Engineering, J.N.T.U.C.E-Anantapur, India) ABSTRACT The world is confronted with serious problems like the fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Fossil fuels in near future will become rare due to its indiscriminate extraction and consumption. Therefore, biodiesel is considered as a promising option as they are clean renewable fuels and best substitute for diesel fuel in any compression ignition engine. The important advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions. This paper reviews the preparation, performance and emission of Palm and Calophyllum inophyllum oils as biodiesel. Palm oil is one of the most efficient and high productivity edible oil crops. However, for edible oils food Vs fuel problem makes them as they are not an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, the attention is shifted towards non-edible oils like Jatropha curcas, Kanaja, Mahau, Calophyllum inophyllum etc. Calophyllum inophyllum oil can be transesterified and being considered as potential biodiesel feed stocks for future. Compared to Palm oil, biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil is still in a nascent state. Therefore, long term research is to be carried out for the oil to become alternative fuel in future. KEYWORDS: Biodiesel, Palm, Calophyllum inophyllum, Transesterification, Performance, Emission. 1. INTRODUCTION The rising demand for fuel with deterioration of climate conditions has raised concerns for environmental problems and energy crisis. Biodiesel is the promising option as alternative fuels for diesel engine (edible or non-edible feedstock). Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl esters with long chain of fatty acids derived from vegetable oils, animal fats or waste cooking oil. Biodiesels are 301
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME renewable, nontoxic, non-flammable, readily available and also eco-friendly. Biodiesel have some advantages as compared to petroleum diesel. The most important advantages of biodiesel are biodegradability, higher flash point, improved cetane number and reduced exhaust emissions. Also, biodiesels are free from sulfur or aromatic compounds and reduces air pollution like carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons and particulate matter. Therefore, this makes biodiesel as an ideal fuel for future and it is gaining a worldwide attention. The important advantages of using the Biodiesel are its renewability, better quality exhaust gas emission, biodegradability; also it does not contribute to a rise in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The main sources for biodiesel are both edible and non-edible oils can be obtained from such as edible oils like Palm oil, Peanut oil, Sunflower oil, Soyabeen oil etc., and non-edible oils like Jatropha Curcas , Pongamia Pinnata, Mahau, Calophyllum inophyllum etc. Hence, it is believed that non-edible oils can be one of the solutions to meet the world energy demand and reduce the dependency on the edible oils. Biodiesel is a realistic alternative renewable fuel in the near future and this review is focused on the possibilities of using palm oil and Calophyllum inophyllum oils as biodiesel in diesel engine. Besides, the fuel characteristics (viscosity etc.), processes available, preparation of biodiesel, performance and emission analysis of biodiesel are discussed by making a comparison on these three different types of biodiesels [4]. 1.1 Biodiesel The concept of using biodiesels in diesel engines is not a new idea. Rudolph Diesel had demonstrated his first developed compression ignition (CI) diesel engine using peanut oil as a fuel at the World Exhibition at Paris in 1900. However due to abundant supply of diesel and vegetable oil fuel were more expensive than diesel. So, research activity and developments on vegetable oil were not taken seriously on those days. There is a renewed interest in vegetable oil in this decade when it was realized that petroleum fuel are declining faster and eco-friendly renewable substitutes must be found for replacement to the petroleum diesel. Therefore, biodiesels are gaining more and more interest as an attractive fuel due to the depleting of fossil fuel resources and environmental degradation. Biodiesel which has combustion characteristics similar to that of diesel and various biodiesel blends have higher ignition temperature and pressure, shorter ignition delay as well as peak heat release when compared to diesel fuel. Moreover, the engine power output and brake power efficiency were also found to be equivalent to diesel. Biodiesel and diesel blends can reduce smoke opacity, particulate