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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MECHANICAL AND TRIBOLOGICAL RELATION OF NYLON/BaSO4 POLYMER COMPOSITES

An experiment conducted in this study found that BaSO4 changed Nylon 6's mechanical properties. By changing the weight ratios, BaSO4 was used to make Nylon 6. This Researcher looked into how hard Nylon-6/BaSO4 composites are and how well they wear. Experiments were done based on Taguchi design L9. Nylon-6/BaSO4 composites can be tested for their hardness number using a Rockwell hardness testing apparatus. On Nylon/BaSO4, the wear behavior was measured by a wear monitor, pinon-disc friction by varying reinforcement, sliding speed, and sliding distance, and the microstructure of the crack surfaces was observed by SEM. This study provides significant contributions to ultimate strength by increasing BaSO4 content up to 16% in the composites, and sliding speed contributes 72.45% to the wear rate

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 12, December 2019, pp. 743-751, Article ID: IJMET_10_12_063
Available online at https://iaeme.com/Home/issue/IJMET?Volume=10&Issue=12
Journal Impact Factor (2019): 10.6879 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MECHANICAL
AND TRIBOLOGICAL RELATION OF
NYLON/BaSO4 POLYMER COMPOSITES
S. Sreenivasulu
Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sreenidhi Institute of Science &Technology, Hyderabad, India
A. Chennakesava Reddy
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JNTUH College of Engineering,
Hyderabad, India
ABSTRACT
An experiment conducted in this study found that BaSO4 changed Nylon 6's
mechanical properties. By changing the weight ratios, BaSO4 was used to make Nylon
6. This Researcher looked into how hard Nylon-6/BaSO4 composites are and how well
they wear. Experiments were done based on Taguchi design L9. Nylon-6/BaSO4
composites can be tested for their hardness number using a Rockwell hardness testing
apparatus. On Nylon/BaSO4, the wear behavior was measured by a wear monitor, pin-
on-disc friction by varying reinforcement, sliding speed, and sliding distance, and the
microstructure of the crack surfaces was observed by SEM. This study provides
significant contributions to ultimate strength by increasing BaSO4 content up to 16% in
the composites, and sliding speed contributes 72.45% to the wear rate
Keywords: Nylon-6, BaSO4, Tensile, Hardness, Wear, SEM.
Cite this Article: S. Sreenivasulu and A. Chennakesava Reddy, Experimental Study of
Mechanical and Tribological Relation of Nylon/BaSO4 Polymer Composites.
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology. 10(12), 2019,
pp. 743-751.
https://iaeme.com/Home/issue/IJMET?Volume=10&Issue=12
1. INTRODUCTION
Nylons, Due to their modulus, high strength, stiffness, and wear resistance, as well as chemical
confrontation, nylon are a popular engineering thermoplastic. Because of its outstanding
processability and mechanical qualities, nylon-6 is widely employed in a wide variety of
applications. Bearings, cams, fittings, and gears are among the many applications for Nylon-6.
Nylon-6's wear properties make it ideal for dry sliding applications. The mechanical properties
of nylon are improved by adding nano solid lubricants to the polymer matrix Injection molding
and machining are no problems for Nylon-6. The mechanical properties of thermoplastic
Experimental Study of Mechanical and Tribological Relation of Nylon/BaSO4 Polymer Composites
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 744 editor@iaeme.com
polymers can be enhanced by mixing in metallic fillers. The wear resistance of a PMMA
composite with hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles is improved. The sample acts hydrophilic
because the SiO2 was put into the PMMA matrix Nanoparticles [1]. CaCO3 is mixed into the
nylon 66. Materials raise the tensile strength of about 112 MPa when CaCo3 is added to Nylon,
and the tensile strength is getting stronger,[2]. from this review, it's clear that nylon 6 is one of
the best materials for the matrix in a polymer composite material. The filler materials have a
big effect on the mechanical properties of the composite. Even though there is a lot of research
on polyamide. It has also been seen that graphite is less attracted to the PA6 matrix. More
research is needed to figure out how to make graphite more attractive to the PA6 matrix, [3].
