Baroque Art of Northern Europe

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Baroque Art of Northern Europe

  1. 1. N. European Baroque Art 1600 to 1700Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 13e, Chapter 25 1
  2. 2. Europe in the 17th Century 2
  3. 3. Baroque Art Northern Europe• Recognize the distinctive characteristics of the Baroque style in Northern Europe (Holland, France, England)• Understand the diversity of cultures and artistic styles throughout Northern Europe• Identify representative Baroque artists and their works• Identify representative Baroque architects and their works• Recognize and cite artistic terminology from this period 3
  4. 4. PETER PAUL RUBENS, Elevation of the Cross, from Saint Walburga, Antwerp, 1610. Oil on wood, 15’ 1 7/8” x 11’ 1 1/2” (center panel), 15 1 7/8" x 4 11" (each wing). Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp.Rubens has synthesized the styles of three Italian artists, Michelangelo, Tintoretto, and Caravaggio, in his Elevation of the Cross. 4
  5. 5. PETER PAUL RUBENS, Arrival of Marie de’Medici at Marseilles, 1622–1625. Oil on canvas,12’ 11 1/2” x 9’ 7”. Louvre, Paris. 5
  6. 6. PETER PAUL RUBENS, Consequences of War, 1638–1639. Oil on canvas, 6’ 9” x 11’ 3 7/8”. Palazzo Pitti, Florence.. 6
  7. 7. ANTHONY VAN DYCK,Charles I Dismounted, ca. 1635.Oil on canvas, 8’ x 11” x 6’ 11 1/2”.Louvre, Paris. 7
  8. 8. CLARA PEETERS, Still Life with Flowers, Goblet, Dried Fruit, and Pretzels, 1611. Oil on panel, 1’ 7 3/4” x 2’ 1 1/4”.Museo del Prado, Madrid. 8
  9. 9. HENDRICK TER BRUGGHEN, Calling of Saint Matthew, 1621. Oil on canvas, 3’ 4” x 4’ 6”. The Hague. 9
  10. 10. GERRIT VAN HONTHORST, Supper Party, 1620. Oil on canvas, 4’ 8” x 7’. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 10
  11. 11. FRANS HALS, Archers of Saint Hadrian, ca. 1633. Oil on canvas, approx. 6’ 9” x 11’. Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem. 11
  12. 12. FRANS HALS, The Women Regents of the Old Men’s Home at Haarlem, 1664. Oil on canvas, 5’ 7” x 8’ 2”.Frans Hals Museum, Haarlem. 12
  13. 13. In Judith Leysters Self-Portrait she portrays herself as a confident, accomplished painter, seated in front of her easel working yet taking time to stop work and meet the viewers eye. Unlike Rembrandt, she does not portray herself in a painters smock; she wanted to indicate her social prominence. JUDITH LEYSTER, Self-Portrait, ca. 1630. Oil on canvas, 2’ 5 3/8” x 2’ 1 5/8”.National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss). 13
  14. 14. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632. Oil on canvas, 5’ 3 3/4” x 7’ 1 1/4”. Mauritshuis, The Hague. In Rembrandts Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, he has clustered the participants on the left side and has placed Dr. Tulpon the right side with the diagonally placed foreshortened corpse disrupting the strict horizontal, planar orientation. This is in sharp contrast to the traditions of group portraiture in which the subjects were placed evenly across the canvas. 14
  15. 15. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch), 1642. Oil on canvas (cropped from original size), 11’ 11” x 14’ 4”. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 15
  16. 16. In contrast to Caravaggios Conversion of St. Paul, Rembrandts Return of the Prodigal Son can be said to be not as opulent; it is quiet and inwardly directed.REMBRANDT VAN RIJN,Return of the Prodigal Son, ca. 1665.Oil on canvas, approx. 8’ 8” x 6’ 9”.Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg. 16
  17. 17. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN,Self-Portrait, ca. 1659–1660.Oil on canvas, approx. 3’ 9” x 3’ 1”.Kenwood House, London (IveaghBequest). 17
  18. 18. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Christ with the Sick around Him, Receiving the Children (Hundred Guilder Print), ca. 1649.Etching, 11” x 1’ 3 1/4”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. 18
  19. 19. AELBERT CUYP, A Distant View of Dordrecht, with a Milkmaid and Four Cows, and Other Figures, late 1640s.Oil on canvas, 5’ 1” x 6’ 4 7/8”. National Gallery, London. 19
  20. 20. Jacob van Ruisdael specialized in the genre of landscape painting.JACOB VAN RUISDAEL, View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen, ca. 1670. Oil on canvas,1’ 10” x 2’ 1”. Mauritshuis, The Hague. 20
