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Submitted To Submitted By
Dr. Leela Manohar SANYAM JAIN
Dr. Tapas Palai Roll No: 13759
Submission Date: 5 April 2016
National Institute of Technology Hamirpur H.P.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Presentation on Shale
Gas
1
2
Content
 What is Shale Gas?
 How Shale is formed?
 How Shale Gas is formed?
 History
 Shale Gas Potential
 Shale Gas in India
 India’s participation in the Shale Gas industry in the US
 Importance of Shale Gas
 Supporting Evidence
 The people’s view
 Concerns
 Pros & Cons
 Conclusion
 References
3
 Natural gas
 Unconventional
 Found in certain types of shale
 2,000-7,000 feet deep
 Low permeability
 Confined in fractures within the
shale itself
 Reserves higher than Oil
 Enhanced Global Availability
4
How is Shale formed?  Shale is formed from muddy
sediments deposited in seas millions
of years ago
 As these sediments were buried,
they were heated and turned into
rock and the organic matter was
converted into oil or gas
 These rocks are often the source
rocks for conventional oil and gas
fields but have low permeability so
it is difficult to extract oil or gas
from them directly
5
Organic rich shale at the ground
surface
How is shale gas formed?
6
Source: Geologic Time 1. Which geologic event
took place first and when?
• Shale is sandwiched between two
thick, black fine-grained shale
deposits
• Continued pressure from burial
forces most of the natural gas to
migrate from the organic shales
into sandstone and limestone
forming conventional reservoirs.
• The natural gas remaining in the
shales is termed shale gas.
Shale Gas Formation
 Natural gas in shales has, essentially, formed from the remains of
plants, animals, and microorganisms that lived millions of years ago.
 Though there are different theories on the origins of fossil fuels, the
most widely accepted is that they are formed when organic matter
(such as the remains of a plant or animal) is buried, compressed and
heated in the earth’s crust for long time.
 In the case of natural gas, this is referred to as thermogenic methane
generation.
7
1821 – First US commercial natural gas
well in Fredonia, NY, produces natural
gas from shale;
After 160 years of development and experi
1980s – Department of Energy
spearheads research in micro seismic
and other 3-dimensional mapping
techniques that proved critical to shale
gas recovery;
2000s – natural gas holds
steady in United States with
the highest annual increase in
production of any energy
technology – modern natural
gas boom
When it began?
8
Presence of Shale Gas worldwide
9
 North America is currently the most profitable shale gas producer.
 Worldwide development of shale gas plays are expected to develop, especially in Europe and Asia.
 Shale gas contributes an 11% rise in natural gas in the U.S.
 Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale contains about 500 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.
 China is estimated to have the world's largest shale gas reserves.
10
ONGC finds country's first-ever shale gas reserve in West Bengal
 India's biggest energy explorer ONGC has
discovered the country's first shale gas
reserve at Durgapur in Burdwan district
of West Bengal.
 The gas reserve - spread over 12,000
square km in the Durgapur-Ranigunj area
- is the world's third shale gas find.
 According to ONGC estimates, India's
shale gas reserves range between 600
and 2,000 trillion cubic feet.
 "The successful pilot testing of first-ever
shale gas on surface will put India on
shale gas map of the world. It has
opened up new hopes for meeting our
energy needs and encouraged to venture
into many shale sequences"
11
Shale Gas in INDIA
INDIAN ENERGY SECTOR : AN OVERVIEW
World Asia Pacific India
Energy Consumption 11294.9 3981
433
5th Largest Energy
Consumer
Energy Mix (%)
Coal 29% 51% 53%
Oil 35% 29% 31%
Natural gas 24% 11% 8.6%
Nuclear 5.5% 3% 0.80%
Hydro 6.4% 5.3% 6%
Oil & Gas Imports 3245 1097 129
(US$ 76 billion)
Growth in Energy (10 yrs)
Total Primary Energy
2.1% 4.1% 4.8%
Natural Gas 2.5% 6.5% 6.6%
12
India – A Fast Growing Energy Market with Growth in Natural Gas
Consumption more than World & Asia Pacific.
