International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
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Performance characteristics for the use of blended safflower oil in diesel engine

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Performance characteristics for the use of blended safflower oil in diesel engine

  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME26PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE USE OF BLENDEDSAFFLOWER OIL IN DIESEL ENGINEA. Swarna Kumari1*, Ch.Penchalayya2, A.V. Sita Rama Raju 3, D.Vinay Kumar41,2Department of Mechanical Engineering, J. N. T. U. Kakinada, A.P, India3Department of Mechanical Engineering J. N. T. U. Hyderabad, A.P, India4Department of Mechanical Engineering, N.I.T.Warangal, AP, IndiaABSTRACTLooking for an alternative source of energy has gained vital importance in present scenariokeeping in view the threat of exhaustion of fossil fuels in the future. Vegetable oils are a renewableand potentially inexhaustible source of energy with an energy content close to diesel fuel. In recentyears, vegetable oils and bio-diesels have become more attractive as an alternative fuel for dieselengine because of its environmental benefits and it is made from renewable resources. Amongdifferent types of alternate fuels available, vegetable oils and their blends have come across the worldas an alternative fuel. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuelproperties of safflower oil and its blends with diesel from 20% to 100% by volume and running dieselengine with these fuels. The considered parameters are specific fuel consumption, brake specific fuelconsumption, brake thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, air fuel ratio, emissions and smokeopacity evaluate single cylinder diesel engine running with the mentioned fuels. The increase in brakethermal efficiency and reduction in emissions made the blend of safflower oil, in particular B20suitable alternative fuel for diesel and can control air pollution.Key words: Alternative fuels, safflower diesel blends, diesel engine performance, emissions.INTRODUCTIONUsing straight vegetable oils in diesel engines is not an invention, Rudolf Diesel first usedpeanut oil as a fuel in his newly developed CI engine. Speaking to Engineering Society at St. Louis,Missouri, in 1912, Diesel said, “the use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificanttoday, but such oils may become in course of time as important as petroleum and the coal tar productsof the present times”. Diesel engines are the major source of transportation [1]. There is need tosearch the alternate fuel for the present diesel fuel. Due to depletion of fossil fuels and increasingexhaust emissions, nowadays the focus is on renewable energy fuels i.e., vegetable oils as analternative to petroleum fuels and also its emissions are less as compared to existing diesel fuel. Theuse of pure vegetable oils causes failure in the fuel system and in components of the diesel enginedue to its considerably high viscosity [2,3]. In order to cope with these problems, the viscosity ofINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, April 2013, pp. 26-32© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME27vegetable oil can be decreased by heating the oil, blending with diesel fuel and esterification. Severalinvestigators [4-7] conducted experiments with different edible and non-edible vegetable oils anddiesel blends and literature suggests that vegetable oils can be substituted for diesel fuel if viscosity isreduced by blending it with diesel fuel. Most of the esterified oils tried in diesel engines was soybean,sunflower, rapeseed, palm oil and safflower oil. Though the mentioned oils are edible, because oftheir wide availability, reliability they were used as fuels. In the present investigation straightvegetable oil, safflower oil has been taken for study to substitute for diesel fuel.MATERIAL AND METHODEngine tests were conducted on a single cylinder, four stroke diesel engines.Table 1: Fuel properties of different blends and dieselTable 2: Specifications of the engine setupEXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGYThe experimental setup consists of a single-cylinder, four-stroke, water cooled, vertical, , directinjection, naturally aspirated Kirloskar diesel engine connected to a water brake dynamometer forloading the engine. The specifications of the engine are given in Table 2. The engine was alwaysrunning at its rated speed. The operating pressure of the nozzle was set at the rated value of 220kg/cm2.The governor of the engine was used to control the engine speed. Cooling of the engine wasaccomplished by supplying water through the water jackets on the engine block and cylinder head.The engine is coupled with eddy current dynamometer.Property Diesel B20 B40 B60 B80B100(Preheated raw oil)Density(kg/m3) @28oC832 841 852 863 874 876CalorificValue(kJ/kg)43626 41345 39641 38448 37419 36325KinematicViscosity(cSt) @28oC2-4.5 3.28 4.14 5.18 6.24 28.34Make Kirloskar oil engines Ltd.IndiaType Single cylinder DI, NA CI engineRated output 3.68 kWEngine speed 1500 rpmInjection timing &pressure230CA BTDC & 220 kg/cm2Loading device Water Brake dynamometerStroke 110 mmBore 80 mmCompression ratio 16.5:1
