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Natural Gas Resources

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Natural Gas Composition; Characterization Natural Gas; Dry and Wet Natural Gas; Types of Natural Gas; Types of Natural Gas Liquids; Condensate Natural Gas; Types of Natural Gas Resources; VARIOUS PRODUCTS (or FRACTIONS) OF RAW GAS ; USES OF NATURAL GAS; Evolution of Global NATURAL GAS Reserves by Region; Natural Gas Resources; Global NATURAL GAS Production; NATURAL GAS VALUE CHAIN

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Natural Gas Resources

  1. 1. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas Prof. Dr. Hassan Z. Harraz Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University hharraz2006@yahoo.com Spring 2018
  2. 2. Outline of Lectures: Topic 1: Natural Gas (Overview). Topic 2: Unconventional Gas Reservoir Topic 3: Shale Gas Topic 4:Coalbed Methane (CBM) Topic 5: Tight Reservoir Topic 6: Gas Hydrates Topic 7: Hydraulic Fracturing. Topic 8 : Separating and Treating Well Fluids Topic 9 : Natural Gas Processes Topic 10 : Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Life Cycle Overview. Topic 11 : Egyptian Natural Gas Resource (Overview). @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 2
  3. 3. Course objectives:  The objectives of this course in Natural Gas Resources are: (i) acquainting students (majors and non-majors) with the basic tools necessary for studying Natural Gas deposits, (ii) understanding the different types of Natural Gas, (iii) understanding the processes of Natural Gas, (iv) understanding the relationship between the distribution of Natural Gas, and Plate Tectonics, and (vi) gaining some knowledge of the environmental problems associated with the extraction and utilization of Natural Gas Resources.
  4. 4. Introduction  An Introduction to Natural Gas Deposits is to geologists.  This course provides a non-technical introduction to the basic concepts of:  Natural Gas Resources in :  Natural Gas Accumulation Types  Associated and Non-associated Gas  Sweet and Sour Natural Gas  Natural Gas Industry Value Chain  Various Products of Raw Gas  Natural Gas Supply  Global Natural Gas Production  With numerous examples, figures and images.  Also included are some key aspects of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Life Cycle Overview
  5. 5. Keywords: Natural Gas Unconventional Gas Reservoirs: Shale Gas; Coalbed Methane (CBM); Tight Reservoir; Gas Hydrates Hydraulic Fracturing. Natural Gas Processes; Separating and Treating Well Fluids Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Life Cycle Overview. Egyptian Natural Gas Resource (Overview).
  6. 6. Follow me on Social Media http://facebook.com/hzharraz http://www.slideshare.net/hzharraz https://www.linkedin.com/in/hassan-harraz-3172b235
  7. 7. Hassan Z. Harraz hharraz2006@yahoo.com Spring 2018 @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 7
  8. 8. OUTLINES LECTURE • This Introduction to Natural Gas overview includes: @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 8  NATURAL GAS  Historical Perspective  What is Natural Gas?  Natural Gas Composition  Characterization NaturalGas  Types of Natural Gas  Types of Natural Gas Liquids  Condensate Natural Gas  Types of NaturalGas Resources  Resources vs. Reserves VARIOUS PRODUCTS (or FRACTIONS) OF RAW GAS USES OF NATURAL GAS UNIT CONVERSION  SUPPLY  Evolution of Global Reserves by Region  NaturalGas Resources  Global Production  NATURAL GAS VALUE CHAIN
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION • ENERGY SCENARIO: World’s marketing energy expanded from: @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 9  Liquid Fuel, Natural gas and coal account for 78% of total energy.  Consumption of oil is predicted to fall in future. Source-InternationalEnergyOutlook
  10. 10. Transformation in Energy Demand • Oil consumption is predicted to fall from 33% to 30% in coming 10 years. • Natural Gas and Non- Renewable sources dominating. • Natural gas use increase but 1.9% per year • Shale gas playing measure role. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 10 Why GAS HYDRATES for Natural Gas?  As of 31 December 2013, 6846 Tcf of gross Natural gas reserve estimated.  Methane Hydrates is believed to be larger HC resource than oil, or any natural gas.  Estimated potential is from 500 years to 1500 years, as per current consumption rate. Source- British Petroleum Statics
  11. 11. First U.S. Natural Gas Well In 1821, William Hart dug the first natural gas well in Fredonia, NY. It was just 27 feet deep, quite shallow compared to today’s wells. HISTORY OF NATURAL GAS @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 11
  12. 12. Where does Natural Gas come from?
  13. 13. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 13
  14. 14. 1) NATURAL GAS @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 15 Benzene Methane Ethane Buthane Propane
  15. 15. 1.1) What is Natural Gas?
  16. 16. Main Components of Natural Gas Methane Ethane Principal Components Heavier Hydrocarbons Pentane Propane Butane @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 19
  17. 17. Natural Gas Composition
  18. 18. Natural Gas: Dry vs. Wet Do you know the difference between dry and wet natural gas?
  19. 19. 1.3) Types of Natural Gas  Dry Gas.  Wet Gas  Condensates  Natural gas liquids (NGLs)  Sweet Gas  Sour gas  Acid gas  Casinghead gas  Residue Gas @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 23
  20. 20. 1.3) Types of Natural Gas
  21. 21. Sweet and Sour Natural Gas
  22. 22. Raw Natural gas  Raw natural gas may come from any one of three types of gas wells: Crude oil wells: Dry gas wells: Condensate wells: @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 26
  23. 23. 27 Types of Natural Gas Liquids  Commercial Propane:  Commercial Butane:  Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG):  Natural Gasoline:
  24. 24. Geology of Natural Gas Resources @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 28 1.5) Types of Natural Gas Resources
  25. 25. Natural Gas Accumulation Types Schematic showing the Geometryof Conventional and Unconventional Natural Gas Resources Low permeability reservoirs contain GIP only in pervasive gas saturated regimes 29 @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas
  26. 26. Types of Natural Gas Resources
  27. 27. Natural-gas Condensate/ Condensates
  28. 28. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 32 ??? Methane Hydrate
  29. 29. 1.7) Resources vs. Reserves @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 33 RESOURCES RESERVES Resources are estimated volumes of natural gas - discovered or undiscovered  Natural gas reserves have high certainty estimates of volumes that are recoverable, under existing technological and economic conditions.  Reserves are accessible through existing pipelines and markets. Discovered resources Undiscovered resources Estimates of discovered resources are quantities of gas in known reservoirs, that may be remote from existing pipelines and markets. Undiscovered resources are estimates based on geological data of gas volumes thought to be recoverable under current or anticipated techno- economic conditions.
  30. 30. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 34
  31. 31. 2) VARIOUS PRODUCTS (or FRACTIONS) OF RAW GAS
  32. 32. Compare Natural Gas with Oil
  33. 33. Comparison between fuels-Petrol, Diesel, Natural gas, LPG and Electricity
  34. 34. 4) USES OF NATURAL GAS What is Natural Gas used for?
  35. 35. Natural Gas Uses - Residential • Residential sector natural gas uses include heating, cooking, and fueling appliances such as water heaters and clothes dryers. Water Heaters & Clothes DryersCookingHeating @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 39
  36. 36. Data: Energy Information Administration Residential 38% Commercial 10% Industrial 26% Transportation 2% Electric 24% Natural Gas Consumption by Sector of the Economy, 2011
  37. 37. 5) UNIT CONVERSION • Natural gas can be measured in metric or imperial units: • by energy content: Gigajoules (GJ) or Million British Thermal Units (MMBtu) • or by volume: Cubic Metres (m3) or Cubic Feet (cf) @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 41
  38. 38. 6) NATURAL GAS SUPPLY @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 42
  39. 39. 6.1) Evolution of Global Reserves by Region @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 43
  40. 40. 8.1) Evolution of Global Reserves by Region The supply of natural gas is secure, accessible and affordable for the foreseeable future. Natural gas is a fuel that performs strongly on security of supply considerations: There are sufficient global deposit volumes to meet projected demand. Deposits are geographically diverse. Access is greater than it has ever been with the advances in LNG shipping technologies and evolving business models. “The remaining resources of natural gas are sufficient to comfortably meet the projections of global demand growth to 2040 and well beyond.” (IEA,2017). At the end of 2016, proven reserves were about 215 trillion cubic meters (tcm), equal to around 60 years of production at current output rates. Global resources of natural gas are estimated at nearly 800 tcm, around 45% of which are unconventional gas (tight gas, shale gas, CBM), deposits of which are geographically more widespread than conventional resources. (IEA,2017). @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 44
  41. 41. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 45
  42. 42. 6.2) Natural Gas Resources
  43. 43. Gas Resource Pyramids @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 47
  44. 44. 6.2) Natural Gas Resources @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 48 The most pronounced trend in the evolution of world’s proven resources is the divergence between conventional and unconventional resources.
  45. 45. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 49 Shale has been visibly growing, while the conventional base is slowly reducing.
  46. 46. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 50
  47. 47. 6.3) Global Production The world’s top six natural gas producers are (2016): 1) United States (749 bcm) 2) Russia (579 bcm) 3) Iran (202 bcm) 4) Qatar (181 bcm) 5) Canada (152 bcm) 6) China (138 bcm) @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 51
  48. 48. Gas Supply By Region @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 52
  49. 49. Top 10 global gas developments in 2017 @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 53
  50. 50. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 54
  51. 51. Natural gas 2016 proven reserves and production by region (TCM) Gas reserves are concentrated in Middle East and CIS, while production is widely distributed globally @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 55
  52. 52. Material new plays of the past decade – all Deepwater @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 56 Global trends influencing exploration
  53. 53. 7) NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VALUE CHAIN
  54. 54. LNG industry and Technology (or LNG Value Chain) 1)Exploration and Production 2)Liquefaction 3)Transportation 3.1)Pipe 3.2) Shipping 3.3) Tanker 4) Regasification 5) Storage @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 58
  55. 55. References Masters JA (1979): “Deep Basin Gas Trap, Western Canada,” AAPG Bulletin 63, No. 2: 152. Rogner H-H (1996). “An Assessment of World Hydrocarbon Resources,” IIASA, WP–96–26, May 1996. IGU World LNG Report – 2015 Edition @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 59
  56. 56. @Hassan Harraz 2018 Nature Gas 60

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