International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
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Experimental investigation of neem and mixed pongamia coconut methyl esters a

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Experimental investigation of neem and mixed pongamia coconut methyl esters a

  1. 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 232 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF NEEM AND MIXED PONGAMIA- COCONUT METHYL ESTERS AS BIODIESEL ON C.I ENGINE NITHYANANDA.B.S(1) , ANAND A(2) , Dr.G.V.NAVEEN PRAKASH(3) (1),(2),(3) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vidyavardhaka College of engineering, Mysore, 570002 ABSTRACT Bio-diesel is one of the most promising alternatives for diesel needs. The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine and they would not require significant modification of existing engine hardware. Biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of triglycerides of edible/non edible oils, and waste vegetable oils using methanol with alkaline catalyst NaOH/KOH. In this research, methyl esters of neem and mixed pongamia and coconut are produced through transesterification process. The objective of this paper is to investigate the mechanical properties and performance characteristics of biodiesel extracted from Neem and Mixed oil. The objective is achieved by transesterifing the neem and mixed oil using transesterification unit setup developed inhouse. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine fuel properties and performance characteristics of different biodiesel blends in comparison to diesel. The performance characteristics of blends are evaluated at variable loads at constant rated speed of 1500rpm and results are compared with diesel. Keywords: Biodiesel, Mixed pongamia and coconut oil, Neem oil, Transesterification, Engine performance. I. INTRODUCTION Biodiesel is environmentally friendly liquid fuel similar to petrol-diesel in combustion properties. Increasing environmental concern, diminishing petroleum reserves and agriculture based economy of our country are the driving forces to promote biodiesel as an alternate fuel. Biodiesel derived from vegetable oil and animal fats is being used in USA and Europe to reduce air pollution, to reduce dependence on fossil fuel. In USA and Europe, their surplus edible oils like soybean oil, sunflower oil and rapeseed oil are being used as feed stock for the production of biodiesel [1]. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013), pp. 232-242 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 233 Conventional energy sources such as oil, coal and natural gas have limited reserves that are expected not to lose for an extended period. World primary demand is projected to increase by 1.5% per year 2007 to 2030, from just over 12,000 million tonnes of oil equivalent to 16800 million tonnes as overall increase of 40%. As world reserves of fossil fuels and raw material are limited, it has stimulated active research interest in non petroleum and non polluting fuels. Diesel engines are the major source of power generation and transportation hence diesel is being used extensively, but due to the gradual impact of environmental pollution there is an urgent need for suitable alternate fuels for use in diesel engine without any modification [2]. There are different kinds of vegetable oils and biodiesel have been tested in diesel engines for its reducing characteristic for green house gas emissions. Its help on reducing a country’s reliance on crude oil imports, its supportive characteristic on agriculture by providing a new market for domestic crops, its effective lubricating property that eliminates the need of any lubricate additive and its wide acceptance by vehicle manufacturers can be listed as the most important advantages of biodiesel fuel [2]. In India there are more than 300 species of trees, which produce oil bearing seeds. In our country only non edible oil can be used as a raw material for biodiesel production. These non edible oil seeds like jatropha curcus, pongamia pinnata, moha, undi, saemaruba can be grown in non fertile land and waste lands. In our country these lands are much available. These non edible oil seeds are also used for lighting purpose at night. The use of these oils gives a best way to reduce the production cost of biodiesel. Also the processed vegetable oil can be used in any existing CI engine without any modification [3]. The present research is aimed at exploring technical feasibility of biodiesel extracted by Neem and Mixed Pongamia and Coconut oil in direct inject compression ignition engine without any hardware modifications. The biodiesel from neem and mixed pongamia and coconut oil are investigated for its performance as a diesel engine fuel. II. METHODOLOGY There are two approaches/ processes for the production of the biodiesel. The criterion for the selection of the process is based on the presence of the Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content in the pongamia oil [4]. a) If the FFA content of raw oil is less than 4%, Alkali base catalyzed Transesterification process is to be done. b) If the FFA content of raw oil is more than 4%, Acid catalyzed esterification process has to be undertaken. Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content of the raw oil is calculated by using Eq 1, FFA Content = ૛ૡ.૛ൈ‫ܡܜܑܔ܉ܕܚܗۼ‬ ‫܎ܗ‬ ‫۶۽܉ۼ‬ൈ‫ܖܗܑܜ܉ܚܜܑ܂‬ ‫܍ܝܔ܉ܞ‬ ‫ܜܐ܏ܑ܍ܟ‬ ‫܎ܗ‬ ‫ܔܑܗ‬ ……………… (1) a. ACID CATALYZED ESTERIFICATION PROCESS The esterification process is effective for oils that contain high free fatty acid (FFA) content. In this process the excess of the free fatty acid gets reacted and remaining acid content in the oil undergoes Transesterification. Generally concentrated sulphuric acid is used as a catalyst for this process.