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME28Smoke emissions were measured using NETEL smoke meter in HSU (Model No.NPM-SM-111B). In the present work the fuel considered for investigation is Safflower oil. The fuel blends wereprepared using an emulsifier to mix safflower and diesel at molar level and the investigation is to findthe suitability of diesel engine with the prepared fuels at fuel injector opening pressure of 220 kg/cm2.The following blends of safflower oil and diesel are prepared on volume basis. Theinstrument used for measuring volumes of each oil is measuring flask of capacity 1000ml. Oils aremeasured according to the blend ratios and taken into the emulsifier.Oils were measured according to the blend ratios and taken into the emulsifier (Fig2). For completemixing of oils varies with the blend and the least time among them was for blend B20 and more timefor the blend B80 for mixing. Table 1shows fuel properties of different blends and diesel. The enginewas started with diesel fuel and warmed for 15 minutes and the experimental tests were conducted atno load, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and100% of maximum load for all fuels at 1500rpm (rated speed). Alltests were repeated three times and the results were averaged.Fig 2: Emulsifier for the blend preparationRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThe results concerning the performance and smoke opacity of the safflower diesel blends incomparison with the diesel are presented and discussed here.0 20 40 60 80 1000.00.20.40.60.81.01.21.41.61.82.02.2FuelConsumption(kg/hr)Load (%)B20B40B60B80B100DieselFig 3:Variation of fuel consumption with respect to load
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME29Fig.3 shows the variation of fuel consumption with load for Safflower oil and its blends with diesel.The blend with minimum fuel consumed by the engine is B20 with 1.44 kg/hr and with diesel it is1.576 kg/hr at higher loads because of better combustion.0 20 40 60 80 1000.00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91.0BSFC(kg/kWhr)Load (%)B20B40B60B80B100DieselBSFC Vs Load @ 220 barFig 4: Variation of brake specific fuel consumption with respect to loadBrake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is a measure of volumetric fuel consumption for anyfuel. From fig 4, the fuel, B20 shows minimum brake specific fuel consumption, i.e., 0.391 kg/kWhrand with diesel 0.428 kg/kWhr at maximum load. It is also seen that at 80% loading B40 shows lessbrake fuel consumption than diesel. This is mainly due to combined effects of fuel density, viscosityand heating value of blends.0 20 40 60 80 100 1200510152025BrakeThermalEfficiency(%)Load (%)B20B40B60B80B100DieselBrake Thermal Efficiency Vs Load @ 220 barFig 5: Variation of brake thermal efficiency with respect to loadThe thermal efficiency is the ratio of the brake power obtained from the engine to the fuelenergy supplied to the engine. Because the vegetable oil has a higher combustion efficiency due to itsoxygen content, it improves the combustion when used in the blend. Consequently the thermalefficiency of the engine using the blend has increased, as shown in Fig.5. Brake thermal efficiency isan indication of the performance of the engine. With the safflower diesel blends B20, B40the dieselengine is performing better than that of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency of the engine is maximumwith blend B20 at maximum load, 23.3% were as with diesel it is 19.3%, with a rise of 4.0% thermal
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME30efficiency. The combined effects of higher oxygen content and improved spray characteristics [9] mayresult in a higher burning rate of the blend over the diesel and pure safflower oil at higher loadscontributing to the observed increase in thermal efficiency0 20 40 60 80 100606570758085VolumetricEfficiency(%)Load (%)B20B40B60B80B100DieselVolumetric Efficiency Vs Load @ 220 barFig6:Variation of volumetric efficiency with respect to loadThe above figure shows the Comparison of Volumetric efficiency with load. The volumetricefficiency of the engine is more with B40 than B20 and diesel.0 20 40 60 80 100010203040506070AirFuelRatioLoad (%)B20B40B60B80B100DieselAir Fuel Ratio Vs Load @ 220 barFig 7: Variation of Air Fuel Ratio with respect to loadFigure 7 shows a comparison of Air Fuel Ratio with load. It is observed that with blend B20 the airfuel mixture taken by the engine is more than that of diesel at full load which mean that the enginewas run with lean mixture. It is 16.9 with B20 and15.6 with diesel.