India’s participation in the Shale Gas industry in
the US
 RIL has made big investments (US$ 3.5 billion) in the Marcellus and Eagle Ford
shales through joint ventures with Chevron, Carrizo, and Pioneer. Marcellus has
been described as the largest discovered unconventional gas field in the US and
one of the largest worldwide, with estimated net recoverable resources of 318
trillion cubic feet (tcf). (In comparison, the resources in RIL’s own D6 fields in the
KG Basin were estimated to hold around 3.4 tcf in November 2012, dropping from
10.3 tcf in December 2006).
 RIL’s revenues from the shale gas business more than doubled to US$ 545 million in
2012 compared to 2011. RIL views its investment as a profitable proposition and
not necessarily at gaining technology and experience to explore for shale gas in
India.
 Oil India Limited (OIL), Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), and GAIL India Limited have
also made investments in shale gas production in the US.
13
• The other interesting contribution to shale gas
development in the US is the export of guar
gum from India, which helps in improving the
viscosity and flow of water in the fracking
process.
• The gum is extracted from guar ki phalli,
grown mainly by farmers in arid lands in
Rajasthan and Haryana.
• Its use in shale gas extraction, its production
has risen enormously, earning almost US$ 5
billion during the period from April 2012 to Jan
2013.
India’s participation in the shale gas industry
in the US
14
Importance of Shale Gas
1%
10%
46%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
50%
2000 2010 2035
%ShaleGasuse
Contribution of Shale Gas in the production of
Natural Gas in US
• Shale gas has become an
increasingly important source of
natural gas in the United States.
• U.S. government's Energy Info.
Administration predicts that by
2035, 46% of the United States'
natural gas supply will come from
shale gas.
15
Supporting Evidence
 Plentiful
 Cleaner than other fossil fuels
 Economy
16
 Low maintenance costs
 Environment friendly
 Speedy creation of Infrastructure
 Most critics support the production of natural gas from Shale.
 Analysts expect shale gas will greatly expand worldwide energy supply.
 Unconventional gas production is expected to rise from 42% in 2007 to 64% in
2010.
 There is enough shale gas to support the U.S. gas needs for 90 years.
 According to a recent report by the IEA2 , the rapid development of
‘unconventional’ natural gas resources, most notably shale gas, could herald
a golden age for gas’ with demand surpassing that for coal by 2030, and by
2035 natural gas could account for 25% of all global energy use.
17
Concerns
 Shale Gas- Earthquake:
 The possible link between fracking for
shale gas and small earthquakes has
triggered considerable concern, two
small earthquakes in April and May 2011
in the Blackpool area (2.3 and 1.5
respectively on the Richter Scale)
18
 Contamination of drinking
water:
 Contamination of drinking water
sources either by chemicals used
in fracking fluids and/or by
methane escape as a result of
the fracking process itself
Pros and Cons of Shale Gas
 Pros: Under our toes, a wealth of gas exists that burns clean and could wean the U.S. off
energy dependence. But getting to it is a bit tricky.
 The Obama administration believes that increased shale gas development will help reduce
greenhouse gas emissions. In 2012, US carbon dioxide emissions dropped to a 20-year low.
Human and public health will both benefit from shale gas displacing coal burning.
 Cons:
 First of all, it's 5,000 feet below ground.
 To get a hold of it requires pumping hydraulic fracturing (fracking) fluids, which could
contain hazardous chemicals, into the ground along with water and sand at high pressures.
 The result is "a super-salty brine, prone to bacterial growth, and potentially contaminated
with heavy metals," the National Geographic wrote in its series on shale gas.
19
Conclusion
 Enough unconventional Reservoir exist in the country.
 Unconventional Reservoirs are required to be evaluated by collection of more
data by initiating Pilot Projects in Shale Gas as earliest as possible.
 Exploration blocks may be awarded for unconventional reservoirs.
 Economically, Projects in Shale Gas looks viable.
 There is a need to undertake more extensive exploration and appraisal
activities to better assess the commercial viability of shale gas
20
References
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shale_gas
 Facts About Shale Gas - American Petroleum Institute
 Likely to be Country’s key Fuel over next 50 years by Chowdhury Sabir Ahmed
M.Sc. (2nd Semester) Department of Geology
 http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/ongc-finds-maiden-shale-gas-
reserves-in-india/123723/on
 http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-01-26/india-
business/28380148_1_shale-gas-damodar-basin-gas-source
 Report on Shale Gas by The Energy and Resources Institute Policy brief June 2013
 Live Mint E-paper April, 2013-ONGC begins shale gas exploration in India by live
mint E paper on April 2013
 The Times of India, 26 January 2011, article
21
22
Thank You for your valuable time
23
Questions??