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 234 The raw vegetable oil measuring 1litre is taken in a reaction flask and heated to 40⁰C initially with a continuous stirring. Then oil is filtered using a tissue paper. The filtered oil is again heated to 60⁰ - 65⁰C for 15 minutes in a reaction flask. After the heating of the oil is carried out, then the mixture containing 300ml Methanol and 10ml conc. Sulphuric acid is poured into the reaction flask slowly. The reaction takes place at constant stirring with suitable speed and process is carried out at 60⁰C for about 1hour. After the completion of process, the mixture is transferred into a Separating flask and then allowed to settle down to separate into two phases. The upper layer is dark acid layer and the lower layer is oil. The esterification reaction is presented in the Eq 2, ܴ‫ܪܱܱܥ‬ ൅ ‫ܪܥ‬ଷܱ‫ܪ‬ ൌ ܴ‫ܪܥܱܱܥ‬ଷ ൅ ‫ܪ‬ଶܱ ……………… (2) Now take the sample of the esterified oil and measure the new FFA. If the FFA content of oil is less than 4%, Transesterification process is carried out. b. BASE CATALYZED TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS The esterified oil is taken in a reaction flask and heated to 60⁰C for about 15 minutes with continuous stirring. Then the methoxide mixture containing 300ml Methanol and 5 – 8gms of Sodium Hydroxide is poured into a reaction flask with constant slow stirring at 60⁰C. The reaction temperature is maintained about 60-65˚C and process is carried out for another 2 hours. Once the process is completed, the reaction mixture is transferred into a separating funnel and then allowed to settle down into three phases. The upper layer is biodiesel which consists of methyl esters, the middle layer is glycerol and the lower layer is NaOH catalyst. The simplified form of its chemical reaction is presented in the Eq 3. …………… (3) Where R1, R2, R3 are long chain hydrocarbons called fatty acid chains. The methanol can be recovered from biodiesel and can be reused. The biodiesel obtained is washed with warm water of 40°C without any agitation in the washing funnel and allowed to settle for 1 hour. A bottom layer of soap water will slowly start to form and the soapy water is drained down carefully. The above procedure is repeated 10 to 15 times, till the clean wash water is got back which indicates that the catalyst is not present in the biodiesel. Later washed biodiesel is heated to 110⁰C to remove moisture from biodiesel. Thus neat biodiesel is obtained. c. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The experiments were conducted on a kirloskar made four stroke single cylinder water cooled direct inject compression ignition engine without any hardware modifications. Mixed and Neem biodiesel blends (B10, B20, B30, B40, and B50) and diesel was used to test a conventional engine at different loads. Performance parameters like brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were evaluated. The technical specification of diesel engine is given in the Table 1.
