Early Modern Art

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Early Modern Art

  1. 1. Early Modern Art Europe and America, 1900 to 1945Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 13e Chapter 35 1
  2. 2. Colonial Empires About 1900 2
  3. 3. Goals• Understand the impact of war and economic instability as catalysts for change in art.• Understand the development of Modernism in the early 20th century.• Understand the rejection of representational art and pictorial illusionism in favor of abstraction and spatial distortion.• Define primitivism and explain why it appealed to modern European artists• Recall major artistic movements, their stylistic features, and the goals/objectives behind these movements• Understand the chronological placement of artistic movements and how some movements influenced others• Recognize important artists and works of art of the early 20th century 3
  4. 4. 35.1 Europe, 1900 to 1920• Understand the evolution of Modernism and the growth of the avant-garde in the early 20th century.• Examine the color and space issues of Fauvism.• Examine the styles of the German Expressionists – Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter.• Define primitivism and comprehend its affect on certain 20th century artists• Understand the evolution of Cubism and differentiate between Analytic Cubism and Synthetic Cubism 4
  5. 5. The Art of the Fauves• Explore the Fauves’ interest in color and in the altering of space.• Recall that the art of the Fauves first gained attention at the Salon d’Automne of 1905• Recall that Henri Matisse and Andre Derain were Fauvists 5
  6. 6. HENRI MATISSE, Woman with the Hat, 1905.Oil on canvas, 2’ 7 ¾” X 1’ 11 ½”. SanFrancisco Museum of Modern Art., SanFrancisco (bequest of Elise S. Haas). 6
  7. 7. HENRI MATISSE, Le Bonheur de Vivre (The Joy of Life), 1905–1906. Oil on canvas, 5’ 8 1/2" X 7’ 9 3/4”.The Barnes Foundation, Merion. 7
  8. 8. HENRI MATISSE, Red Room (Harmony in Red), 1908–1909. Oil on canvas, 5’ 11” x 8’ 1”.State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg. 8
  9. 9. ANDRÉ DERAIN, The Dance, 1906. Oil on canvas, 6’ 7/8” x 6’ 10 1/4”. Fridart Foundation, London. 9
  10. 10. ANDRÉ DERAIN, Mountains at Collioure, 1905. Oil on canvas, 2’ 8" X 3’ 3 1/2”. National Gallery of Art,Washington, D.C. (John Hay Whitney Collection). 10
  11. 11. The German Expressionists• Examine the styles of the German Expressionists, especially Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter.• Analyze the use of line, color, space, and emotion in the work of the German Expressionists.• Understand the various influences on the work of the German Expressionists. 11
  12. 12. ERNST LUDWIG KIRCHNER, Street, Dresden, 1908 (dated 1907). Oil on canvas, 4’ 11 1/4” x 6’ 6 7/8”.Museum of Modern Art, New York. 12
  13. 13. EMIL NOLDE, Saint Mary of Egypt among Sinners, 1912. Left panel of a triptych, oil on canvas,approx. 2’ 10” x 3’ 3”. Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg. 13
  14. 14. EMIL NOLDE, Masks, 1911. Oil on canvas, 2’ 4 3/4" X 2’ 6 1/2”.Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City (gift of the Friends of Art). 14
  15. 15. VASSILY KANDINSKY, Improvisation 28 (second version), 1912. Oil on canvas, 3’ 7 7/8” x 5’ 3 7/8”.Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (gift of Solomon R. Guggenheim, 1937). 15
  16. 16. FRANZ MARC, Fate of the Animals, 1913. Oil on canvas, 6’ 4 3/4” x 8’ 9 1/2”. Kunstmuseum, Basel. 16