The wear behavior of ABS composites filled with nano-meter-sized boron nitride (BN) was
studied using Taguchi's design of experiments based on three levels of filler content, normal
load, sliding distance, and sliding speed.Pin-on-disc friction and wear monitor according to
ASTM G99 was used to determine how ABS/BN polymer composites wear. ABS changes
shape in a way that is controlled by a large dilatational component, which shows a volume
change. As the amount of boron nitride in the composites went up, the final strength went down.
In the ABS/BN polymer composites, the flaws were the lumps of filler or the places where the
mixing wasn't even. In the ABS/BN polymer composites, brittle cracking was shown by crack
growth lines that moved in a radial direction, [4].The hardness of the composite first goes up as
the filler content goes up, and then it goes down as the filler content goes up. When compared
to other filler materials, Nylon composites filled with silica fume have better properties [5]. The
filler material is added to the content and pure material composites to boost their wear
resistance. The tribological behavior of carbon black filler material added to PTFE composites
was examined and found to boost the material's wear resistance [6].The tensile strength of
Nylon/Teflon composites with Nano Iron Oxide (-Fe2O3) particles was found to be twice as
strong as it was. Flow lines were seen in Nylon 6/Teflon/Iron Oxide, [7].The addition of 0.2%
Nano Silica Particles to Thermoplastic PA6 enhances the composite's coefficient of friction and
wear resistance, [8]. The present work shows that the injection molding technique can be used
to make Nylon-6/Si3N4 composites with different parts. Experiments were done based on what
Taguchi had planned. At 4 percent weight of Si3N4, the tensile strength was at its highest. As
the amount of Si3N4 goes up, the tensile strength goes down gradually. Hardness tests were
done on different amounts of Nylon-6/Si3N4 composite, and the highest Rockwell hardness
number was found at 16 percent weight. SEM images help us figure out what the surface of
composites looks like, under different conditions, The extreme quality of the composites
declines as boron nitride is expanded in the composites, and the normal load is reduced to 71.54
percent of wear rate variation. [9]. The average molecular weight of matrix nylon filled with
nano-alumina was shown to be less affected by nanoparticles and greater than that of matrix
nylon filled with micro-alumina. The highest tensile strength was achieved when the nano-
Al2O3 content reached 3 weight percent, as shown by the tensile property test, [10].The addition
of Si3N4 nanoparticles to ABS/Si3N4 composites increased their tensile strength. The hardness
of polymer composites increases as the amount of Si3N4 filler increases. The wear rate of
composites made from ABS and Si3N4 is most affected by the normal load and the distance
they slide. [11].Alumina (AA) 6061 and 7075 alloys were reinforced with 10 wt.% boron
carbide (B4C) and 5 wt.% graphite via liquid casting. Composite samples were characterized
with scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopies (EDS). By
varying load, sliding distance, and cutter speed, a wear experiment is conducted using a pin on
the disc apparatus. Response surface method (RSM) and MINITAB are used to analyze the
wear rate of composite [12].Experiments have been conducted to advance the strength and
toughness of polymer composites by adding nano-silica. Specimens are prepared by screw
extrusion and injection molding. A grafted polymer (polypropylene) onto nano silica improves
mechanical properties when the load is applied, matrix failure changes from ductile to brittle
S. Sreenivasulu and A. Chennakesava Reddy
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 745 editor@iaeme.com
because of its vicious nature [13].To boost the tensile strength and hardness of Nylon/Teflon
composites, Teflon must be added to its Nylon 6 matrix. Particles stick together because
fluorine atoms in Teflon like to form bonds with other fluorine atoms in Teflon, [14].
Nylon 6 is used in a wide variety of products that call for materials with great strength.