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 235 Table 1: Engine specifications Type Kirloskar Details Single cylinder, four stroke, water cooled Bore & Stroke 80×110 mm Rated Power 3.75 KW at 1500 RPM Compression Ratio 16:1to 25:1 III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 2 shows the fuel properties of diesel, mixed biodiesel and its blends. Table 3 shows the fuel properties of diesel, neem biodiesel and its blends Biodiesel blends of neem and mixed pongamia and coconut methyl esters with diesel on 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% volume basis was prepared and fuel properties are measured following standard procedure. Table 2 Properties of Diesel, Mixed biodiesel and its blends Properties Units Diesel B10 B20 B30 B40 B50 B100 Viscosity Cst 3.02 3.201 3.319 3.409 3.84 4.02 4.76 Density Kg/m3 816 820 826.7 839.5 850.8 856.2 876.4 Flash point o C 52 57 60 64 70 78 121 Fire point o C 61 62 65 69 76 85 128 Calorific value KJ/Kg 43796 42936 42701 42100 41650 41317 39251 Table 3 Properties of Diesel, Neem biodiesel and its blends Properties Units Diesel B10 B20 B30 B40 B50 B100 Viscosity Cst 3.02 3.78 3.855 3.92 4.074 4.38 6.81 Density Kg/m3 816 820.1 825.9 831.4 839.6 843.8 873.2 Flash point o C 52 57 62 68 70 74 168 Fire point o C 61 67 74 75 77 85 184 Calorific value KJ/Kg 43796 42111 41863 40780 39460 38643 36496
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 236 In Fig. 1, the kinematic viscosity of different blends of mixed and neem biodiesel blends B10, B20, B30, B40 and B50 are higher than the viscosity of diesel. But up to B20 the viscosity of mixed biodiesel is close to the viscosity of diesel. It can also be observed that the viscosities of all neem biodiesel blends are higher than the mixed biodiesel blends. Fig. 1: Comparison for Kinematic Viscosity of Neem and Mixed Biodiesel blends with Diesel The density of different blends of mixed and neem biodiesel is increased with the increase in blend percentage as shown in Fig. 2. The blend B10 mixed and neem biodiesel are closer to the density of diesel. The high density of biodiesel can be reduced by heating. It can also be observed that density of mixed and neem biodiesel blends are nearer to each other. Fig. 2: Comparison for Density of Neem and Mixed Biodiesel blends with Diesel The calorific values of different blends of mixed and neem biodiesel are lesser than the calorific value of diesel as shown in Fig. 3. The biodiesel blends B10 and B20 have calorific values closer to diesel. It is evident from Fig. 3 that the calorific value of mixed biodiesel blends is higher than the neem biodiesel blends.
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 237 Fig. 3: Comparison for Calorific Value of Neem and Mixed Biodiesel blends with Diesel The flash points of different blends of methyl esters are increased with the increase in methyl ester percentage as shown in Fig. 4. It is also observed that the flash points of biodiesel blends B10 and B20 are close to diesel. Fig. 4: Comparison for Flash point of Neem and Mixed Biodiesel blends with Diesel The Fig. 5 to Fig. 9 represents the variation of specific fuel consumption with brake power for various blends of biodiesel and diesel. It can be observed that the specific fuel consumption of different blends of mixed pongamia and coconut and neem biodiesel is found to be slightly higher than the diesel at full load. It is also observed that specific fuel consumption of B10 blend of mixed and neem biodiesel is very close to specific fuel consumption of diesel at all loads. For blends B20 to B50 the specific fuel consumption is found to be higher than the diesel.
  7. 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 238 Fig. 5: Variation of Specific Fuel Consumption with Brake Power for B10 Blends Fig. 6: Variation of Specific Fuel Consumption with Brake Power for B20 Blends Fig. 7: Variation of Specific Fuel Consumption with Brake Power for B30 Blends
  8. 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 239 Fig. 8: Variation of Specific Fuel Consumption with Brake Power for B40 Blends Fig. 9: Variation of Specific Fuel Consumption with Brake Power for B50 Blends The Fig. 10 to Fig. 14 represents the variation of brake thermal efficiency with brake power for various blends of biodiesel and diesel. A slight drop in brake thermal efficiency was found with the biodiesel blends when compared with diesel. This drop in thermal efficiency may be due to poor combustion characteristics of biodiesel blends due to high viscosity. It can also be observed that the brake thermal efficiency of neem biodiesel blends except B20 is slightly higher than the mixed pongamia and coconut biodiesel blends at full load. Fig. 10: Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Brake Power for B10 Blends
  9. 9. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 240 Fig. 11: Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Brake Power for B20 Blends Fig. 12: Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Brake Power for B30 Blends Fig. 13: Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Brake Power for B40 Blends
  10. 10. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 241 Fig. 14: Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Brake Power for B50 Blends IV. CONCLUSION The fuel properties of different blends of biodiesel are nearer to the diesel and blends B10 and B20 is giving good results. The fuel properties of biodiesel B100 are not in good agreement with the diesel so it is advisable not to use B100 biodiesel in CI engines. Following are the conclusions based on the experimental results obtained while operating single cylinder diesel engine with neem and mixed pongamia and coconut biodiesel blends. • Mixed pongamia and coconut and neem biodiesel blends can be directly used in diesel engines without any engine modifications. • The mixed biodiesel shows better fuel properties than the neem biodiesel up to blend B20. • The brake thermal efficiency of biodiesel blends is slightly lesser than the diesel. The brake thermal efficiency of neem biodiesel blends except B20 is slightly higher than pongamia biodiesel blends. • Specific fuel consumption of B10 blend of pongamia and neem biodiesel is very close to specific fuel consumption of diesel at all loads. For blends B20 to B50 the specific fuel consumption is found to be higher than the diesel. The neem and mixed pongamia and coconut biodiesel can be used as a substitute to petroleum diesel. The mixed pongamia and coconut biodiesel can be regarded as a better fuel than the neem biodiesel even though the brake thermal efficiency is slightly lesser. The biodiesel yield from neem oil is comparatively lesser than the mixed pongamia and coconut oil. V. REFERENCES [1.] T. Venkateswara Rao ,G. Prabhakar Rao, K. Hema Chandra Reddy, “Experimental Investigation of Pongamia, Jatropha and Neem Methyl Esters as Biodiesel on C.I. Engine”, 2008, Vol.2, pp.117-122, ISSN.1995-6665. [2.] Lovekush Prasad, Dr. Alka Agrawal, “Experimental Investigation of Diesel Engine Working on Diesel and Neem Oil Blends”, Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 2012, Vol. 1, pp. 48-51. [3.] Research and Development Report on Tree Born Oilseeds by National oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development Board Government of India, 2009.