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Shale gas by sanyam jain

  • 1. Submitted To Submitted By Dr. Leela Manohar SANYAM JAIN Dr. Tapas Palai Roll No: 13759 Submission Date: 5 April 2016 National Institute of Technology Hamirpur H.P. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Presentation on Shale Gas 1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. Content  What is Shale Gas?  How Shale is formed?  How Shale Gas is formed?  History  Shale Gas Potential  Shale Gas in India  India’s participation in the Shale Gas industry in the US  Importance of Shale Gas  Supporting Evidence  The people’s view  Concerns  Pros & Cons  Conclusion  References 3
  • 4.  Natural gas  Unconventional  Found in certain types of shale  2,000-7,000 feet deep  Low permeability  Confined in fractures within the shale itself  Reserves higher than Oil  Enhanced Global Availability 4
  • 5. How is Shale formed?  Shale is formed from muddy sediments deposited in seas millions of years ago  As these sediments were buried, they were heated and turned into rock and the organic matter was converted into oil or gas  These rocks are often the source rocks for conventional oil and gas fields but have low permeability so it is difficult to extract oil or gas from them directly 5 Organic rich shale at the ground surface
  • 6. How is shale gas formed? 6 Source: Geologic Time 1. Which geologic event took place first and when? • Shale is sandwiched between two thick, black fine-grained shale deposits • Continued pressure from burial forces most of the natural gas to migrate from the organic shales into sandstone and limestone forming conventional reservoirs. • The natural gas remaining in the shales is termed shale gas.
  • 7. Shale Gas Formation  Natural gas in shales has, essentially, formed from the remains of plants, animals, and microorganisms that lived millions of years ago.  Though there are different theories on the origins of fossil fuels, the most widely accepted is that they are formed when organic matter (such as the remains of a plant or animal) is buried, compressed and heated in the earth’s crust for long time.  In the case of natural gas, this is referred to as thermogenic methane generation. 7
  • 8. 1821 – First US commercial natural gas well in Fredonia, NY, produces natural gas from shale; After 160 years of development and experi 1980s – Department of Energy spearheads research in micro seismic and other 3-dimensional mapping techniques that proved critical to shale gas recovery; 2000s – natural gas holds steady in United States with the highest annual increase in production of any energy technology – modern natural gas boom When it began? 8
  • 9. Presence of Shale Gas worldwide 9
  • 10.  North America is currently the most profitable shale gas producer.  Worldwide development of shale gas plays are expected to develop, especially in Europe and Asia.  Shale gas contributes an 11% rise in natural gas in the U.S.  Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale contains about 500 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.  China is estimated to have the world's largest shale gas reserves. 10
  • 11. ONGC finds country's first-ever shale gas reserve in West Bengal  India's biggest energy explorer ONGC has discovered the country's first shale gas reserve at Durgapur in Burdwan district of West Bengal.  The gas reserve - spread over 12,000 square km in the Durgapur-Ranigunj area - is the world's third shale gas find.  According to ONGC estimates, India's shale gas reserves range between 600 and 2,000 trillion cubic feet.  "The successful pilot testing of first-ever shale gas on surface will put India on shale gas map of the world. It has opened up new hopes for meeting our energy needs and encouraged to venture into many shale sequences" 11 Shale Gas in INDIA
  • 12. INDIAN ENERGY SECTOR : AN OVERVIEW World Asia Pacific India Energy Consumption 11294.9 3981 433 5th Largest Energy Consumer Energy Mix (%) Coal 29% 51% 53% Oil 35% 29% 31% Natural gas 24% 11% 8.6% Nuclear 5.5% 3% 0.80% Hydro 6.4% 5.3% 6% Oil & Gas Imports 3245 1097 129 (US$ 76 billion) Growth in Energy (10 yrs) Total Primary Energy 2.1% 4.1% 4.8% Natural Gas 2.5% 6.5% 6.6% 12 India – A Fast Growing Energy Market with Growth in Natural Gas Consumption more than World & Asia Pacific.