Gears, fittings, and bearings are all made from this material. Various weight percentages of
Nylon 6 and BaSO4 have been tested in the current experiment. To evaluate the mechanical
characters.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
2.1. Specimen Materials and Preparation
BaSO4was used as the filler and nylon 6 as the matrix at 25o
C, Nylon 6 has a melting point of
220o
C and a density of 1.23 g/cc. Teflon has a melting point of 327o
C and a density of 4.5
g/cc.Figure 1(a) shows the torque rheometer and twin-rotary mixer used to prepare various
matrix/filler mixtures. Nylon 6 and BaSO4 were dried individually in an oven at 750
C for four
hours before the melt processing. The Teflon was added after the Nylon 6 had been melted at
220o
C for 3 minutes at the same temperature and 50 rpm for 5 minutes. For an additional five
minutes, the blender was set to 75 rpm. Packs containing desiccant were used to store the
extruded sample. Figure 1(b) depicts the injection molding process used to create the tensile
and hardness test specimens, as well as the injection pressure used.
Figure 1 Test sample preparation: (a) Torque rheometer with a twin-rotary mixer, (b) Injection
molding machine, and (c) Two mold halves and test specimens.
Figure 2 Computer –interfaced Tensometer.
Experimental Study of Mechanical and Tribological Relation of Nylon/BaSO4 Polymer Composites
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 746 editor@iaeme.com
Figure 3 Tensile specimens ABS-CaSO 4
Figure 1(c) shows ASTM D 618 as-mold test samples and two die halves. Figures 2. show
the tensile test using a computer-interfaced tensometer and fig3 shows tensile test specimens.
Loads at which the specimen broke were recorded. Extensometer measured elongation. Each
specimen's computer-generated load vs deflection graph was also acquired. Rockwell hardness
measured the hardness of test samples. SEM was used to analyze tensile specimen fracture.
2.2. Design of Experiments
The determination of design parameters was a critical part of experiment design.Table.1
According to Taguchi's experimental design; the levels for the technical parameters were tested
as shown in Table 2. Utilizing the orthogonal array L9, wear tests are conducted. Nylon/BaSO4
polymer composites underwent Rockwell hardness testing. To determine the results of wear
testing. In a Nylon/BaSO4 polymer composite, an investigation is performed using a scanning
electron microscope.
Table 1 Design factors with different levels
Factor Symbol Level–1 Level–2 Level–3
BaSO4, %wt. A 4 12 20
Normal Load, N B 10 15 20
Sliding Speed, rpm C 100 200 300
Sliding distance, m D 500 750 1000
Table 2 Control parameters and orthogonal array (L9)
Treat No
nNNnnONo.
A B C D
1 1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2 2
3 1 3 3 3
4 2 1 2 3
5 2 2 3 1
6 2 3 1 2
7 3 1 3 2
8 3 2 1 3
9 3 3 2 1
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Tensile strength and wear resistance are carried out on specimens comprised of a variety of
composites.
S. Sreenivasulu and A. Chennakesava Reddy
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 747 editor@iaeme.com
3.1. Nylon/BaSO4 Polymer Composites: Mechanical Behavior
Tensile tests were performed on Nylon/BaSO4 polymeric nanocomposites, and specimens with
variousBaSO4 compositions (4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 wt %).Stress-strain curves for Nylon/BaSO4at
different compositions are shown in Figure 3. 16%wt BaSO4 exhibits the maximum stress and
strain rate among other combinations of Nylon/BaSO4polymer composites. From figure 4, the
ultimate strength increases the filler %wt increases slight variations for compositions 4%wt,
8%wt 12%wt and 16%wt of BaSO4with the highest ultimate strength. There is a drastic
reduction in the tensile strength from 16%wt to 20%wt.
The hardness of the effect of Nylon/BaSO4polymer nanocomposites was looked at in Fig.
5, Rockwell hardness test was used to measure how hard the composites were. As you go up
the list of BaSO4 filler materials, they make Nylon harder. After that, the microhardness also
increases as the filler content increases up to 20%wt.