  17. 17. Evolution of Cubism• Understand Pablo Picasso’s development as an artist up to the seminal works that preceded his Cubist work• Identify Gertrude Stein and her contributions to avant-garde artists like Picasso and Matisse• Realize that Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque collaborated in the development of Cubism• Understand primitivism and recognize its influence on Picasso• Analyze Cubist use of line and shape as well as space and color• Differentiate between Analytic and Synthetic Cubism• Recognize other Cubist artists including Cubist sculptors• Understand the meaning of Purism 17
  18. 18. PABLO PICASSO, Gertrude Stein, 1906–1907. Oil on canvas, 3’ 3 3/8” x 2’ 8”.Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York(bequest of Gertrude Stein, 1947). 18
  19. 19. PABLO PICASSO, Family of Saltimbanques, 1905. Oil on canvas, 6’ 11 3/4" X 7’ 6 3/8”.National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (Chester Dale Collection). 19
  20. 20. PABLO PICASSO, LesDemoiselles d’Avignon, 1907.Oil on canvas, 8’ x 7’ 8”.Museum of Modern Art,New York (acquiredthrough the Lillie P. BlissBequest). 20
  21. 21. Frank Gelett Burgess, Pablo Picasso in his studio, Paris, France, 1908. Collection of the Musee Picasso, Paris. 21
  22. 22. GEORGES BRAQUE, The Portuguese, 1911. Oil oncanvas, 3’ 10 1/8” x 2’ 8”. Kunstmuseum, Basel (giftof Raoul La Roche, 1952). 22
  23. 23. ROBERT DELAUNAY, Champs de Mars orThe Red Tower, 1911. Oil on canvas, 5’ 3” x 4’3”. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago. 23
  24. 24. PABLO PICASSO, Still Life with Chair-Caning, 1912. Oil and oilcloth on canvas, 10 5/8” x 1’ 1 3/4”. Musée Picasso, Paris. 24
  25. 25. GEORGES BRAQUE, Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass, 1913. Charcoal and various papers pasted on paper,1’ 6 7/8” x 2’ 1 1/4”. Private collection, New York. 25
  26. 26. PABLO PICASSO, maquette for Guitar,1912. Cardboard, string, and wire(restored), 1’ 1 1/4” x 1” x 7 1/2”.Museum of Modern Art, New York. 26
  27. 27. PABLO PICASSO, Three Musicians, 1921. Oil on canvas, 6’ 7" X 7’ 3 3/4”.Museum of Modern Art, New York (Mrs. Simon Guggenheim Fund). 27
  28. 28. PABLO PICASSO, Guernica, 1937. Oil on canvas, 11’ 5 1/2” x 25’ 5 3/4”. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid. 28
  29. 29. JACQUES LIPCHITZ, Bather, 1917. Bronze, 2’ 10 3/4” x 1’ 1 1/4” x 1’ 1”.Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City (gift of the Friends of Art). 29
  30. 30. ALEKSANDR ARCHIPENKO, Woman Combing Her Hair, 1915. Bronze, 1’ 1 3/4” x3 1/4” x 3 1/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (acquired through the Lillie P.Bliss Bequest). 30
  31. 31. JULIO GONZÁLEZ, Woman Combing Her Hair, ca. 1936.Iron, 4’ 4” x 1’ 11 1/2” x 2’ 5/8”. Museum of ModernArt, New York (Mrs. Simon Guggenheim Fund). 31
  32. 32. FERNAND LÉGER, The City, 1919. Oil on canvas, 7’ 7” x 9’ 9 1/2”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (A. E.Gallatin Collection). 32
  33. 33. FERNAND LÉGER, Three Women (Le Grand Déjeuner), 1921. Oil on canvas, 6’ 1/4" X 8’ 3”.Museum of Modern Art, New York (Mrs. Simon Guggenheim Fund). 33
  34. 34. Futurism• Explain the goals/objectives of the Futurists• Identify Futurist artists• Analyze Futurist works of art in terms of line, color, and space• Make comparisons between Futurism and other artistic movements• Understand the chronological placement of Futurism 34
