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  1. 1. Biodiesel • Khawar Nehal • CEO • Applied Technology Research Center • Guest Lecture for Dadabhoy Institute • Thursday 5th of November 2009 •
  2. 2. Topics to discuss • What is biodiesel • How it is made • Properties • Benefits • Blends • In Pakistan • Applications • Historical Background • Quality standards • Research opportunies •
  3. 3. What is Biodiesel? • A clean burning alternative fuel for diesel engines. • Produced from domestic, renewable resources such as vegetable oils like soybean oil, or animal fat like the ones used to make some kababs • Meets health effect testing (Clean Air Act CAA) •
  4. 4. What is Biodiesel? • Lower emissions, High flash point (>300F), Safer • Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic. • Chemically, biodiesel molecules are mono-alkyl esters produced usually from triglyceride esters • Contains no petroleum, but can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend
  5. 5. What it looks like
  6. 6. Space-filling model of methyl linoleate, or linoleic acid methyl ester, a common methyl ester produced from soybean or canola oil and methanol.
  7. 7. Space-filling model of ethyl stearate, or stearic acid ethyl ester, an ethyl ester produced from soybean or canola oil and ethanol.
  8. 8. How is it made National Biodiesel Board 8
  9. 9. After Glycerin removal, biodiesel now just needs to be cleaned/purified before use:
  10. 10. A simple biodiesel processor.
  11. 11. What is Biodiesel Made of? Raw Material Use (2007) Cottonseed Oil 0.21% Inedible Tallow and Grease 4.36% Refined Soybean Oil 62.74% Other Fats and Oils 16.05% Crude Soybean Oil 16.64% National Biodiesel Board 13
  12. 12. Properties • The physical and chemical properties of Bio-diesel are similar to those of petroleum diesel; moreover, it is environmentally friendly, non- hazardous and bio-degradable. The applications of Bio-diesel range from transport vehicles to farming equipment to industrial machinery.
  13. 13. Benefits of Biodiesel Climate Change • 78% Life Cycle Decrease In CO2 – CO2 emitted from burning fuel is taken up by plants growing next crop of fuel feedstock • Energy Balance 4.5 to 1 – That means you get more energy out than you put in. • Diesel engines already 30%-40% more Efficient than Spark Ignition
  14. 14. Relative Greenhouse Gas Emissions B100 B100 = 100% Biodiesel B20 = 20% BD + 80% PD Electric Diesel Hybrid B20 Ethanol 85% Diesel LPG CNG Gasoline 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
  15. 15. Relative emissions: Diesel and Biodiesel B100 ** B20 Diesel CO2 Mutagenicity n-PAHs PAHs Sulfates **NOx Particulate Matter CO Total Unburned HCs 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Percent
  16. 16. Benefits of Biodiesel Health and Safety • Safer, Cleaner Alternative to Petroleum – Exhaust has less harmful impact on human health – Reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter (smog) • Biodegradable and nontoxic – Less toxic than table salt and biodegrades as fast as sugar – Biodiesel exhaust comparable to the smell of French fries
  17. 17. Any diesel engine • Bio-diesel can be used in any type of diesel engine in a blend with petroleum diesel. No engine modifications are required for blends up to 10%. Bio- diesel can also be used “neat”, provided its viscosity is similar to that of petroleum diesel. The process to extract the viscous glyceroids from Bio- diesel is known as Transesterification.
  18. 18. Biodiesel can be used in existing Diesel Engines • Pure Biodiesel (B100) or blended • with petroleum diesel (B20, BXX). • Rudolf Diesel: peanut oil. • The first diesel engine. • Little or no engine modifications • Use existing fuel distribution network. • Available now
  19. 19. Environmental Issues • Burning fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide • Fossil fuels are a Biodiesel’s Closed finite resource Carbon Cycle 30% Increase Graph taken from USF Oceanography webpage
  20. 20. Blends • Blends of biodiesel and conventional hydrocarbon-based diesel are products most commonly distributed for use in the retail diesel fuel marketplace. • Much of the world uses a system known as the "B" factor to state the amount of biodiesel in any fuel mix: fuel containing 20% biodiesel is labeled B20, while pure biodiesel is referred to as B100.
  21. 21. Blends • Blends of 20 percent biodiesel with 80 percent petroleum diesel (B20) can generally be used in unmodified diesel engines. Biodiesel can also be used in its pure form (B100), but may require certain engine modifications to avoid maintenance and performance problems.