  6. 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME310 20 40 60 80 100020406080100BLoad (%)B20B40B60B80B100DieselSmoke Opacity Vs Load @ 220 barFig 8: Variation of smoke opacity with respect to loadThe formation of smoke primarily results from the incomplete burning of the hydrocarbonfuel and the partially reacted carbon content in the liquid fuel [10]. The results of smoke opacity weredepicted in Fig. 8.The smoke opacity increased with the increase of the engine load as shown in Fig 8.The formation of smoke strongly depends on the engine load. As the load increases, more fuel isinjected, and this increases smoke formation [11]. It is seen that with fuel B20 smoke opacity is lowerthan that of diesel at all the loads i.e., from no load to full load. The engine can run with B60 as thesmoke opacity of the engine with B60 is lower than diesel fuel at all the loads except 40% loading.Safflower oil in its pure form can be used as fuel at higher loading (60% - 100%) without any increasein smoke opacity.CONCLUSIONSFrom the experiments conducted with the safflower oil diesel blends the following conclusions can bemade:The engine was run without any problem and requires no modification in engine hardware.The blend B20 is the best fuel with minimum fuel consumption and minimum brake specific fuelconsumption at higher loads.The blend B20 is the best fuel with 4.0 % higher brake thermal efficiency (19.3% to 23.3%) thanthat of diesel fuel at full load.The blend B40 had a better volumetric efficiency than diesel.The blend B20 had a higher air fuel ratio than diesel at higher loading.Smoke opacity of the engine is minimized with the fuel B20 and pure safflower oil can be used asfuel at higher loads (60-100%) without any increase in smoke opacity.Safflower oil and its blends can be used as an alternative fuel in the future.From the above, it is concluded that, fuel B20 is the best substitution for diesel fuel because it givesbetter performance and less smoke as compared to that of diesel fuel.
  7. 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME32REFERENCES[1]Narayan Reddy J, Ramesh A, Parametric studies for improving the performance of aJatropha oil-fuelled compression ignition engine, Renewable energy journal 2005.10.2006.[2] Puhan S. Vadaraman N, Sankaranarayan G, Ram BVB. Performance and emission study of mahuaoil (madhuca indica oil) ethyl ester in a 4-stroke natural aspirated direct injection diesel engine.Renew Energy 2005;30:1269-78.[3]Czerwinski J. Performance of HD-DI diesel engine with addition of ethanol and rapeseed oil. SAEpaper 940545; 1994.[4] Gumus M. Evaluation of hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin as alternative fuel in diesel engines,Renew Energy 2008;33:2448-57.[5] A. P. Patil and H.M.Dange, “Experimental Investigations of Performance Evaluation ofSingle Cylinder, Four Stroke, Diesel Engine, Using Diesel, Blended With Maize Oil”,International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2,2012, pp. 653 - 664, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.[6] Yadav Milind S. and Dr. S. M. Sawant, “Investigations on Oxy-Hydrogen Gas andProducer Gas, as Alternative Fuels, on the Performance of Twin Cylinder Diesel Engine”,International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 2, Issue 2,2011, pp. 85 - 98, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

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