  35. 35. GIACOMO BALLA, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912. Oil on canvas, 2’ 11 3/8” x 3’ 7 1/4”. Albright-KnoxArt Gallery, Buffalo, New York (bequest of A. Conger Goodyear, gift of George F. Goodyear, 1964). 35
  36. 36. UMBERTO BOCCIONI, Unique Forms ofContinuity in Space, 1913 (cast 1931).Bronze, 3’ 7 7/8” x 2’ 10 7/8” x 1’ 33/4”. Museum of Modern Art, New York(acquired through the Lillie P. BlissBequest). 36
  37. 37. GINO SEVERINI, Armored Train, 1915.Oil on canvas, 3’ 10” x 2’ 10 1/8”.Collection of Richard S. Zeisler, New York. 37
  38. 38. Dada• Understand the influence of the Dada movement with its emphasis on spontaneity and intuition.• Understand the issues of anarchy and chance as they apply to form and content in visual art.• Recognize the rejection of convention in Dada and its reaction to world events.• Appreciate the impact of Dada on the development of 20th and 21st century art• Identify Dada artists 38
  39. 39. JEAN (HANS) ARP, Collage Arranged According to theLaws of Chance, 1916–1917.Torn and pasted paper, 1’ 7 1/8” x 1’ 1 5/8”.Museum of Modern Art, New York. 39
  40. 40. Figure 35-27 MARCEL DUCHAMP, Fountain, (second version), 1950 (original version produced 1917). Readymadeglazed sanitary china with black paint, 1’ high. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. 40
  41. 41. 35-27A MARCEL DUCHAMP, L.H.O.O.Q., 1919.Pencil on paper color reproduction of Leonardo daVinci’s Mona Lisa (FIG. 22-5), 7 3/4" X 4 7/8”.Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (Louise andWalter Arensberg Collection). 41
  42. 42. Figure 35-28 MARCEL DUCHAMP, The Bride StrippedBare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass), 1915-23. Oil,lead, wire, foil, dust, and varnish on glass, 9’ 1 1/2” x 5’ 91/8”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (KatherineS. Dreier Bequest). 42
  43. 43. Figure 35-29 HANNAH HÖCH, Cut withthe Kitchen Knife Dada through the Last WeimarBeer Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany, 1919–1920. Photomontage, 3’ 9” x 2’ 11 1/2”.Neue Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zuBerlin, Berlin. 43
  44. 44. Figure 35-30 KURT SCHWITTERS, Merz19, 1920. Paper collage, 7 1/4” x 5 7/8”. YaleUniversity Art Gallery, New Haven, (gift ofCollection Société Anonyme). 44
  45. 45. 35.2 America, 1900 to 1930• Understand the gradual development of modernist art in America• Understand the significance of the Armory Show of 1913• Recognize the work of major American artists of the first half of the 20th century and describe their artistic goals/objectives• Examine the diverse artistic techniques, media, and approaches to line, color, and space taken by these American artists 45
  46. 46. Figure 35-31 JOHN SLOAN, Sixth Avenue and Thirtieth Street, New York City, 1907, 1909. Oil on canvas, 2’ 1/4” x 2’ 8”.Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (gift of Meyer P. Potamkin and Vivian O. Potamkin, 2000). 46
  47. 47. The Remarkable Armory Show• Examine the art and artists of the influential Armory Show. 47
  48. 48. Figure 35-32 Installation photo of the Armory Show, New York National Guard’s 69th Regiment, New York, 1913.Museum of Modern Art, New York. 48
  49. 49. Figure 35-1 MARCEL DUCHAMP, Nude Descending aStaircase, No. 2, 1912. Oil on canvas, 4’ 10 “x 2’ 11”.Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (Louise and WalterArensberg Collection). 49
  50. 50. Figure 35-39 ALFRED STIEGLITZ, TheSteerage, 1907 (print 1915). Photogravure(on tissue), 1’ 3/8” x 10 1/8”. Courtesy ofAmon Carter Museum, Fort Worth. 50
