Baroque Art


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Baroque Art

  1. 1. Baroque Art Italy and Spain, 1600 to 1700Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 13e, Chapter 24 1
  2. 2. Europe in the 17th Century 2
  3. 3. Goals• Identify representative Baroque artists and their works• Identify representative Baroque architects and their works• Recognize and cite artistic terminology from this period• Understand the influence of the Roman Catholic Church on art and architecture in 17th century Italy and Spain• Recall hallmark formal devices used by Baroque artists and architects 3
  4. 4. Baroque Art• Recognize the distinctive characteristics of the Baroque style• Identify representative Baroque artists and their works• Identify representative Baroque architects and their works• Compare and contrast the work of Italian and Spanish Baroque painters• Recognize and cite artistic terminology from this period 4
  5. 5. Madernos design for SantaSusanna in Rome stands as oneof the first manifestations ofBaroque design. It emphasizedthe unique relationship betweenthis church and the Il Gesù inRome, an earlier church, whichproved to be highly influentialfor Baroque designs.CARLO MADERNO,facade of Santa Susanna,Rome, Italy, 1597–1603. 5
  6. 6. CARLO MADERNO, facade of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1606–1612.In the 17th century, the clergy rejected the central plans Bramante designed for St. Peters during the Renaissance. Paul V commissioned Maderno to add three nave bays to the nucleus of the basilica because the central plans are associated with pagan buildings. 6
  7. 7. Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy. Piazza designed by GIANLORENZO BERNINI, 1656-1667. 8
  8. 8. Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1506–1666. 9
  9. 9. Berninis Baldacchino serves bothfunctional and symbolic purposes.It provides a dramatic andcompelling visual presentation forthe interior of St. Peters. Thecolumns serve as a symbol thatinvokes the past.GIANLORENZO BERNINI,baldacchino, Saint Peter’s, VaticanCity, Rome, Italy, 1624–1633.Gilded bronze, 100’ high. 10
  10. 10. Bernini was commissioned to replace adangerous stairway in the Vatican. Hecreated a highly sophisticated design thatwas dramatic and dynamic. This designrepeated on a smaller scale the grandprocessional sequence found in St. PetersScala Regia.GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Scala Regia(Royal Stairway), Vatican City, Rome, Italy,1663–1666. 11
  11. 11. Berninis David differs from previousgenerations of this depiction. In hisDavid, the pivoting motion of the figureseems to be moving through time andspace.GIANLORENZO BERNINI, David,1623. Marble, 5’ 7” high. GalleriaBorghese, Rome. 12
  12. 12. GIANLORENZO BERNINI,inerior of the Cornaro Chapel,Santa Maria della vittoria,Rome, Italy, 1645-1652. 13
  13. 13. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa,Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome,Italy, 1645–1652. Marble, height of group 11’ 6”. 14
  14. 14. Borromini designed the church of San Carlo alleQuattro Fontane. He created a uniquely dynamicBaroque church with the counterpoint of concaveconvex elements in the façade that emphasized thethree-dimensional effect with deeply recessed nichesthat emphasized the sculptural qualities of thebuilding.FRANCESCO BORROMINI,facade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane,Rome, Italy, 1665–1676. 15
  15. 15. FRANCESCO BORROMINI,plan of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane,Rome, Italy, 1638–1641. 16
  16. 16. FRANCESCO BORROMINI,San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (view into dome),Rome, Italy, 1638-1641. 17
  17. 17. FRANCESCO BORROMINI,Chapel of Saint Ivo, College of the Sapienza,Rome, Italy, begun 1642. 18
  18. 18. FRANCESCO BORROMINI, plan ofthe Chapel of Saint Ivo, College of the Sapienza,Rome, Italy, begun 1642. 19
  19. 19. FRANCESCO BORROMINI, Chapel of Saint Ivo (view into dome), College of the Sapienza, Rome, Italy, begun 1642. 20
