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  • Abstract forms, express particular feelings, that are some forms that are unable to recognize
  • See some animal forms
  • American Art, 1907, use to a very recognizable illusionist genre scene, not realism
  • 20 pics a student revised

    1. 1. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e Chapter 33 The Development of Modernist Art: The Early 20th Century 1
    2. 2. Colonial Empires About 1900 2
    3. 3. Historical Context 1• First half of 20th century generally called Modernism• Decisive changes Events:• Contrasts of ideals• Intellectual challenge 3
    4. 4. Historical Context 2• Revised views• Art reflects new discoveries & theories –• Discoveries• Advances in all science fields• Nietzsche 4
    5. 5. Historical Context 3• Marxism• Anxiety• Living conditions• Nationalism/Imperialism leads to WWI –• End of Imperial Russia, rise of Communism - 5
    6. 6. Historical Context 4• Great Depression• WWII =• Ends using military technology = atomic bomb• Avant-garde became major force =• “Search for new definitions of and uses for art in radically changed world”• Some 6
    7. 7. I. Expressionism “art that is the result of the artist’s unique inner or personal vision and that often has an emotional dimension” “Sought empathy – a connection between internal states of artists and viewers, not sympathy”• color and space issues of• styles of the German Expressionists –• Abstract Expressionism – 7
    8. 8. Kirchner Matisse Kandinsk Die Brücke y (German) Fauvism Der Blaue (French) Reiter (German) Expressionism Derain Marc Abstract Picasso Braque Expressionism Futurism (Italy) Cubism [motion + sociopolitical Agenda] (France) Purism [machine esthetic] Boccioni Analytic Synthetic Le[analyzing form] [no relation to tangible objects] Corbusier 8
    9. 9. The Art of the Fauves• French: “?”• Directness of Impressionism, but• Outward Expressionism –• Simplified designs• Distorted• Vigorous• Flat• Bare _____________ as part of design 9
    10. 10. “Color was not given to us inorder that we should imitateNature, but so that we canexpress our own emotions.”- Matisse“It’s not a woman; it is apainting.” Exactly the point.“I did not create a woman. I madea picture.” Art does not representreality; it reconstructs it.Feel-good paintings – shouldbring pleasure to the viewerFigure 33-1 HENRI MATISSE, Womanwith the Hat, 1905. Oil on canvas, 2’7 ¾” X1’ 11 ½”. San Francisco Museum of ModernArt, San Francisco. 10
    11. 11. Figure 33-2 HENRI MATISSE, Red Room (Harmony in Red), 1908–1909. Oil on canvas, approx.5’ 11” x 8’ 1”. State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg. 11
    12. 12. HENRI MATISSE The Bare Mount 12
    13. 13. HENRI MATISSE The Green Stripe 13
    14. 14. HENRI MATISSE The Joy of Life 14
    15. 15. Figure 33-3 ANDRÉ DERAIN, The Dance, 1906. Oil on canvas, 6’ 7/8” x 6’ 10 1/4”. FridartFoundation, London. 15
    16. 16. The German Expressionists• Art should express the artist feelings rather images of the real world• Use of distorted exaggerated forms, ragged outlines, agitated brushstrokes, and colors for savage, emotional impact• Die Brucke – “bridge”, connecting old and new Kirchner• Der Blaue Reiter – “blue rider” Kandinsky, Klee 16
    17. 17. Die Brucke 17
    18. 18. Figure 33-4 ERNST LUDWIG KIRCHNER, Street, Dresden, 1908 (dated 1907). Oil on canvas, 4’11 1/4” x 6’ 6 7/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (purchase). 18
    19. 19. Figure 33-5 EMIL NOLDE, Saint Mary of Egypt among Sinners, 1912. Left panel of a triptych, oilon canvas, approx. 2’ 10” x 3’ 3”. Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg. 19