Figure 3 Stress-Strain Curves of Nylon/BaSO4
Figure 4 Concentration of BaSO4%wt
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32
BaSO4 4%wt
BaSO4 8% wt
BaSO4 12% wt
BaSO4 16% wt
Strain % wt
Stress
Mpa
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
4 8 12 16 20
BaSO4 (wt%)
Ultimate
Strength,
MPa
Experimental Study of Mechanical and Tribological Relation of Nylon/BaSO4 Polymer Composites
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 748 editor@iaeme.com
Figure 5 Hardness is a Function of %wt BaSO4
3.2. Impact of Filling Content on Sliding Wear
Figure 6 Variation in Wear Rate with (a) Weight Fraction of BaSO4) (b) Normal Load (N) (c) Sliding
Speed (rpm), & (d) Sliding Distance (m)
Table 3 Analysis of Variance
Parameter Symbol DOF SS MSS P%
BaSO4 %wt A 2 72410 36205 2.76
Load (N) B 2 647577 323788 24.72
Sliding Speed(rpm) C 2 1898331 949165 72.45
Sliding Distance (m) D 2 1711 855 0.07
Error e 0 0 -- 0
Total T 8 2620028 100
From table 3, it was clear that the % contribution of the sliding speed is higher than other
input parameters. The% contribution of the sliding speed is 72.45%. Other parameters show
less impact. The percentage contribution of BaSO4 (%) is 2.76%. The normal load is about
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 5 10 15 20 25
Hardness
%,BaSo4
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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MECHANICAL AND TRIBOLOGICAL RELATION OF NYLON/BaSO4 POLYMER COMPOSITES

  • 1. http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 743 editor@iaeme.com International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 10, Issue 12, December 2019, pp. 743-751, Article ID: IJMET_10_12_063 Available online at https://iaeme.com/Home/issue/IJMET?Volume=10&Issue=12 Journal Impact Factor (2019): 10.6879 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359 © IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MECHANICAL AND TRIBOLOGICAL RELATION OF NYLON/BaSO4 POLYMER COMPOSITES S. Sreenivasulu Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sreenidhi Institute of Science &Technology, Hyderabad, India A. Chennakesava Reddy Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JNTUH College of Engineering, Hyderabad, India ABSTRACT An experiment conducted in this study found that BaSO4 changed Nylon 6's mechanical properties. By changing the weight ratios, BaSO4 was used to make Nylon 6. This Researcher looked into how hard Nylon-6/BaSO4 composites are and how well they wear. Experiments were done based on Taguchi design L9. Nylon-6/BaSO4 composites can be tested for their hardness number using a Rockwell hardness testing apparatus. On Nylon/BaSO4, the wear behavior was measured by a wear monitor, pin- on-disc friction by varying reinforcement, sliding speed, and sliding distance, and the microstructure of the crack surfaces was observed by SEM. This study provides significant contributions to ultimate strength by increasing BaSO4 content up to 16% in the composites, and sliding speed contributes 72.45% to the wear rate Keywords: Nylon-6, BaSO4, Tensile, Hardness, Wear, SEM. Cite this Article: S. Sreenivasulu and A. Chennakesava Reddy, Experimental Study of Mechanical and Tribological Relation of Nylon/BaSO4 Polymer Composites. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology. 10(12), 2019, pp. 743-751. https://iaeme.com/Home/issue/IJMET?Volume=10&Issue=12 1. INTRODUCTION Nylons, Due to their modulus, high strength, stiffness, and wear resistance, as well as chemical confrontation, nylon are a popular engineering thermoplastic. Because of its outstanding processability and mechanical qualities, nylon-6 is widely employed in a wide variety of applications. Bearings, cams, fittings, and gears are among the many applications for Nylon-6. Nylon-6's wear properties make it ideal for dry sliding applications. The mechanical properties of nylon are improved by adding nano solid lubricants to the polymer matrix Injection molding and machining are no problems for Nylon-6. The mechanical properties of thermoplastic