  20. 20. ANNIBALE CARRACCI, Flight into Egypt, 1603–1604. Oil on canvas, 4’ x 7’ 6”. Galleria Doria Pamphili, Rome. 21
  21. 21. As part of his training in art,Annibale Carracci receivedinstruction in the classical andRenaissance traditions as wellas anatomy studies and lifedrawing resulting in his moreclassically ordered style.His work on the gallery ceilingin the Palazzo Farnese in Romewas arranged as framedeasel paintings.ANNIBALE CARRACCI,Loves of the Gods, ceiling frescoesin the gallery, Palazzo Farnese,Rome, Italy, 1597–1601. 22
  22. 22. Caravaggios Conversion of St. Paulpresents the same dynamic emotionand dramatic religious fervor with theuse of eloquent pictorial devices andstage lighting in much the same wayas Berninis Ecstasy of St. Teresa.CARAVAGGIO, Conversion of St. Paul,ca. 1601. Oil on canvas, 7’ 6” x 5’ 9”.Cerasi Chapel,Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. 23
  23. 23. CARAVAGGIO, Calling of Saint Matthew, ca. 1597–1601. Oil on canvas, 11’ 1” x 11’ 5”. Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome 24
  24. 24. CARAVAGGIO, Entombment, from thechapel of Pietro Vittrice, Santa Maria in Vallicella,Rome, Italy, ca. 1603. Oil on canvas,9’ 10 1/8” x 6’ 7 15/16”. Musei Vaticani, Rome. 25
  25. 25. Artemisia Gentileschiswork was most influencedby Caravaggio.ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI,Judith Slaying Holofernes, 1614–1620.Oil on canvas, 6’ 6 1/3” x 5’ 4”.Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 26
  26. 26. QUIDO RENI, Aurora, ceiling fresco in the Casino Rospigliosi, Rome, Italy, 1613–1614. 27
  27. 27. PIETRO DA CORTONA, Triumph of the Barberini, ceiling fresco in the Gran Salone, Palazzo Barberini, Rome, Italy, 1633–1639. The ceiling fresco for Gran Salone in the Palazzo Barberini in Rome is a visual eulogy to the family. The papal tiara and keys seen in the fresco announce the personal triumph of a family member, Urban VIII. 28
  28. 28. GIOVANNI BATTISTA GAULLI, Triumph of the Name of Jesus,ceiling fresco with stucco figures in the nave vault of Il Gesù, Rome, Italy, 1676–1679. 29
  29. 29. FRA ANDREA POZZO, Glorification of Saint Ignatius, ceiling fresco in the nave of Sant’Ignazio, Rome, Italy, 1691–1694.Fra Andrea Pozzo created the illusion of Heaven opening above the heads of the congregation in the church of SantIgnazio by illusionistically continuing the churchs actual architecture into the vault so the roof seems to be lifting off. 30
  30. 30. José de Ribera was most strongly influenced by the work of Caravaggio.JOSÉ DE RIBERA, Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, ca. 1639. Oil on canvas, 7’ 8” x 7’ 8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid. 31
  31. 31. FRANCISCO DE ZURBARÁN,Saint Serapion, 1628.Oil on canvas, 3’ 11 1/2” x 3’ 5”.Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford(The Ella Gallup Sumner andMary Catlin Sumner CollectionFund). 32
  32. 32. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ,Water Carrier of Seville, ca. 1619.Oil on canvas, 3’ 5 1/2” x 2’ 7 1/2”.Victoria & Albert Museum, London. 33
  33. 33. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Surrender of Breda, 1634–1635. Oil on canvas, 10’ 1” x 12’ 1/2”. Museo del Prado, Madrid. 34
  34. 34. Velásquez was the court painter forPhilip IV. He held the titles of FirstPainter to the King and ChiefSteward of the Palace.He accompanied the king to Fragaduring the Aragonese campaign.While there he painted Philipsportrait, it is known as the FragaPhilip. Due to the dynastic inbreedingin the Hapsburg line, Philip inheritedthe Hapsburg jaw. Velásquezcompensates for this "jaw" in theFraga portrait by focusingattention on the cloak and baldricworn by the king by making themshimmer.DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ,King Philip IV of Spain (Fraga Philip),1644. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3 1/8” x 3’ 3”.The Frick Collection, New York. 35
  35. 35. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ,Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor),1656. Oil on canvas, 10’ 5” x 9’.Museo del Prado, Madrid. 36