  51. 51. 35-39A ALFRED STIEGLITZ,Equivalent, 1923. Gelatin silver print, 45/8" X 3 5/8”. Art Institute of Chicago,Chicago (Alfred Stieglitz Collection). 51
  52. 52. Figure 35-40 EDWARD WESTON, Nude, 1925. Platinum print, 7 1/2” x 9 1/2”. Center for Creative Photography,University of Arizona, Tucson. 52
  53. 53. 35-40A EDWARD WESTON, PepperNo. 30, 1930. Gelatin silver print, 9 1/2"X 7 1/2”. Yale University Art Gallery,New Haven (gift of David H. McAlpin). 53
  54. 54. American Art Forms• Examine the distinctive American art forms seem in photography, art of the Harlem Renaissance, and precisionist forms of Cubism. 54
  55. 55. Figure 35-33 MAN RAY, Cadeau (Gift), ca. 1958(replica of 1921 original). Painted flatiron with rowof 13 tacks with heads glued to the bottom, 6 1/8”x 3 5/8” x 4 1/2”. Museum of Modern Art, NewYork (James Thrall Soby Fund). 55
  56. 56. Figure 35-34 MARSDEN HARTLEY, Portrait of a GermanOfficer, 1914. Oil on canvas, 5 8 1/4” x 3 5 3/8”.Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Alfred StieglitzCollection). 56
  57. 57. 35-34A ARTHUR DOVE, Nature Symbolized No. 2, ca. 1911. Pastel on paper, 1’ 6" X 1’ 9 5/8”. Art Institute of Chicago,Chicago (Alfred Stieglitz Collection). 57
  58. 58. Figure 35-35 STUART DAVIS, Lucky Strike, 1921. Oil on canvas,2’ 9 1/4” x 1’ 6”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of TheAmerican Tobacco Company, Inc.). Art © Estate of StuartDavis/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. 58
  59. 59. Figure 35-36 AARON DOUGLAS, Noah’s Ark,ca. 1927. Oil on masonite, 4’ x 3’. Fisk UniversityGalleries, University of Tennessee, Nashville. 59
  60. 60. 35-36A AARON DOUGLAS, From Slavery through Reconstruction, from Aspects of Negro Life, 1934. Oil on canvas, 5’ X 11’ 7”.Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library, New York. 60
  61. 61. Figure 35-37 CHARLES DEMUTH,My Egypt, 1927. Oil on compositionboard, 2’ 11 3/4” x 2’ 6”. Collection ofWhitney Museum of American Art, NewYork (purchased with funds fromGertrude Vanderbilt Whitney). 61
  62. 62. Figure 35-38 GEORGIA O’KEEFFE, New York, Night, 1929. Oil oncanvas, 3’ 4 1/8” x 1’ 7 1/8”. Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, Lincoln,(Nebraska Art Association, Thomas C. Woods Memorial Collection). 62
  63. 63. 35.3 Europe, 1920 to 1945• Understand the intense realistic post-war expressionism of German artists.• Understand the European post-war malaise and the importance of cathartic subject matter in Expressionist art.• Examine the origins, development, methods and content of Surrealism and Fantasy art. 63
  64. 64. Post-war Expressionism• Understand the post-war expressionism of German artists. 64
  65. 65. Figure 35-42 GEORGEGROSZ, Fit for Active Service,1916–1917. Pen and brush andink on paper, 1’ 8” x 1’ 2 3/8”.Museum of Modern Art, NewYork (gift of the AmericanTobacco Company, Inc.). Art© Estate of GeorgeGrosz/Licensed by VAGA,New York. 65
  66. 66. Figure 35-43 MAX BECKMANN, Night, 1918–1919. Oil on canvas, 4’ 4 3/8” x 5’ 1/4”. Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf. 66
  67. 67. Figure 35-44 OTTO DIX, Der Krieg (The War), 1929–1932. Oil and tempera on wood, 6’ 8 1/3” x 13’ 4 3/4”. StaatlicheKunstsammlungen, Gemäldegalerie Neue Meister, Dresden. 67
  68. 68. Figure 35-9 KATHE KOLLWITZ, Woman with Dead Child, 1903. Etching and soft-ground etching,overprinted lithographically with a gold tone plate, 1’ 4 5/8” X 1’ 7 1/8”. British Museum, London. 68