  • 2. Experimental Study of Mechanical and Tribological Relation of Nylon/BaSO4 Polymer Composites http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 744 editor@iaeme.com polymers can be enhanced by mixing in metallic fillers. The wear resistance of a PMMA composite with hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles is improved. The sample acts hydrophilic because the SiO2 was put into the PMMA matrix Nanoparticles [1]. CaCO3 is mixed into the nylon 66. Materials raise the tensile strength of about 112 MPa when CaCo3 is added to Nylon, and the tensile strength is getting stronger,[2]. from this review, it's clear that nylon 6 is one of the best materials for the matrix in a polymer composite material. The filler materials have a big effect on the mechanical properties of the composite. Even though there is a lot of research on polyamide. It has also been seen that graphite is less attracted to the PA6 matrix. More research is needed to figure out how to make graphite more attractive to the PA6 matrix, [3]. The wear behavior of ABS composites filled with nano-meter-sized boron nitride (BN) was studied using Taguchi's design of experiments based on three levels of filler content, normal load, sliding distance, and sliding speed.Pin-on-disc friction and wear monitor according to ASTM G99 was used to determine how ABS/BN polymer composites wear. ABS changes shape in a way that is controlled by a large dilatational component, which shows a volume change. As the amount of boron nitride in the composites went up, the final strength went down. In the ABS/BN polymer composites, the flaws were the lumps of filler or the places where the mixing wasn't even. In the ABS/BN polymer composites, brittle cracking was shown by crack growth lines that moved in a radial direction, [4].The hardness of the composite first goes up as the filler content goes up, and then it goes down as the filler content goes up. When compared to other filler materials, Nylon composites filled with silica fume have better properties [5]. The filler material is added to the content and pure material composites to boost their wear resistance. The tribological behavior of carbon black filler material added to PTFE composites was examined and found to boost the material's wear resistance [6].The tensile strength of Nylon/Teflon composites with Nano Iron Oxide (-Fe2O3) particles was found to be twice as strong as it was. Flow lines were seen in Nylon 6/Teflon/Iron Oxide, [7].The addition of 0.2% Nano Silica Particles to Thermoplastic PA6 enhances the composite's coefficient of friction and wear resistance, [8]. The present work shows that the injection molding technique can be used to make Nylon-6/Si3N4 composites with different parts. Experiments were done based on what Taguchi had planned. At 4 percent weight of Si3N4, the tensile strength was at its highest. As the amount of Si3N4 goes up, the tensile strength goes down gradually. Hardness tests were done on different amounts of Nylon-6/Si3N4 composite, and the highest Rockwell hardness number was found at 16 percent weight. SEM images help us figure out what the surface of composites looks like, under different conditions, The extreme quality of the composites declines as boron nitride is expanded in the composites, and the normal load is reduced to 71.54 percent of wear rate variation. [9]. The average molecular weight of matrix nylon filled with nano-alumina was shown to be less affected by nanoparticles and greater than that of matrix nylon filled with micro-alumina. The highest tensile strength was achieved when the nano- Al2O3 content reached 3 weight percent, as shown by the tensile property test, [10].The addition of Si3N4 nanoparticles to ABS/Si3N4 composites increased their tensile strength. The hardness of polymer composites increases as the amount of Si3N4 filler increases. The wear rate of composites made from ABS and Si3N4 is most affected by the normal load and the distance they slide. [11].Alumina (AA) 6061 and 7075 alloys were reinforced with 10 wt.% boron carbide (B4C) and 5 wt.% graphite via liquid casting. Composite samples were characterized with scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopies (EDS). By varying load, sliding distance, and cutter speed, a wear experiment is conducted using a pin on the disc apparatus. Response surface method (RSM) and MINITAB are used to analyze the wear rate of composite [12].Experiments have been conducted to advance the strength and toughness of polymer composites by adding nano-silica. Specimens are prepared by screw extrusion and injection molding. A grafted polymer (polypropylene) onto nano silica improves mechanical properties when the load is applied, matrix failure changes from ductile to brittle