  21. 21. Jan Vermeer was known to have used a camera obscura to project and trace images in his work.JAN VERMEER, Allegory ofthe Art of Painting, 1670–1675.Oil on canvas, 4’ 4” x 3’ 8”.Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. 21
  22. 22. JAN VERMEER, The Letter,1666. Oil on canvas,1’ 5 1/4” x 1’ 3 1/4”.Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 22
  23. 23. JAN STEEN, The Feast of SaintNicholas, ca. 1660–1665.Oil on canvas, 2’ 8 1/4” x 2’ 3 3/4”.Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 23
  24. 24. PIETER CLAESZ, Vanitas Still Life, 1630s. Oil on panel, 1’ 2” x 1’ 11 1/2”. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg. 24
  25. 25. WILLEM KALF, Still Life witha Late Ming Ginger Jar, 1669.Oil on canvas, 2’ 6” x 2’ 1 3/4”.Indianapolis Museum of Art,Indianapolis. (gift in com-memoration of the 60thanniversary of the ArtAssociation of Indianapolis,in memory of Daniel W. andElizabeth C. Marmon). 25
  26. 26. RACHEL RUYSCH, Flower Still Life,after 1700. Oil on canvas, 2’ 5 3/4” x 1’ 117/8”. The Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo(purchased with funds from the LibbeyEndowment, gift of Edward DrummondLibbey). 26
  27. 27. NICOLAS POUSSIN, Et in Arcadia Ego, ca. 1655. Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 10” x 4’. Louvre, Paris.Poussin was most closely associated with the style known as classical Baroque. He was fascinated by ancient Rome and Italian Renaissance cultures.In his Et in Arcadia Ego that fascination has been translated into a visual text illustrating rational order and classicism. It is reminiscent of the workof Raphael. 27
  28. 28. NICOLAS POUSSIN, Burial of Phocion, 1648. Oil on canvas, 3’ 11” x 5’ 10”. Louvre, Paris. 28
  29. 29. CLAUDE LORRAIN, Landscape with Cattle and Peasants, 1629. Oil on canvas, 3’ 6” x 4’ 10 1/2”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (George W. Elkins Collection). 29
  30. 30. LOUIS LE NAIN, Family of Country People, ca. 1640. Oil on canvas, 3’ 8” x 5’ 2”. Louvre, Paris. 30
  31. 31. JACQUES CALLOT, Hanging Tree, from the Miseries of War series, 1629–1633. Etching, 3 3/4” x 7 1/4”. Private collection. 31
  32. 32. GEORGES DE LA TOUR, Adoration of the Shepherds, 1645–1650. Oil on canvas, 3’ 6” x 4’ 6”. Louvre, Paris. Georges de la Tour eliminated dogmatic significance and traditional iconographic meaning in his Adoration of the Shepherds with the absence of halos. 32
  33. 33. HYACINTHE RIGAUD, Louis XIV, 1701.Oil on canvas, 9’ 2” x 6’ 3”. Louvre, Paris. 33
  34. 34. CLAUDE PERRAULT, LOUIS LE VAU, and CHARLES LE BRUN, east facade of the Louvre, Paris, France, 1667–1670. 34
  35. 35. Aerial view (looking west) of the palace and gardens, Versailles, France, begun 1669. 35
  36. 36. JULES HARDOUIN-MANSART and CHARLES LE BRUN, Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors),palace of Louis XIV, Versailles, France, ca. 1680. 36
  37. 37. FRANÇOIS GIRARDON and THOMAS REGNAUDIN, Apollo Attended by the Nymphs, Grotto of Thetis, Versailles,France, ca. 1666–1672. Marble, life-size. 37
  38. 38. JULES HARDOUIN-MANSART, RoyalChapel, with ceiling decorations by AntoineCoypel, palace of Louis XIV, Versailles,France, 1698–1710. 38
  39. 39. JULES HARDOUIN-MANSART, Église de Dôme,Church of the Invalides, Paris, France, 1676–1706. 39
  40. 40. INIGO JONES, Banqueting House at Whitehall, London, England, 1619–1622. Inigo Jones created a clear and dignified design for the Banqueting House at Whitehall. He superimposed two orders by using columns in the center and pilasters near the ends. 40
  41. 41. In London, at the age oftwenty-five, ChristopherWren was appointed to theposition of professor ofastronomy.Wren synthesized the designelements from the Italians,French, and Inigo Jones intoa unified monumentality forSt. Pauls, London.SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN,new Saint Paul’s Cathedral,London, England, 1675–1710. 41
  42. 42. Discussion Questions Compare the values of the 17th century Dutch Republic to 17th century France. How did their different values affect the art created in each culture? How does 17th century Dutch art compare to that of 17th century Italy? 17th century Spain? How does 17th century architecture in the Northern European countries compare to the architecture of Baroque Italy? Consider appearance, form, and function. 42

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