    20. 20. Der Blaue Reiter 20
    21. 21. Figure 33-6 VASSILY KANDINSKY, Improvisation 28 (second version), 1912. Oil on canvas, 3’7 7/8” x 5’ 3 7/8”. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York 21
    22. 22. Figure 33-7 FRANZ MARC, Fate of the Animals, 1913. Oil on canvas, 6’ 4 3/4” x 8’ 9 1/2”.Kunstmuseum, Basel. 22
    23. 23. The Beginnings of Abstraction• the rejection of illusion and the develp of early cubism• the Cubists dismissal of naturalistic depictions• the forms and concepts of analytic and synthetic cubism• the materials and forms of cubist sculpture.• other forms of Cubism: purism and futurism 23
    24. 24. Early Cubism• the fragmentation of form and the rejection of illusion in early Cubism 24
    25. 25. • Could draw before he could talk• First word was “pencil”• Blue period – poor period, reflected his life• Rose period – happy subjects, life• Negro period – African influence• Cubism – painting & sculptureFigure 33-8 PABLO PICASSO,Gertrude Stein, 1906–1907. Oil oncanvas, 3’ 3 3/8” x 2’ 8”.Metropolitan Museum of Art, NewYork (bequest of Gertrude Stein,1947). 25
    26. 26. Harbinger ofcubismEffectively endedHazy on anatomyFracturedperspective“I paint what Iknow, not what Isee”Figure 33-9 PABLOPICASSO, LesDemoiselles d’Avignon,June–July 1907. Oil oncanvas, 8’ x 7’ 8”. Museumof Modern Art, New York 26
    27. 27. PABLO PICASSO Guernica, 1937, Reina Sofia Art Center, Madrid 27
    28. 28. The Development of Cubism• the concepts behind analytic and synthetic cubism, and the other forms of cubism in the early 20th century. 28
    29. 29. Analytic Cubism 29
    30. 30. Figure 33-10 GEORGES BRAQUE,The Portuguese, 1911. Oil on canvas, 3’10 1/8” x 2’ 8”. ÖffentlicheKunstsammlung Basel, Kunstmuseum,Basel (gift of Raoul La Roche, 1952). 30
    31. 31. Figure 33-11 ROBERTDELAUNAY, Champs de Marsor The Red Tower, 1911. Oil oncanvas, 5’ 3” x 4’ 3”. Art Instituteof Chicago, Chicago. 31
    32. 32. Synthetic Cubism 32
    33. 33. Figure 33-12 PABLO PICASSO, Still Life with Chair-Caning, 1912. Oil and oilcloth on canvas, 105/8” x 1’ 1 3/4”. Musée Picasso, Paris. 33
    34. 34. Figure 33-13 GEORGES BRAQUE, Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass, 1913. Charcoal andvarious papers pasted on paper, 1’ 6 7/8” x 2’ 1 1/4”. Private collection, New York. 34
    35. 35. Cubist Sculpture 35
    36. 36. Figure 33-14 PABLOPICASSO, Maquette for Guitar,1912. Cardboard, string, and wire(restored), 25 1/4” x 13” x 71/2”. Museum of Modern Art,New York. 36
    37. 37. Figure 33-15 JACQUES LIPCHITZ, Bather, 1917.Bronze, 2’ 10 3/4” x 1’ 1 1/4” x 1’ 1”. Nelson-AtkinsMuseum of Art, Kansas City (gift of the Friends of Art).Copyright © Estate of Jacques Lipchitz/Licensed byVAGA, New York/Marlborough Gallery, NY. 37
    38. 38. Figure 33-16 ALEKSANDR ARCHIPENKO, Woman CombingHer Hair, 1915. Bronze, approx. 1’ 1 3/4” high. Museum ofModern Art, New York (bequest of Lillie P. Bliss). 38
    39. 39. Figure 33-17 JULIO GONZÁLEZ, Woman Combing HerHair, ca. 1930–1933. Iron, 4’ 9” high. Moderna Museet,Stockholm. 39
    40. 40. Purism 40
    41. 41. Figure 33-18 FERNAND LÉGER, The City, 1919. Oil on canvas, approx. 7’ 7” x 9’ 9 1/2”.Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (A. E. Gallatin Collection). 41
    42. 42. Futurism - Italy• Interest similar to Cubists, but with sociopolitical agenda• Wash away with war• Influence of modern technology- cars, etc.• Focuses on movement in time and space, kinetic art 42