matters, un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide emissions but nitrous monoxide emissions have slightly increased. However, the main disadvantages of biodiesel is their high viscosity and low volatility, which causes poor combustion in diesel engines including formation of deposits and injector cocking due to poorer atomization upon injection into the combustion chamber. By transesterification process, the oil reduces its viscosity and the viscosity of the oil will be to a range closer to that of diesel fuel and hence improves combustion. Biodiesels or fatty acid esters are clean, efficient and natural alternative to petroleum fuel. The use of biodiesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Feedstock costs account for a large portion of the direct biodiesel production costs, including capital cost and return. 1.1.1 Standards of biodiesel Generally, biodiesel can be defined as a domestically renewable fuel for diesel engines derived from natural tree born oils like peanut, palm, sunflower, rapeseed etc., and the oil that meet the standard specifications . Technical properties of biodiesel are given in Table 1 [4]. Biodiesel is a clear amber-yellow liquid with a viscosity is similar to diesel fuel. 302
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME Table 1. Technical Properties of Biodiesel S.No. 1 Common Name Common chemical name 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Chemical formula range Kinematic viscosity range (mm 2/s) Density range (kg/m3 , at 288K) Boiling point range (K) Flash Point range Solubility in water Physical appearance 9 Biodegradability 10 Biodiesel Fatty acid methylester C14 - C24 methylesters or C15 - 25 H28-48 O2 3.3 - 5.2 860 – 894 >475 420-450 insoluble Light to dark yellow, clear liquid More biodegradable than petroleum diesel Stable but avoid strong oxidizing agents Reactivity Biodiesel Feedstock 1.1.2 Biodiesel Feedstock sources There are more than 350 tree born oils identified, among these only few are considered as potential alternative fuels. Out of these palm, peanut, soybean, sunflower etc., - edible oils and Jatropha curcas, Karanja, cotton seed, calophyllum inophyllum etc., - non-edible oils. The sources for biodiesel production is usually chosen according to availability in each region or country. European countries have surplus amount of edible oil to export. Hence, rapeseed oil is used as biodiesel feed stock. In the United States – soybean biodiesel becoming the important source of biodiesel. The coastal countries like Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia – palm oil and coconut oil are used in biodiesel production. However, some Asian countries are not self sufficient in edible oils due to food Vs fuel problem, they are exploring non-edible oils like Jatropha curcas and Karanja as biodiesel raw materials. The other different oil sources reported in various scientific articles are: sunflower oil, peanut oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, calophyllum inophyllum etc. Fig. 1 shows the oil yield of various oil sources for biodiesel feedstock [15]. Palm oil has potential of high productivity (litres per hectare) when compared to other vegetable oils. As the figure shows, the highest oil productivity of palm oil is about 5950 litres per hectare which is about 13 times better than soybean oil and follows by Calophyllum inophyllum oil. Out of the various tree born oils palm oil based biodiesel can reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by 62% as compared to sunflower oil (58%), rapeseed oil (45%) and soybean oil (40%). Palm Coconut Soybean Rapeseed Sunflower Peanut Cottonseed Jatropha C.Inophyllum 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 Productivity (litres/hectare) Fig. 1. Production oil yield for various source of biodiesel feedstock [4] 303
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME 2. PALM OIL Botanical name of oil palm is Elaeis guineensis. It is an ancient tropical plant from the West African tropical rainforest where it was grown wild and later it was developed into an agricultural crop. Oil palm produces two different types of oils: palm oil and palm kernel oil. Palm oil is used in wide variety of food products such as cooking oil, margarine and shortenings and palm kernel oil is used as a raw material in the production of non-food products like cosmetic, soaps, toiletries, detergents etc. is the most productive oil palm variety which can produce 10–35 tonnes/ hectare of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) palm oil annually. The palm oil is a tropical perennial plant and it can grow well in lowland with humid places. The palm oil tree is unbranched and single-stemmed