  • 3. S. Sreenivasulu and A. Chennakesava Reddy http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 745 editor@iaeme.com because of its vicious nature [13].To boost the tensile strength and hardness of Nylon/Teflon composites, Teflon must be added to its Nylon 6 matrix. Particles stick together because fluorine atoms in Teflon like to form bonds with other fluorine atoms in Teflon, [14]. Nylon 6 is used in a wide variety of products that call for materials with great strength. Gears, fittings, and bearings are all made from this material. Various weight percentages of Nylon 6 and BaSO4 have been tested in the current experiment. To evaluate the mechanical characters. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY 2.1. Specimen Materials and Preparation BaSO4was used as the filler and nylon 6 as the matrix at 25o C, Nylon 6 has a melting point of 220o C and a density of 1.23 g/cc. Teflon has a melting point of 327o C and a density of 4.5 g/cc.Figure 1(a) shows the torque rheometer and twin-rotary mixer used to prepare various matrix/filler mixtures. Nylon 6 and BaSO4 were dried individually in an oven at 750 C for four hours before the melt processing. The Teflon was added after the Nylon 6 had been melted at 220o C for 3 minutes at the same temperature and 50 rpm for 5 minutes. For an additional five minutes, the blender was set to 75 rpm. Packs containing desiccant were used to store the extruded sample. Figure 1(b) depicts the injection molding process used to create the tensile and hardness test specimens, as well as the injection pressure used. Figure 1 Test sample preparation: (a) Torque rheometer with a twin-rotary mixer, (b) Injection molding machine, and (c) Two mold halves and test specimens. Figure 2 Computer –interfaced Tensometer.
  • 4. Experimental Study of Mechanical and Tribological Relation of Nylon/BaSO4 Polymer Composites http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 746 editor@iaeme.com Figure 3 Tensile specimens ABS-CaSO 4 Figure 1(c) shows ASTM D 618 as-mold test samples and two die halves. Figures 2. show the tensile test using a computer-interfaced tensometer and fig3 shows tensile test specimens. Loads at which the specimen broke were recorded. Extensometer measured elongation. Each specimen's computer-generated load vs deflection graph was also acquired. Rockwell hardness measured the hardness of test samples. SEM was used to analyze tensile specimen fracture. 2.2. Design of Experiments The determination of design parameters was a critical part of experiment design.Table.1 According to Taguchi's experimental design; the levels for the technical parameters were tested as shown in Table 2. Utilizing the orthogonal array L9, wear tests are conducted. Nylon/BaSO4 polymer composites underwent Rockwell hardness testing. To determine the results of wear testing. In a Nylon/BaSO4 polymer composite, an investigation is performed using a scanning electron microscope. Table 1 Design factors with different levels Factor Symbol Level–1 Level–2 Level–3 BaSO4, %wt. A 4 12 20 Normal Load, N B 10 15 20 Sliding Speed, rpm C 100 200 300 Sliding distance, m D 500 750 1000 Table 2 Control parameters and orthogonal array (L9) Treat No nNNnnONo. A B C D 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 1 3 3 3 4 2 1 2 3 5 2 2 3 1 6 2 3 1 2 7 3 1 3 2 8 3 2 1 3 9 3 3 2 1 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Tensile strength and wear resistance are carried out on specimens comprised of a variety of composites.