  69. 69. 35-9A PAULA MODERSOHN-BECKER, Self-Portrait with Amber Necklace, 1906. Oil on canvas, 2’ X 1’ 7 3/4”. Kunstmuseum Basel, Basel. 69
  70. 70. Figure 35-10 WILHELM LEHMBRUCK, Seated Youth, 1917. Composite tinted plaster, 3’ 4 5/8” x 2’ 6” x 3’ 9”. NationalGallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (Andrew W. Mellon Fund). 70
  71. 71. 35-10A EGON SCHIELE, Nude Self-Portrait,Grimacing, 1910. Gouache, watercolor, and pencil onpaper, 1’ 10” X 1’ 2 3/8”. Albertina, Vienna. 71
  72. 72. Figure 35-45 ERNST BARLACH, War Monument,Cathedral, Güstrow, Germany, 1927. Bronze. 72
  73. 73. Surrealism• Examine the development, methods and content of Surrealism.• Identify Surrealist artists.• Realize that the Surrealists were influenced by Dada 73
  74. 74. Figure 35-46 GIORGIO DECHIRICO, Melancholy and Mystery of aStreet, 1914. Oil on canvas, 2’ 10 1/4” x 2’4 1/2”. Private collection. 74
  75. 75. Figure 35-47 MAX ERNST, TwoChildren Are Threatened by aNightingale, 1924. Oil on wood withwood construction, 2’ 3 1/2” x 1’ 101/2” x 4 1/2”. Museum of ModernArt, New York. 75
  76. 76. Figure 35-48 Adolf Hitler, accompanied by Nazi commission members, viewing the Entartete Kunst show onJuly 16, 1937. 76
  77. 77. Figure 35-49 SALVADOR DALÍ, The Persistence of Memory, 1931. Oil on canvas, 9 1/2” x 1’ 1”. Museum of Modern Art,New York. 77
  78. 78. Figure 35-50 RENÉ MAGRITTE, The Treachery (or Perfidy) of Images, 1928–1929. Oil on canvas, 1’ 11 5/8” x 3’ 1”. LosAngeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles (purchased with funds provided by the Mr. and Mrs. William PrestonHarrison Collection). 78
  79. 79. 35-50A RENÉ MAGRITTE, The False Mirror, 1928. Oil on canvas, 1’ 9 1/4" X 2’ 7 7/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 79
  80. 80. Figure 35-51 MERET OPPENHEIM, Object (Le Déjeuner en fourrure), 1936. Fur-covered cup, 4 3/8” diameter; saucer, 93/8” diameter; spoon, 8” long. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 80
  81. 81. Figure 35-52 JOAN MIRÓ, Painting, 1933. 5’ 8” x 6’ 5”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (Loula D. Lasker Bequest byexchange). 81
  82. 82. Figure 35-53 PAUL KLEE, Twittering Machine,1922. Watercolor and pen and ink, on oil transferdrawing on paper, mounted on cardboard, 2’ 1” x1’ 7”. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 82
  83. 83. The Utopian Styles• Examine the forms and utopian notions in Suprematism, Constructivism, and in De Stijl. 83
  84. 84. Figure 35-54 KAZIMIRMALEVICH, Suprematist Composition:Airplane Flying, 1915 (dated 1914). Oilon canvas, 1’ 10 7/8” x 1’ 7”. Museumof Modern Art, New York. 84
  85. 85. 35-54A LYUBOV POPOVA, ArchitectonicPainting, 1916–1917. Oil on canvas, 5’ 2 5/8” X4’ 1 1/4". Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. 85
  86. 86. Figure 35-55 NAUM GABO, Column, ca. 1923(reconstructed 1937). Perspex, wood, metal, glass, 3’ 5” x2’ 5” x 2’ 5”. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, NewYork. 86
  87. 87. Figure 35-56 PIET MONDRIAN, Composition in Red, Blue, and Yellow, 1937-1942. Oil on canvas, 1’ 11 ¾” X1’ 9 7/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York. © 2008 Mondrian/Holtzman Trust c/o HCR International,Warrenton, VA, USA. 87
  88. 88. Figure 35-57 CONSTANTIN BRANCUSI, Bird in Space, 1928. Bronze,4’ 2 5/16” high. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (Louise andWalter Arensberg Collection, 1950). 88