can grow up to 20–30m height. The flowers are produced in dense clusters which each individual flower is small with three sepals and three petals. The leaves are pinnate and can reach between 3 and 5m long. The fleshy orange reddish coloured fruits grow in large and tight female bunches each fruit weigh as much as 10–40 kg and contain up to 2000 fruitlets as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 2. Palm oil tree with fruits The oil palm plantations can be planted with a density of 148 palm trees per hectare. The fruit let consists of a fibrous mesoscarp layer and the endocarp (shell) containing the kernel which contains oil and carbohydrate reserves for the embryo. The economic life of oil palm tree is 25 - 30 years of its lifespan is approximately 200 years and produces fruit bunches from three years of age after field planting. Oil palm is the highest oil yield crop producing an average about 4 – 5 tons of oil per hectare annually. Two main products produced by oil palm fruit: Crude palm oil which is produced from the mesoscarp. Crude palm kernel oil which is produced from the endosperm (kernel). The mesoscarp contains 49% of palm oil and kernel contains 50% of palm kernel oil. Globally, the demand for edible oils is increasing in this few decades which causes tremendous increase in area of oil crop cultivation, especially soybean oil and palm oil. Palm oil is one of the 17 major oils and fats produced in globally. Global consumption of palm oil was about 52.1 million tonnes in year 2012. Indonesia and Malaysia produce about 85% of the world’s palm oil. Other producer countries include Thailand, Columbia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea and Ecuador shown in Fig. 3. Palm oil is one of the most efficient oil bearing crops in terms of land utilization, efficiency and productivity. 304
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME Fig. 3. Palm oil – World Production Oils and fats are vital nutrients required by the human body to achieve and maintain good health. There are two types of natural fats - saturated and unsaturated fats. An adequate amount of fat is necessary in the human diet for proper digestion and nutrient absorption. Palm oil provides the right amounts of fat in a balanced diet. Vitamins A and E, essential for the normal growth and development of the human body, is obtained through food consumption. All vegetable oils contain natural vitamin E in compounds such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Palm oil has the richest known content of natural tocotrienols. Studies have shown that tocotrienol helps lower bad cholesterol levels and protects the brain against diseases. Palm oil is also high in carotenoids, a rich source of vitamin A. Carotenoids can be stored in the body and be converted to vitamin A when needed. Vitamin A stimulates the immune system and controls the growth and functions of body tissues. Red palm oil, or mildly refined palm oil, has seventeen times more carotenoids than carrots. Palm oil is cholesterol-free and Trans fat free. It is composed mainly of triglycerides of fatty acid with a balanced composition between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The latter comprises 40% monounsaturated and 10% polyunsaturated fat. 3. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Botanical name is Calophyllum inphyllum Linn. It is a Indian Laurel tree with great potential for biodiesel. Calophyllum inophyllum Linn is a medium-sized to large evergreen tree that averages 8–20 m in height with a broad spreading crown of irregular branches. The tree supports a dense canopy of glossy, elliptical leaves, fragrant white flowers, and large round nuts. It grows along coastal areas and adjacent lowland forests, although it occasionally occurs inland at higher elevations. It is native to east Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the South Pacific. It has been widely planted throughout the tropics and is naturalized in the main Hawaiian Islands. Calophyllum inophyllum L. is a useful tree for coastal shelterbelts, windbreaks, and strand reforestation because it grows well despite the wind, salt spray, drought, and occasional flooding common to beach environments. It even withstands typhoons [12]. 305