  • 5. S. Sreenivasulu and A. Chennakesava Reddy http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 747 editor@iaeme.com 3.1. Nylon/BaSO4 Polymer Composites: Mechanical Behavior Tensile tests were performed on Nylon/BaSO4 polymeric nanocomposites, and specimens with variousBaSO4 compositions (4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 wt %).Stress-strain curves for Nylon/BaSO4at different compositions are shown in Figure 3. 16%wt BaSO4 exhibits the maximum stress and strain rate among other combinations of Nylon/BaSO4polymer composites. From figure 4, the ultimate strength increases the filler %wt increases slight variations for compositions 4%wt, 8%wt 12%wt and 16%wt of BaSO4with the highest ultimate strength. There is a drastic reduction in the tensile strength from 16%wt to 20%wt. The hardness of the effect of Nylon/BaSO4polymer nanocomposites was looked at in Fig. 5, Rockwell hardness test was used to measure how hard the composites were. As you go up the list of BaSO4 filler materials, they make Nylon harder. After that, the microhardness also increases as the filler content increases up to 20%wt. Figure 3 Stress-Strain Curves of Nylon/BaSO4 Figure 4 Concentration of BaSO4%wt 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 BaSO4 4%wt BaSO4 8% wt BaSO4 12% wt BaSO4 16% wt Strain % wt Stress Mpa 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 4 8 12 16 20 BaSO4 (wt%) Ultimate Strength, MPa
  • 6. Experimental Study of Mechanical and Tribological Relation of Nylon/BaSO4 Polymer Composites http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 748 editor@iaeme.com Figure 5 Hardness is a Function of %wt BaSO4 3.2. Impact of Filling Content on Sliding Wear Figure 6 Variation in Wear Rate with (a) Weight Fraction of BaSO4) (b) Normal Load (N) (c) Sliding Speed (rpm), & (d) Sliding Distance (m) Table 3 Analysis of Variance Parameter Symbol DOF SS MSS P% BaSO4 %wt A 2 72410 36205 2.76 Load (N) B 2 647577 323788 24.72 Sliding Speed(rpm) C 2 1898331 949165 72.45 Sliding Distance (m) D 2 1711 855 0.07 Error e 0 0 -- 0 Total T 8 2620028 100 From table 3, it was clear that the % contribution of the sliding speed is higher than other input parameters. The% contribution of the sliding speed is 72.45%. Other parameters show less impact. The percentage contribution of BaSO4 (%) is 2.76%. The normal load is about 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 5 10 15 20 25 Hardness %,BaSo4
  • 7. S. Sreenivasulu and A. Chennakesava Reddy http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 749 editor@iaeme.com 24.72%, and the percentage contribution of the Sliding displacement is 0.07%, which is very less compared to other process parameters. From figure 6, the optimum solution was found, and the values of an optimum solution are BaSO4 with 20 wt%, load with 10 N, speed of 100 rpm, and sliding distance of 500 m. 4. MORPHOLOGY OF THE SURFACE OF COMPOSES Figure 7 SEM image of worn surface for trial conditions 1, 2, and 3. Figure 8 SEM image of worn surface for trial conditions 4, 5, and 6 Figure 9 SEM image of worn surface for trial conditions 7, 8, and 9 A scanning electron microscope was used to study the worm surface highlights on the composite material and to study using 400-grit SiC sheets to fix on a pin on the disc surface. Figures 7–9 show cutting and void formation because most matrix chips are found in the direction opposite to the wear direction. As seen in Fig. 7, there is evidence of matrix loss and significant wrinkling in Nylon/BaSO4 polymer composites (c). The Nylon/BaSO4 composite framework showed significant matrix failure during the underlying phase of abrasion, and harsh abrasive particles came into contact with the sensitive matrix, causing serious grid damage and a high rate of material ejection. In trials 2 and 8, In figure 7(b), SEM images of the worn surface of the Nylon/BaSO4 composite showed smooth surfaces with minimal matrix damage (fig. 7(b))