  • 13. India’s participation in the Shale Gas industry in the US  RIL has made big investments (US$ 3.5 billion) in the Marcellus and Eagle Ford shales through joint ventures with Chevron, Carrizo, and Pioneer. Marcellus has been described as the largest discovered unconventional gas field in the US and one of the largest worldwide, with estimated net recoverable resources of 318 trillion cubic feet (tcf). (In comparison, the resources in RIL’s own D6 fields in the KG Basin were estimated to hold around 3.4 tcf in November 2012, dropping from 10.3 tcf in December 2006).  RIL’s revenues from the shale gas business more than doubled to US$ 545 million in 2012 compared to 2011. RIL views its investment as a profitable proposition and not necessarily at gaining technology and experience to explore for shale gas in India.  Oil India Limited (OIL), Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), and GAIL India Limited have also made investments in shale gas production in the US. 13
  • 14. • The other interesting contribution to shale gas development in the US is the export of guar gum from India, which helps in improving the viscosity and flow of water in the fracking process. • The gum is extracted from guar ki phalli, grown mainly by farmers in arid lands in Rajasthan and Haryana. • Its use in shale gas extraction, its production has risen enormously, earning almost US$ 5 billion during the period from April 2012 to Jan 2013. India’s participation in the shale gas industry in the US 14
  • 15. Importance of Shale Gas 1% 10% 46% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 2000 2010 2035 %ShaleGasuse Contribution of Shale Gas in the production of Natural Gas in US • Shale gas has become an increasingly important source of natural gas in the United States. • U.S. government's Energy Info. Administration predicts that by 2035, 46% of the United States' natural gas supply will come from shale gas. 15
  • 16. Supporting Evidence  Plentiful  Cleaner than other fossil fuels  Economy 16  Low maintenance costs  Environment friendly  Speedy creation of Infrastructure
  • 17.  Most critics support the production of natural gas from Shale.  Analysts expect shale gas will greatly expand worldwide energy supply.  Unconventional gas production is expected to rise from 42% in 2007 to 64% in 2010.  There is enough shale gas to support the U.S. gas needs for 90 years.  According to a recent report by the IEA2 , the rapid development of ‘unconventional’ natural gas resources, most notably shale gas, could herald a golden age for gas’ with demand surpassing that for coal by 2030, and by 2035 natural gas could account for 25% of all global energy use. 17
  • 18. Concerns  Shale Gas- Earthquake:  The possible link between fracking for shale gas and small earthquakes has triggered considerable concern, two small earthquakes in April and May 2011 in the Blackpool area (2.3 and 1.5 respectively on the Richter Scale) 18  Contamination of drinking water:  Contamination of drinking water sources either by chemicals used in fracking fluids and/or by methane escape as a result of the fracking process itself
  • 19. Pros and Cons of Shale Gas  Pros: Under our toes, a wealth of gas exists that burns clean and could wean the U.S. off energy dependence. But getting to it is a bit tricky.  The Obama administration believes that increased shale gas development will help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In 2012, US carbon dioxide emissions dropped to a 20-year low. Human and public health will both benefit from shale gas displacing coal burning.  Cons:  First of all, it's 5,000 feet below ground.  To get a hold of it requires pumping hydraulic fracturing (fracking) fluids, which could contain hazardous chemicals, into the ground along with water and sand at high pressures.  The result is "a super-salty brine, prone to bacterial growth, and potentially contaminated with heavy metals," the National Geographic wrote in its series on shale gas. 19
  • 20. Conclusion  Enough unconventional Reservoir exist in the country.  Unconventional Reservoirs are required to be evaluated by collection of more data by initiating Pilot Projects in Shale Gas as earliest as possible.  Exploration blocks may be awarded for unconventional reservoirs.  Economically, Projects in Shale Gas looks viable.  There is a need to undertake more extensive exploration and appraisal activities to better assess the commercial viability of shale gas 20
  • 21. References  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shale_gas  Facts About Shale Gas - American Petroleum Institute  Likely to be Country’s key Fuel over next 50 years by Chowdhury Sabir Ahmed M.Sc. (2nd Semester) Department of Geology  http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/ongc-finds-maiden-shale-gas- reserves-in-india/123723/on  http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-01-26/india- business/28380148_1_shale-gas-damodar-basin-gas-source  Report on Shale Gas by The Energy and Resources Institute Policy brief June 2013  Live Mint E-paper April, 2013-ONGC begins shale gas exploration in India by live mint E paper on April 2013  The Times of India, 26 January 2011, article 21
  • 22. 22 Thank You for your valuable time