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME Fig. 5. Calophyllum inophyllum L. flowers, fruits and tree [11] & [12]. 3.1. Botanical Description of Calophyllum Inophyllum Plant: Plant Size: Calophyllum inophyllum L. is a large tree of shorelines and coastal forests. It usually grows 12–20 m (40–65 ft) in height, but open-grown trees can become wider than they are tall, often leaning, with broad, spreading crowns. Trees growing along the shoreline may reach out with trunks almost parallel to the ground. The tree can often be recognized at a distance by its large, spreading horizontal branches [11]. Flowers: It bears clusters of 4–15 fragrant white flowers about 2.5 cm (1 in) across and 8–14 mm (0.3–0.6 in) long on long, sturdy stalks in leaf axils. There are 4–8 oblong petals. Trees may flower all year, but flowering is heaviest in late spring/early summer and late fall in the northern hemisphere [11]. Leaves: The opposite leaves are dark green, shiny, and hairless with broadly elliptical blades 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long and 6–9 cm (2.4–3.6 in) wide. Both the tip and base of the leaves are rounded. Leaf veins run parallel to each other and perpendicular to the midrib. The scientific name Calophyllum comes from the Greek words for “beautiful leaf” [11]. Fruit: The ball-shaped, light green fruits grow in clusters. Fruits are 2–5 cm (0.8–2 in) in diameter. The skin, which turns yellow and then brown and wrinkled when the fruit is ripe, covers the thin pulp, the shell, a corky inner layer, and a single seed kernel. Fruits are usually borne twice a year [11]. Seeds: One large brown seed 2–4 cm (0.8–1.6 in) in diameter is found in each fruit. Seeds are prepared by cleaning off the skin and husk from the shell of the seed; there are 100–200 seeds/kg with shells intact but husks removed [11]. 3.2. Environmental Preferences and Tolerances Climate: Calophyllum inophyllum L grows in warm temperatures in wet or moderate conditions. It is not suited to high elevations, cool areas, or very dry conditions. Elevation range: Up to 800 m (2000 ft) Mean annual rainfall: 1000–5000 mm (40–200 in) Rainfall pattern: Calophyllum inophyllum L prefers climates with summer, winter, or uniform rainfall patterns. Dry season duration (consecutive months with < 20mm [1.6 in] rainfall) 4–5 months Mean annual temperature & Minimum temperature tolerated: 18–33°C & 8°C Soils: Calophyllum inophyllum L tolerates a wide range of soils. It grows best in sandy well drained soils in coastal areas but will tolerate clays, calcareous soils, and rocky soils. Soil texture: It tolerates light to medium soils (sands, sandy loams, loams, and sandy clay loams. Soil drainage: Freely draining as well as soils with impeded drainage or seasonal water logging is acceptable. Soil acidity: Neutral to acid soils (pH 7.4–4.0) 306
  7. 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME It tolerates shallow and saline soils. Tolerances: Calophyllum inophyllum L is a hardy tree of tropical coastal areas that tolerates wind, salt spray, drought, and brief periods of waterlogged soil. It does not tolerate much shade or cold weather. Drought: Calophyllum inophyllum L can tolerate 4–5 months of drought in its natural littoral and riparian environments. Full sun: Calophyllum inophyllum L prefers full sun, and only light shade is tolerated. Fire: Calophyllum inophyllum L is moderately tolerant of wildfire, once the bark thickens. Frost: Calophyllum inophyllum L grows only in warm climates and does not tolerate frost. Water logging: Calophyllum inophyllum L tolerates occasional water logging in coastal areas. Can tolerate salt spray and wind 3.3 Advantages of Calophyllum Inophyllum Tree Does not compete with food crops (it is non-edible oil). High survival potency in nature, still productive until 50 years. Lot of seedlings and easy Silviculture. As windbreaker, soil and seashore conservation. Multipurpose in use of its seed, wood, gum, processing by products. Calophyllum Inophyllum is used in pharmacuticals drugs 4. PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL Researchers have developed many different methods for biodiesel production from different feed stocks. A review of these methods from palm and Calophyllum inophyllum oils have discussed here. 4.1 Palm biodiesel: Different methods are proposed by various researchers for preparations of palm oil methyl ester (POME) are following: The optimum condition for the continuous esterification process is molar ratio of methanol to Palm oil at 8:1 with 1.834 wt% of H2 SO4 at 700 C. The amount of FFA (Free Fatty acid) was reduced from 93 wt% to less than 2wt%. The FAME (Fatty acid methyl esters) was purified by neutralization with 3M sodium hydroxide in water solution at a reaction temperature of 800C for 15 min followed by transesterification process with 0.396M sodium hydroxide in methanol solution at a reaction temperature of 650 C for 15 minutes [16]. The palm biodiesel preparation from crude palm oil and evaluation of butanol extraction. The palm oil methyl ester was used as an extracting in