  • 8. Experimental Study of Mechanical and Tribological Relation of Nylon/BaSO4 Polymer Composites http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 750 editor@iaeme.com and a matrix strengthened with BaSO4, as shown in figure (9).SEM images at higher abrading separations of 300 rpm indicated a rough surface. Figure 9 (i) depicts the production of Nylon/BaSO4. 5. CONCLUSIONS The works present the successful fabrication of Nylon/BaSO4 composites with varying compositions using the injection molding process. At 16 % weight of BaSO4, the tensile strength was the highest, and with 20% weight of BaSO4, the tensile strength decreased. Rockwell hardness tests were conducted on various Nylon-6/BaSO4 composite compositions, and the highest hardness number was observed at 20% weight. Images taken with scanning electron microscopes make it possible to comprehend the surface of composites based on various input parameters. The sliding speed contributes 72.45% to the variation in wear rate. FUTURE SCOPE It may be advantageous to analyze the dynamic mechanical properties and temperature effects to develop the best composite materials, Hybrid polymer composites can be explored at different processing conditions using different critical conditions for light-weight applications. REFERENCES [1] AI Martınez-Perez et al. (2019): Characterization and sliding wear performance of PMMA reinforced with SiO2 nanoparticles. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite, Materialspp1-15: DOI: 10.1177/ 0892705718815532. [2] RanjanMajhi et al. (2017): Preparation and Study of Mechanical Properties of Nylon 66 / CaCO3 Engineering Thermoplastic Composite. International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science, 6(10), pp.31-34. [3] K. Shiva Kumar, A. Chennakesava Reddy: “Study on Reinforcement Materials for Nylon Matrix Composites - A Review,” International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, NCRTME-2016, 7(6), p.156-160. [4] K. Shiva Kumar, A. Chennakesava Reddy: “Mechanical and Wear Behavior of ABS/BN Polymer Composites,” 2018, Vol. 10 No.05, p.172-180. [5] V.L. Raja and A. Kumaravel(2015): Studies on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Silica Fume-Filled Nylon 66 Polymer Composites for Mechanical Components, Polymers & Polymer Composites, Vol. 23, No. 6, 2015, pp.427- 434. [6] V.N. Aderikha and V.A. Shapovalov(2010): Effect of filler surface properties on structure, mechanical, and tribological behavior of PTFE-carbon black composites. Wear, 268, pp. 1455– 1464. [7] Karan Agarwal, Nirmala Akhil, Regalla Srinivas, A.C Reddy(2015) “Enhancement in Mechanical Behavior of Nylon/Teflon Composites by Addition of Nano Iron Oxide (γ-Fe2O3)”, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 4(5), pp.927-932, [8] Monserrat Garcı, Matthijs de Rooij, Louis Winnubst, Werner E. van Zyl, Henk Verweij,(2004),"Friction and Wear Studies on Nylon-6/SiO2 Nanocomposites" Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 92, , pp,1855–1862. [9] K. Shiva Kumar, A. ChennakesavaReddy,(2019): Mechanical and Tribological Behavior of Particulate Filled Silicon Nitride Reinforced Nylon-6 Polymer Composites, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 8(6), p.3951-3955. [10] Li-Yun Zheng, Kin-Tak Lau, Li-Xin Zhao, Yong-Qiang Zhang & David Hui, (2009).“Mechanical and thermal properties of Nano-Al2O3/nylon 6 composites” Chemical Engineering Communications, 197:3, 343-351, DOI: 10.1080/00986440903088892.
  • 9. S. Sreenivasulu and A. Chennakesava Reddy http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 751 editor@iaeme.com [11] K. Shiva Kumar, A. ChennakesavaReddy,(2019)” An investigation of mechanical and sliding wear behavior of ABS/Si3N4 nanoparticles fabricated by an injection molding”, Manufacturing Technology Today, Vol. 18, No. 12, pp.18-24. [12] Baradeswaran, A., et al., ''Experimental investigation on mechanical behavior, modeling, and optimization of wear parameters of B4C and graphite reinforced aluminum hybrid composites'', Materials & Design, (2014). 63: p. 620-632. [13] Chun Lei Wu, M. Q. Z., Min Zhi Rong, Klaus Friedrich. "Tensile performance improvement of low nanoparticles filled-polypropylene composites." Elsevier Composites Science and Technology 62:1327–1340. (2002). [14] A. ChennakesavaReddy,(2015), “Characterization of Mechanical Behavior of Nylon/Teflon Nano Particulate Composites” International Journal of Advanced Research, 3,(5), pp:1241- 1246.