  22. 22. Blends • Blending B100 with petroleum diesel may be accomplished by: • Mixing in tanks at manufacturing point prior to delivery to tanker truck • Splash mixing in the tanker truck (adding specific percentages of Biodiesel and petroleum diesel) •
  23. 23. Blends • In-line mixing, two components arrive at tanker truck simultaneously. • Metered pump mixing, petroleum diesel and Biodiesel meters are set to X total volume, transfer pump pulls from two points and mix is complete on leaving pump. •
  24. 24. Distribution • Since the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 biodiesel use has been increasing in the United States. • In Europe, the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation obliges suppliers to include 5% renewable fuel in all transport fuel sold in the EU by 2010. For road diesel, this effectively means 5% biodiesel.
  25. 25. Biodiesel in Pakistan • The Pakistan government is planning to replace 5% of its yearly diesel consumption with biodiesel by 2015, and will raise the figure to 10% by 2025. About $1 billion would reportedly be saved by the country.
  26. 26. Biodiesel in Pakistan • The announcement was made by Adviser to Federal Minister for Water and Power, Riaz Ahmad, according to a report by The Daily Times last Saturday (11 July 2009).
  27. 27. Pakistan Railways • Pakistan Railways has been involved in plantation of Sukh Chane trees along the railway tracks. • Once the performance parameters are finalized and test run of the locomotive’s engine is done, the oil extracted from the Sukh Chane seed will be used in the locomotive engine, saving sufficient volumes of imported HSD.
  28. 28. Applications • Biodiesel can be used in pure form (B100) or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most modern diesel engines.
  29. 29. Applications • Biodiesel has different solvent properties than petrodiesel, and will degrade natural rubber gaskets and hoses in vehicles (mostly vehicles manufactured before 1992), although these tend to wear out naturally and most likely will have already been replaced with FKM, which is nonreactive to biodiesel.
  30. 30. Applications • Biodiesel has been known to break down deposits of residue in the fuel lines where petrodiesel has been used. As a result, fuel filters may become clogged with particulates if a quick transition to pure biodiesel is made. Therefore, it is recommended to change the fuel filters on engines and heaters shortly after first switching to a biodiesel blend.
  31. 31. Bus run on Biodiesel
  32. 32. Vehicular use and manufacturer acceptance • In 2005, Chrysler (then part of DaimlerChrysler) released the Jeep Liberty CRD diesels from the factory into the American market with 5% biodiesel blends, indicating at least partial acceptance of biodiesel as an acceptable diesel fuel additive.
  33. 33. Vehicular use and manufacturer acceptance
  34. 34. Vehicular use and manufacturer acceptance • In 2007, DaimlerChrysler indicated intention to increase warranty coverage to 20% biodiesel blends if biofuel quality in the United States can be standardized.
  35. 35. Vegetarian car
  36. 36. City busses • Starting in 2004, the city of Halifax decided to update its bus system to allow the fleet of city buses to run entirely on a fish-oil based biodiesel. This caused the city some initial mechanical issues but after several years of refining, the entire fleet had successfully been converted.
  37. 37. Vehicular use and manufacturer acceptance • In 2007, McDonalds of UK announced that it would start producing biodiesel from the wasteoil byproduct of its restaurants. This fuel would be used to run its fleet. • •
  38. 38. Railway usage • The British businessman Richard Branson's Virgin Voyager train, number 220007 Thames Voyager,billed as the world's first "biodiesel train".
  39. 39. Railway usage • Was converted to run on 80% petrodiesel and only 20% biodiesel, and it is claimed it will save 14% on direct emissions.
  40. 40. Royal train • The Royal Train on 15 September 2007 completed its first ever journey run on 100% biodiesel fuel supplied by Green Fuels Ltd. His Royal Highness, The Prince of Wales, and Green Fuels managing director, James Hygate, were the first passengers on a train fueled entirely by biodiesel fuel. Since 2007 the Royal Train has operated successfully on B100 (100% biodiesel).
  41. 41. Railway usage • The Royal Train on 15 September 2007 completed its first ever journey run on 100% biodiesel fuel supplied by Green Fuels Ltd. His Royal Highness, The Prince of Wales, and Green Fuels managing director, James Hygate, were the first passengers on a train fueled entirely by biodiesel fuel. Since 2007 the Royal Train has operated successfully on B100 (100% biodiesel).
  42. 42. US Railway usage • Similarly, a state-owned short-line railroad in Eastern Washington ran a test of a 25% biodiesel / 75% petrodiesel blend during the summer of 2008, purchasing fuel from a biodiesel producer seated along the railroad tracks. • The train will be powered by biodiesel made in part from canola grown in agricultural regions through which the short line runs.