  11. 11. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 242 [4.] Mishra S.R, Mohanty M.K, Das S.P, Pattanaik A.K, “Production of Biodiesel From Simarouba Glauca Oil”, Research journal of chemical sciences, 2012, Vol. 2(5), Pp. 66-71, ISSN. 2231 - 606X. [5.] Avinash Kumar Agarwal, K.Rajamanoharan,"Experimental investigations of Performance and emissions of Karanja oil and its blends in a single cylinder agricultural Diesel engine", Applied Energy, 2009, Vol. 86, pp. 106-112. [6.] Yuva Ozawa, Yusuke Soma, Hideo Shoji, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, “The Application of Coconut Oil Methyl Ester for Diesel Engine”, International Journal of Automotive Engineering, 2011, Vol. 2, pp. 95-100. [7.] Ismet Celikten, Emre Mutlu, Hamit Solmaz, “Variation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled With Diesel, Rapeseed Oil and Hazelnut Oil Methyl Ester Blends”, Renewable Energy, 2012, Vol. 48, pp. 122-126. [8.] Mishra Sruti Ranjan, Mohanty Mahendra Kumar, Pattanaik Ajay Kumar, “Preparation of Biodiesel from Crude Oil of Simarouba Glauca using CaO as a Solid Base Catalyst”, Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 2012, Vol. 1(9), Pp. 49-53, ISSN. 2277-2502. [9.] K. Anbumani, Ajit Pal Singh, “Performance of Mustard and Neem Oil Blends with Diesel Fuel in C.I. Engine”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2010, Vol. 5, pp. 1819-6608. [10.] N.R. Banapurmath, P.G Tewaria, R.S Hosmath, “Performance and Emission Characteristics of A DI Compression Ignition Engine Operated on Honge, Jatropha and Sesame Oil Methyl Esters”, Renewable Energy, 2008, vol. 33, pp.1982-1988. [11.] Indian Agricultural Research Institute Annual Report, 2010. [12.] Report of the Committee on Development of Biofuel by Planning Commission of India, 2003. [13.] Bobade S.N, Khyade V.B, “Detail study on the Properties of Pongamia Pinnata (Karanja) for the Production of Biofuel”, Research journal of chemical sciences, 2012, Vol.2(7), pp.16-20, ISSN. 2231-606X. [14.] Rajan Kumar, Dr. Manoj K Mishra and Dr. Shyam K Singh, “Performance and Emission Study of Jatropha Biodiesel and its Blends on C.I. Engine”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 85 - 93, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [15.] Mahesh P. Joshi and Dr. Abhay A. Pawar, “Experimental Study of Performance-Emission Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Cotton Seed Oil Methyl Ester Biodiesel and Optimization of Engine Operating Parameters”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 185 - 202, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [16.] Mohsin M Jujara, “Comparative Performance and Emission Charactristics of 4-Cylinder 4- Stroke CI Engine Fueled with Coconut Oil-Diesel Fuel Blend”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 367 - 372, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [17.] Sanjay Patil, “Effect of Injector Opening Pressure on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of C.I. Engine Fuelled with Palm Oil Methyl Ester”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 233 - 241, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

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