    43. 43. Figure 33-19 GIACOMO BALLA, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912. Oil on canvas, 2’ 113/8” x 3’ 7 1/4”. Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York 43
    44. 44. Figure 33-20 UMBERTOBOCCIONI, Unique Forms ofContinuity in Space, 1913 (cast1931). Bronze, 3’ 7 7/8” high x2’ 10 7/8” x 1’ 3 3/4”. Museumof Modern Art, New York 44
    45. 45. Figure 5-82 Nike alighting on a warship (Nike of Samothrace), from Samothrace, Greece, ca. 190BCE. Marble, figure approx. 8’ 1” high. Louvre, Paris. 45
    46. 46. Dada: A State of Mind• Dada emphasizes institution, spontaneity, anarchy and chance as elements in art• Dada rejects artistic convention• Nonsense word, seems nonsensical – protesting insanity of war• Denouncing, shocking, awaken the imagination• “Chance” collage 46
    47. 47. Figure 33-21 GINO SEVERINI,Armored Train, 1915. Oil on canvas,3’ 10” x 2’ 10 1/8”. Collection ofRichard S. Zeisler, New York. 47
    48. 48. Figure 33-22 JEAN ARP, CollageArranged According to the Laws ofChance, 1916–1917. Torn and pastedpaper, 1’ 7 1/8” x 1’ 1 5/8”. Museum ofModern Art, New York (purchase). 48
    49. 49. Figure 33-23 MARCEL DUCHAMP, Fountain, (second version), 1950 (original version produced1917). Ready-made glazed sanitary china with black paint, 12” high. Philadelphia Museum of Art,Philadelphia 49
    50. 50. Figure 33-24 MARCEL DUCHAMP, TheBride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even(The Large Glass), 1915-23. Oil, lead, wire,foil, dust, and varnish on glass, 9’ 1 1/2” x 5’ 91/8”. Philadelphia Museum of Art,Philadelphia (Katherine S. Dreier Bequest). 50
    51. 51. Figure 33-25 HANNAH HÖCH,Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dadathrough the Last Weimar BeerBelly Cultural Epoch of Germany,1919–1920. Photomontage, 3’ 9” x2’ 11 1/2”. Neue Nationalgalerie,Staatliche Museen, Berlin. 51
    52. 52. Figure 33-26 KURTSCHWITTERS, Merz 19, 1920.Paper collage, approx. 7 1/4” x 57/8”. Yale University Art Gallery,New Haven, (gift of CollectionSociété Anonyme). 52
    53. 53. Transatlantic Dialogues• American artists in Europe• Americans grounded in realist tradition before influence of incoming European artists after Armory Show & WWI 53
    54. 54. Figure 33-27 JOHN SLOAN, Sixth Avenue and 30th Street, 1907, 1909. Oil on canvas, 26 1/4” x32”. Private Collection (Mr. And Mrs. Meyer P. Potamkin). 54
    55. 55. Armory Show• European artists came to America to show modern arts – held in the• Matisse, Picasso, Braque, Duchamp. Kandisky, Kirchner, Bruncusi• Showed American public the latest & newest ideas• Traveled to Chicago & Boston also• Stieglitz’s 291 55
    56. 56. Figure 33-28 Installation photo of the Armory Show, New York National Guard’s 69th Regiment,New York, 1913. Courtesy of the Museum of Modern Art, New York. 56
    57. 57. Figure 33-29 MARCEL DUCHAMP, NudeDescending a Staircase, No. 2, 1912. Oil oncanvas, approx. 4’ 10 “x 2’ 11”. PhiladelphiaMuseum of Art, Philadelphia (Louise and WalterArensberg Collection). 57
    58. 58. Photography as Art• Stieglitz – cityscapes• “Unmanipulated” photos – ie unposed• Interest in formal elements of photography• Moves toward abstraction – close ups, reduction of complexity 58
    59. 59. Figure 33-30 ALFREDSTIEGLITZ, The Steerage, 1907(print 1915). Photogravure (ontissue), 1’ 3/8” x 10 1/8”.Courtesy of Amon CarterMuseum, Fort Worth. 59
    60. 60. Figure 33-31 EDWARD WESTON, Nude, 1925. Platinum print. Collection, Center for CreativePhotography, University of Arizona, Tucson. 60
    61. 61. Discussion Questions What caused artists in the early 20th century to reject observational naturalism in art?  61

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