  43. 43. Railway usage • Also in 2007 Disneyland began running the park trains on B98 biodiesel blends (98% biodiesel). The program was discontinued in 2008 due to storage issues, but in January 2009 it was announced that the park would then be running all trains on biodiesel manufactured from its own used cooking oils. This is a change from running the trains on soy-based biodiesel.
  44. 44. Railway usage • Also in 2007 Disneyland began running the park trains on B98 biodiesel blends (98% biodiesel). The program was discontinued in 2008 due to storage issues.
  45. 45. Railway usage • In January 2009 it was announced that the park would then be running all trains on biodiesel manufactured from its own used cooking oils. This is a change from running the trains on soy- based biodiesel.
  46. 46. Aircraft use • Czech Republic completed the world’s first jet flight powered solely by 100% biodiesel fuel. The flight tests were made in October 2007 in the high desert at the Reno-Stead Airport by an L-29 military aircraft.
  47. 47. Aircraft use • The Czechoslovakian-made aircraft • is rated to fly on a variety of fuels including heating oil, making it the preferred • platform for testing biodiesel in jet engines.
  48. 48. Aircraft use • Feb 2009 • LONDON (AFP) — The first flight by a commercial airline to be partly powered by biofuels and billed as heralding a eco-friendlier and cheaper era of airline travel took place on Sunday, Virgin Atlantic said. • •
  49. 49. Aircraft use • Feb 2009 • The first flight by a commercial airline to be partly powered by biofuels and billed as heralding a eco-friendlier and cheaper era of airline travel took place • •
  50. 50. Aircraft use • A Virgin Boeing 747 jumbo jet, carrying biofuels mixed with kerosene, traditional jet fuel, made the short trip between London and Amsterdam with no passengers on board. • •
  51. 51. Aircraft use • The plane used a biofuel blend of babassu oil -- extracted from nuts of the babassu tree -- and coconut oil. • Both products are more commonly found in cosmetics like lip balm and shaving cream.
  52. 52. Aircraft use • 13 October 2009 • Qatar Airways yesterday undertook the world's first commercial flight using a fuel made partly from natural gas that promises to improve air quality and could curb carbon emissions.
  53. 53. Aircraft use • The Airbus flight from London Gatwick to Doha used a 50:50 blend of synthetic gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene and conventional oil-based kerosene, which has been developed by Shell. •
  54. 54. Aircraft use • • The company said that the GTL fuel burns with close to zero sulfur dioxide emissions and far lower particulate emissions, and as such could be used to help improve air quality around airports.
  55. 55. Aircraft use • The journey from the A380's historic first GTL flight by a civil aircraft to today's historic first passenger flight using GTL, shows that drop in fuels are real and viable.
  56. 56. Aircraft use • This is a major breakthrough that brings us closer to a world where fuels made from feedstocks such as wood-chip waste and other biomass are available for commercial aviation. Airbus predicts that in 2030, up to 30 per cent of jet fuel will be alternative.
  57. 57. Powerboat • 28 June 2008 : Earthrace - a biodiesel- powered boat, has set a new record for the quickest journey • around the globe by a powerboat, in just 60 days. •
  58. 58. Powerboat • According to a report in Discovery News, Earthrace has been traveling around the planet for more than two years to raise awareness for biologically produced fuels - cooking oils, plant matter, even fat. •
  59. 59. Powerboat • On June 27, it pulled into port in Sagunto, Spain, setting a new record for the quickest journey around the globe by a powerboat. •
  60. 60. Powerboat • Earthrace's 60- day voyage shaved more than 14 days off a record set in 1998 by a boat named Cable and • Wireless Adventurer.
  61. 61. Powerboat On June 27, it pulled into port in Sagunto, Spain, setting a new record for the quickest journey around the globe by a power boat.
  62. 62. by a powerboat.
  63. 63. Earthrace's 60-day voyage shaved more than 14 days off a record set in 1998 by a boat named Cable and wireless adventurer.
  64. 64. As a heating oil • Biodiesel can also be used as a heating fuel in domestic and commercial boilers, a mix of heating oil and biofuel which is standardized and taxed slightly differently than diesel fuel used for transportation.
  65. 65. As a heating oil • Heating biodiesel is available in various blends; up to 20% biofuel is considered acceptable for use in existing furnaces without modification.
  66. 66. As a heating oil • Older furnaces may contain rubber parts that would be affected by biodiesel's solvent properties, but can otherwise burn biodiesel without any conversion required. Care must be taken at first, however, given that varnishes left behind by petrodiesel will be released and can clog pipes- fuel filtering and prompt filter replacement is required.