batch and continuous acetone–butanol– ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The optimized variables molar ratio at 40:1 methanol to palm oil with 5% H2S04 (vol/wt) reacted at 950C gave a maximum ester yield of 97%. Biodiesel preferentially extracted butanol and enhanced its production in the batch culture from 10 to 12 g l-1. The biodiesel–ABE mixture had the higher cetane number [17]. The preparation of palm oil FAME to a yield of 95% in 4 hours of reaction with a moderate methanol to oil molar ratio 20:1, at temperature 1400 C using sulphonic acid-modified mesostructured catalysts [18]. The 25 wt% KOH or Al2O3 and 10 wt% KOH catalysts are suggested to be the best formula due to catalyst amount of 3–6 wt% and the biodiesel yield of 91.07% at temperatures below 700 C with molar ratio of palm oil to methanol at 1:15. The authors concluded that the type of support strongly affects the activity and leaching of the active species of the catalyst [15]. 307
  8. 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME All the above processes derive the palm oil methyl ester or palm biodiesel which can be used in blending with diesel. The properties of the biodiesel were characterized following the results are shown in Table 2 [5]. The properties of CIME closely resembles with the petroleum diesel. S.No. 1 Table 3. Properties of Palm Oil Methyl Ester (POME) [4] Properties Palm Oil Methyl Ester (POME) 0 Kinematic viscosity at 40 C 4.9 mm2/s 2 Density at 150C 879.3kg/m3 3 Cetane number 52 4 Flash Point 1910C 5 Pour Point 140C 6 Cloud Point 150C 7 Calorific value (kJ/kg) 36,764 8 Ash content (wt%) 0.0066 9 Carbon residue (wt%) 0.07 10 Acid value (mg KOH/g) 0.33 4.2. Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel Different methods are proposed by various researchers for preparations of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester (CIME) are following: The three stage production processes of a biodiesel from a non-edible oil Calophyllum inophyllum Linn via pre-treatment, alkali catalyzed transesterification and post treatment. The acid esterification with 0.5 ml anhydrous H2SO4 at 600 C for 120 min at molar ratio methanol to oil 4:1 gave the maximum conversion efficiency of FFA to triglycerides. The acid value of Calophyllum inophyllum oil was reduced from 4.76 to 1.64mgKOH/g during acid esterification reaction. The combination gave the optimum reaction conditions for alkali trans esterification of Calophyllum inophyllum oil was found to be molar ratio of methanol to oil 8:1, 1.25% KOH, at 600C temperature and 120 minutes reaction time. After that, it followed by thrice gentle washing of the biodiesel with distilled water (30% v/v) of 600 C. The yield of biodiesel from the Calophyllum inophyllum oil under the optimized conditions is found to be 89%. The Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel obtained by this process is suitable use in direct injection diesel engines [2]. Two step process biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil by using phosphoric acid modified β-zeolite in acid catalyzed esterification process and transesterification process using alkali catalyst potassium hydroxide (KOH) and phosphoric acid modified β-zeolite would be the better replacement for the conventional liquid acid catalyst. Thus obtained Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel is a potential fuel for the application in compression ignition engines for complete replacement of diesel fuel without any modification of engine [19]. All the above processes derive the calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester or calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel which can be used in blending with diesel. The properties of CIME were characterized following the results are shown in Table 3 [5]. The properties of CIME closely resembles with the petroleum diesel. 308
  9. 9. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME Table 3. Properties of Calophyllum Inophyllum Methyl Ester [4] Characteristics Calophyllum Inophyllum Methyl Ester (Cime) Kinematic Viscosity at 40oC (mm2 /sec) 5.34 Specific Gravity 0.875 Flash Point 140 Fire Point 176 Cloud Point 13.2 Pour Point 4.3 Calorific Value (kJ/kg) 41,397 Acid value (mg KOH/g) 1.62 5. PERFORMANCE & EMISSIONS OF BIODIESEL The findings and outputs for performance of biodiesel fuel in diesel engine are reviewed. The performance parameter such as brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption and power output for palm oil and Calophyllum inophyllum are discussed below. 