  89. 89. 35-57A CONSTANTIN BRANCUSI, The Newborn, 1915. Marble, 5 3/4" X 8 1/4” X 5 7/8”. Philadelphia Museum of Art,Philadelphia (Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection). 89
  90. 90. Figure 35-58 BARBARA HEPWORTH, Oval Sculpture (No. 2), 1943. Plaster cast, 11 1/4” x 16 1/4” x 10”. Tate Gallery,London. 90
  91. 91. Figure 35-59 HENRY MOORE, Reclining Figure, 1939. Elm wood, 3’ 1” x 6’ 7” x 2’ 6”. Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit(Founders Society purchase with funds from the Dexter M. Ferry, Jr. Trustee Corporation). 91
  92. 92. Figure 35-60 VERA MUKHINA, The Worker and theCollective Farm Worker. Soviet Pavilion, Paris Exposition,1937. Stainless steel, 78 high. Art © Estate of VeraMukhina/RAO, Moscow/VAGA, New York. 92
  93. 93. 35.4 America, 1930 to 1945• Understand issues of rebellion and the depiction of social injustice in art.• Recognize that American artists had different goals in their art and these goals affected the formal qualities of their work• Examine the art of the Depression, the depiction of displaced workers, poverty and urban isolation, along with the beginnings of government support for art in the WPA programs.• Examine the political content and form of art resulting from African American migration in the United States.• Understand the themes of Regionalism in American art. 93
  94. 94. Figure 35-61 ALEXANDER CALDER, Lobster Trap and Fish Tail, 1939. Painted sheet aluminum and steelwire. 8’ 6” X 9’ 6”. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 94
  95. 95. Figure 35-62 DOROTHEA LANGE,Migrant Mother, Nipomo Valley, 1935. Gelatinsilver print. 1’ 1” x 9”. Oakland Museumof California, Oakland (gift of PaulS.Taylor) 95
  96. 96. 35-62A MARGARET BOURKE-WHITE, Fort Peck Dam, Montana, 1936. Gelatin silver print, 1’ 1" X 10 1/2”. MetropolitanMuseum of Art, New York (gift of Ford Motor Company and John C. Waddell, 1987). 96
  97. 97. Figure 35-63 EDWARD HOPPER, Nighthawks, 1942. Oil on canvas, 2’ 6” x 4’ 8 11/16”. The Art Institute of Chicago,Chicago (Friends of American Art Collection). 97
  98. 98. Figure 35-64 JACOB LAWRENCE, No. 49 from TheMigration of the Negro, 1940–1941. Tempera on masonite,1’ 6” x 1’. The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C. 98
  99. 99. Documenting Lives in Art• Examine the political content of art resulting from African American migration along with the themes of Regionalism. 99
  100. 100. Figure 35-65 GRANT WOOD, AmericanGothic, 1930. Oil on beaverboard, 2’ 57/8” x 2’ 7/8”. Art Institute of Chicago,Chicago (Friends of American ArtCollection). Art © Estate of GrantWood/Licensed by VAGA, New York. 100
  101. 101. Figure 35-66 THOMAS HART BENTON, Pioneer Days and Early Settlers, State Capitol, Jefferson City, Missouri, 1936.Mural. Art © T. H. Benton and R. P. Benton Testamentary Trusts/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. 101
  102. 102. 20th Century Mexican Artists• Examine the art of the Mexican painters along with their mediums, techniques, and methods.• Understand how Mexican artists incorporated political statements into their work through their choice of subject matter and formal elements 102
  103. 103. Figure 35-67 JOSÉ CLEMENTE OROZCO, Epic of American Civilization: Hispano-America (panel 16), Baker MemorialLibrary, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, ca. 1932–1934. Fresco. Copyright © Orozco ValladaresFamily/SOMAAP, Mexico/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. 103