  67. 67. As a heating oil • Another approach is to start using biodiesel as blend, and decreasing the petroleum proportion over time can allow the varnishes to come off more gradually and be less likely to clog. • • Thanks to its strong solvent properties, however, the furnace is cleaned out and generally becomes more efficient.
  68. 68. As a heating oil • During the Biodiesel Expo 2006 in the UK, Andrew J. Robertson presented his biodiesel heating oil research from his technical paper and suggested that B20 biodiesel could reduce UK household CO2 emissions by 1.5 million tons per year.
  69. 69. Using Biodiesel - cold weather • Untreated B20 freezes about 2-10 °F faster than #2 petrodiesel • Use winter-blended diesel fuel. • Make sure B20 cloud point is adequate for the region and time of year • Consider storing in heated building or tank
  70. 70. High Profile Cold Weather Users – Glacier National Park (MT) – Yellowstone National Park (WY, MT, ID) – Grand Teton National Park (WY) – Salt Lake City Airport – CO Ski Resorts – UC Boulder
  71. 71. Historical background • Transesterification of a vegetable oil was conducted as early as 1853 by scientists E. Duffy and J. Patrick, many years before the first diesel engine became functional.
  72. 72. First diesel engine • Dr. Rudolf Diesel developed the first diesel engine to run on vegetable oil. Diesel demonstrated his engine at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900 using peanut oil as fuel.
  73. 73. Historical background • Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single 10 ft (3 m) iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time in Augsburg, Germany, on August 10, 1893. In remembrance of this event, August 10 has been declared "International Biodiesel Day".
  74. 74. Grand Prize • The French Otto Company (at the request of the French government) demonstrated a Diesel engine running on peanut oil at the World Fair in Paris, France in 1900, where it received the Grand Prix (highest prize).
  75. 75. Historical background • This engine stood as an example of Diesel's vision because it was powered by peanut oil — a biofuel, though not biodiesel, since it was not transesterified.
  76. 76. Historical background • He believed that the utilization of biomass fuel was the real future of his engine. In a 1912 speech Diesel said, "the use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today but such oils may become, in the course of time, as important as petroleum and the coal-tar products of the present time."
  77. 77. Work in Pakistan • A lot of work has been undertaken to evaluate the Bio-Diesel In Pakistan. The initial research on bio-diesel resources in Pakistan is complete. As much as 10 oil resources have been subjected to oil extraction, transesterification and chemical analysis. After iterative experiments, a number of potential resources have been identified including Pongamia Pinnata (Sukh Chane), Rape Seed, Castor Bean and Jatropha.
  78. 78. Raw materials • Basic research on supply chain mechanism is also complete. The infrastructure requirements, the raw material availability and deployment models have been primed. • Still in progress is laboratory set-up for advance research on bio-diesel.
  79. 79. Castor bean and castor plant
  80. 80. Pongamia Pinnata (Sukh Chane)
  81. 81. Jatropha seeds and plant in Pakistan
  82. 82. Pakistan sources Botanic al Eng lish S.No. Nam e Nam e Loc al Nam e Fam ily 1 Pongamioa Pongame Sukhh Chain Fabace ae Pinnata 2 Brassica Mustard Sarson Brassicace ae campe stris 3 Brassica alba White Chiti Sarson Brassicace ae Mustard 4 Brassica nigra Black Mustard Kali Sarson Brassicace ae 5 Brassica napus Canola Canola Brassicace ae 6 Ricinus Castor Be an Arond E uphorbiace a communis e 7 He lianthus Sunflowe r Suraj Mukhi Aste race ae annuus 8 Gossypium Cotton Kappa Malvace ae hirsutum
  84. 84. Pakistan sources • CATEGORIES OF CLASS - I • Due to diverse ecological conditions of Pakistan, lucky to have over a dozen oil seed crops of which it can afford to grow one or the other in all season of the year. • • Depending upon the historical cultivation and production the oil seed crops were classified into conventional (i.e. traditional), non traditional, industrial and wild crops.
  85. 85. Pakistan sources • CATEGORY A – CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATED OIL YIELDING CROP • • Rape Seeds • • Ground Nut • • Sesame Seeds • • Rocket seeds
  86. 86. Pakistan sources • CATEGORY B – NON CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATED OIL YIELDING CROPS • • Sun flower • • Soybean • • Safflower
  87. 87. Pakistan sources • CATEGORY C – Industries Based Crops • • Linseed • • Castor beans • • Cotton seeds
  88. 88. Pakistan sources • CATEGORY D – Wild Plant Resources • • Pongame tree • • Olive tree • • Hemp oil • • Oat seeds • • Milk Thistle • • Carthamus seeds • • Jatropha
  90. 90. AVAILABILITY OF CLASS – II RESOURCES Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO) can be recycled, cleaned and reused as bio diesel. WVO is available in large quantities from restaurants, hotel chains, confectionaries and domestic cooking.