5.1. Palm Oil Methyl Ester (POME) Studies of performance of palm oil biodiesel were observed. The palm oil biodiesel exhibits low viscosity, better combustion and less deposit when heated at 1000C. However, the specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the palm oil biodiesel in the C.I. engine is slightly higher than diesel fuel. The higher the palm oil contents in the biodiesels, the lower their heating values resulting in higher specific fuel consumption (BSFC) [20]. When engine is at full load, a close resemblance occurred at low speed indicating little difference in output between the fuels. However, at the higher speed, a clear gap appeared between the biodiesel and diesel is observed in graphs. The brake thermal efficiency of the engine on the different blends shown a close resemblance to one another and were low over the medium to high load range compared to diesel. The low power, at high engine load is found to be generated from the lower calorific biodiesel fuels. At low engine load, the power outputs were similar for all the fuels [20]. The peak pressures are in close agreement with the increasing NOx emission when the engine load is increased [20]. The researchers had found that palm biodiesel blend with 1% of NPAA (4-Nonyl phenoxy acetic acid) produces higher brake power and lower specific fuel consumption compared to diesel fuel and palm oil biodiesel. And due to oxidative characteristics biodiesel causes more corrosion and wear to engine parts, so by using anti-wear additives, it showed a significant reduction of wear properties has been observered. Therefore, 1% NPAA additive in palm oil biodiesel is useful to produce better combustion in diesel engine compared to diesel fuel. Hence, the NPAA additive is effective in palm diesel fuel. The studies for emissions characteristics of a small diesel engine operated on preheated crude palm oil (CPO). It was observed that preheated CPO reduced HC, CO and PM (Particulate Matter) compared to diesel and CPO emulsified fuel. Preheating of CPO reduces its viscosity to the level of 309
  10. 10. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME diesel fuel thus improves the fuel spray and atomization characteristics therefore produces complete combustion. However, preheated CPO increased NOx emission compared to diesel and CPO emulsified fuel. Palm diesel and 4-Nonyl phenoxy acetic acid (NPAA) as additive to control NOx and CO in diesel engines. The result shown that NOx, CO and HC concentration decrease by using palm oil diesel with additive compared to diesel fuel and Palm biodiesel. Hence, the NPAA additive is effective in palm diesel fuel. Also shown that anticorrosion additive was effective with palm diesel blends to reduce NOx emissions. The studies show that with proper selection of additives type and quantity for application to biodiesel blends, it is to be an effective pollutants control strategy which is more economical than other existing technologies [5]. 5.2. Calophyllum Inophyllum Methyl Ester (CIME) The experimental results shows that neat Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel (CB100) which results in maximum peak cylinder pressure (6.61 bars higher than that of diesel) is the optimum fuel blend as far as the peak cylinder pressure is concerned . There are no significant change in power for diesel engine at lower speeds for Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel. However, slight reduction in power is observed at all the speeds with biodiesel blends of 20% and 50% Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel (CB20 and CB50). Also, it is observed that there is an improvement in fuel economy with CB20 compare with diesel fuel. The optimum engine operating condition based on lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher brake thermal efficiency was observed at 100% load for neat Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel (CB100). The study of emissions for Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel as a substitute fuel in a diesel engine was tested. Test data generated at part throttle test mode shows that blend with higher percentage of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in diesel tends to decrease the exhaust smoke substantially. Besides, it is noticeable reduction in HC and PM is seen with Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel. However, there is a slight increase in CO and NOx. The neat Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel (CB100) was shown reduced in exhaust emission as compared to diesel. CONCLUSION Due to diminishing supply of fossil fuels and the environmental pollution biodiesels are gaining more interest as alternative fuels. Palm oil as a feedstock for producing biodiesel and as it is one of the most efficient oil bearing crops in terms of land utilization, productivity and efficiency. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the palm oil biodiesel in the C.I. engine is slightly higher than diesel fuel and the brake thermal efficiency of the engine on the different blends shown a close resemblance to one another and were low over the medium to high load range compared to diesel due to low heating values of palm biodiesel. Additive NPAA to palm biodiesel produces higher brake power and lower specific fuel consumption compared to diesel fuel. Since the palm oil is edible oil, food Vs fuel problem makes them as they are not an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, the attention is shifted towards non-edible oils. Calophyllum inophyllum oil can be transesterified and being considered as potential biodiesel feed stocks for future. The improvement in fuel economy was observed in CB20, for CB100 at full load and optimum engine working conditions low brake specific fuel consumption and high brake thermal efficiency was observed. Also, CB100 has shown reduced in exhaust emission as compared to diesel. Compared to Palm oil, biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil is still in a nascent state. Therefore, long term research is to be carried out for it to become alternative fuel in future. Also both Oil palm and Calophyllum inophyllum plants are suitable to grow in sea coasts climates and has maximum productivity these can be considered as a suitable option for alternative fuel. 310
  11. 11. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] Ramaraju A. and Ashok Kumar T. V , Biodiesel Development from High Free Fatty Acid Punnakka Oil, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, VOL. 6, NO. 4, APRIL 2011. Venkanna BK, Reddy CV, Biodiesel production and optimization from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn oil (honne oil) – a three stage method. Bio-resource Technology 2009; 100(21):5122–5. Sahoo PK, Das LM, Babu MKG, Naik SN, Biodiesel development from high acid value polanga seed oil and performance evaluation in a CI engine. Fuel 2007; 86(3): 448–54. H.C.Ong, T.M.I Mahlia, H.H Masjuki, R.S. Norhasyima, Comparison of palm oil, Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum for biodiesel: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 3501–3515. Sahoo PK, Das LM, Babu MKG, Arora P, Singh VP, Kumar NR, et al, Comparative evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga based biodiesel as fuel in a tractor engine. Fuel 2009; 88(9):1698–707. Singh SP, Singh D, Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their esters as the substitute of diesel: a review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 2010; 14(1):200–16. World palm oil production – 2012: www.nationalmasters.com Murugesan A, Umarani C, Subramanian R, Nedunchezhian N, Bio-diesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines – a review. Renewable&Sustainable Energy Reviews 2009; 13(3):653–62. Karmakar A, Karmakar S, Mukherjee S, Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology 2010; 101(19):7201–10. Tippayawong N, Wongsiriamnuay T, Jompakdee W, Performance and emissions of a small agricultural diesel engine fueled with 100% vegetable oil: effects of fuel type and elevated inlet temperature. Asian Journal on Energy & Environment 2002; 3: 139–58. Friday JB, Okano D, Species profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry: Calophyllum inophyllum (kamani). Hawaii, USA: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR); 2006 A.S. Silitonga, A.E. Atabani, T.M.I. Mahlia, H.H.Masjuki, I.A.Badruddin, A compartive analysis of physical and chemical properties of Jatropha curcas.L, Calophyllum Inophyllum. L and Sterculia Feotida .L oil. IGEC-6 – 2011 - 102 Karmakar A, Karmakar S, Mukherjee S, Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology 2010; 101(19):7201–10. Canan Kaya, Candan Hamamci, Akin Baysal, Osman Akba, Sait Erdogan, Abdurrahman Saydut, Methyl ester of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 1257–1260. Noiroj K, Intarapong P, Luengnaruemitchai A, Jai-In S, A comparative study of KOH/Al2O3 and KOH/NaY catalysts for biodiesel production via transesterification from palm oil. Renewable Energy 2009; 34(4):1145–50. Chongkhong S, Tongurai C, Chetpattananondh P, Bunyakan C, Biodiesel production by esterification of palm fatty acid distillate. Biomass & Bioenergy 2007;31(8):563–8. Crabbe E, Nolasco-Hipolito C, Kobayashi G, Sonomoto K, Ishizaki A, Biodiesel production from crude palm oil and evaluation of butanol extraction and fuel properties. Process Biochemistry 2001; 37(1):65–71. 311
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