  104. 104. 35-67A RUFINO TAMAYO, Friend of the Birds, 1944. Oil on canvas, 2’ 8 1/2" X 3’ 7 1/2". Los Angeles County Museum of Art,Los Angeles (Bernard and Edith Lewis Collection of Mexican Art). 104
  105. 105. Figure 35-68 DIEGO RIVERA, Ancient Mexico, from the History of Mexico fresco, National Palace, Mexico City, 1929–1935. Fresco. 105
  106. 106. Figure 35-69 FRIDAKAHLO, The TwoFridas, 1939. Oil oncanvas, 5’ 7” x 5’ 7”.Museo de ArteModerno, Mexico City. 106
  107. 107. 35.5 Architecture• Understand variables that affected the development of 20th century architecture such as building materials, political and cultural events, developments in avant-garde art, as well as the personal desire for recognition• Examine the forms of Modernist designs and architecture of the Bauhaus and in the International Style.• Recall the work of famous architects and their goals/objectives 107
  108. 108. New Art for a New Society• Understand the early 20th century belief that art could contribute to improving society.• Examine the International Style in architecture and the concept of modernism in architecture.• Understand the geometric forms of Art Deco and Modern Sculpture.• Understand the desire for natural and organic forms in sculpture and architecture. 108
  109. 109. Figure 35-70 Vladimir Tatlin, Monument to theThird International, 1919–1920. Reconstruction ofthe lost model, 1992–1993. Kunsthalle,Düsseldorf. 109
  110. 110. Figure 35-71 GERRIT THOMAS RIETVELD, Schröder House, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 1924. 110
  111. 111. Figure 35-72 WALTER GROPIUS, Shop Block, the Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, 1925–1926. 111
  112. 112. 35-72A ADOLF LOOS, garden facade of the Steiner House, Vienna, Austria, 1910. 112
  113. 113. Figure 35-73 MARCEL BREUER, Wassily chair, 1925. Chrome-plated tubular steel and canvas, 2’ 41/4” x 2’ 6 3/4” x 2’ 4”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of Herbert Bayer). 113
  114. 114. 35-73A GUNTA STÖLZL, Gobelin tapestry,1927–1928. Cotton, silk, and linen, 4’ 11 1/8” X3’ 7 1/4". Bauhaus-Archiv Museum fürGestaltung, Berlin. 114
  115. 115. Figure 35-74 LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE, model fora glass skyscraper, Berlin, Germany, 1922 (no longer extant). 115
  116. 116. Figure 35-75 LE CORBUSIER, Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, France, 1929. 116
  117. 117. Figure 35-76 WILLIAM VAN ALEN, ChryslerBuilding, New York, New York, 1928–1930. 117
  118. 118. Natural and Organic Forms• Understand the desire for natural and organic forms in sculpture and architecture.• Identify the goals of Frank Lloyd Wright and how they affected his designs 118
  119. 119. Figure 35-77 FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, Robie House, Chicago, Illinois, 1907–1909. 119
  120. 120. Figure 35-78FRANK LLOYDWRIGHT, planof the second(main) level of theRobie House,Chicago, Illinois,1907–1909. 120
  121. 121. Figure 35-79 FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, Kaufmann House (Fallingwater), Bear Run, Pennsylvania, 1936–1939. 121
  122. 122. Discussion Questions What caused artists in the early 20th century to reject observational naturalism in art? How did Cubism influence other art styles in the early 20th century? Why is art a powerful means for the expression of sociopolitical concerns? 122

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