  91. 91. AVAILABILITY OF CLASS – II RESOURCES WVO is one of the cheaper sources for biodiesel in developed countries, where the cooking oil is used only once. Pakistan is basically an agricultural country and due to diverse ecological conditions, the population is heavily dependent on agricultural products.
  92. 92. AVAILABILITY OF CLASS – II RESOURCES For cooking purposes edible oil yielding crops and plants are cultivated on a large scale in the country. These edible oils are utilized in hotels, huts, local shops and every home of Pakistan. So these are the major sources for collection of WVO. According to one survey, average consumption of edible oil in Pakistan is 10 liters per month by each family.
  93. 93. AVAILABILITY OF CLASS – II RESOURCES This gives rise to an estimated quantity of 240 million litres of WVO available in Pakistan every year (assuming that 10% of edible oil in Pakistan becomes waste). Estimating an 80% yield of Bio-diesel from WVO (as supported by our experiments), a minimum approximate quantity of 150 million liters of Bio-diesel from WVO can be produced in Pakistan.
  94. 94. AVAILABILITY OF CLASS – II RESOURCES From the marketing point of view there is a chain of dealers for collection and further selling of WVO. Price for 1 liter of WVO from these sources may vary from Rs. 20 – 45, depending upon the quality and quantity of WVO (some hotels etc. reuse edible oil several times before disposing off their WVO, while others use them once or twice).
  95. 95. AVAILABILITY OF CLASS – II RESOURCES There are minor constraints in collection of WVO, including cost constraints. But these can be overcome by developing strategies for coordination between dealers, stakeholders and users of WVO. Fixing of raw material rates by the GOP might be required, as will be subsidies on the production and sale of Bio-diesel.
  96. 96. Other Incentives for Use • Diesel Emission Reductions - • Grant and loan programs are available to State and local government agencies in the US and we need to develop our own policies after doing research of the benefits to us. • We need to do studies on how to provide incentives. Legal policies and direct rebates (Research opportunity for students) •
  97. 97. Fuel Quality for wide scale acceptance
  98. 98. Fuel Quality and Specification • ASTM fuel standards enforceable as of October 2008 – Specification for B100 updated (D6751) – New specification for B6 to B20 blends (D7467) (basis for broad OEM warranty acceptance) – New specification classifying blends up to 5% same as diesel (D975)
  99. 99. BQ-9000 Fuel Quality Program • Biodiesel Industry’s “Good Housekeeping” seal of approval for biodiesel production & distribution companies • Quality Control System covers biodiesel manufacturing, sampling, testing, blending, storage, shipping, distribution • In 2008, 90% of the volume was BQ9000 • There are two BQ-9000 designations: – Producer (make it to spec) – Marketer (buy spec, keep it in spec, blend it right)
  100. 100. Macroeconomic benefits U.S. Economy example • Creates Agricultural and Fuel Manufacturing Jobs: 50,000 jobs (mostly rural) ; $4 billion in GDP • Creates Expanded Markets for Agricultural Products • Improves Balance of Trade (36 MM imported Crude Displaced) • $832 MM to tax revenue
  101. 101. Legislative Ideas Fleet Operators • In the US companies are Eligible for EPACT credits – Federal fleets must purchase alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) for 75% of light-duty vehicles – 50% of light duty AFV purchase requirements can be met with biodiesel • Can earn 1 AFV purchase credit for each 2,250 gallons of B20 used or for each 450 gallons of B100 used – States and cities are implementing similar requirements
  102. 102. Clean air act. • A Clean Air Act is one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of smog and air pollution in general. • The use by governments to enforce clean air standards has contributed to an improvement in human health and longer life spans. • We need to work on something like this also. • Another research opportunity.
  103. 103. Many other opportunities • We need a lot more research done regarding the feasibility studies of practical applications and how to get them introduced and into action. • •
  104. 104. Many other opportunities • You and biodiesel are the future. • It is up to you how fast you can implement the alternatives to KESC.
  105. 105. Thank you for your time today and for your potential support for biodiesel. For further information ATRC.NET.PK 92-333-2486216 92-21-38180991